Umayyads/ Abbasids: Umayyads: Sunni/ Abbasids: Sunni, supported by the Shi’a
“Gunpowder Empires”: Mughals, Safavids, Ottomans
C&C Aztecs and Incas
A and I were polytheistic, controlled large areas by tribute system, human sacrifice,
I empire was larger (2,000 miles long), A had a more established merchant class, A practiced more human sacrifice (flower wars, captives, etc). I practiced veneration of leaders (mummified in Temple of the Sun)
Buddhism: spread from India via the Silk Roads during the Warring States Period, following the decline of the Han Empire.
C&C Umayyads and Abbasids
Similarities: Sunni Muslims (but Abbasids had support of the Shi’as), Umayyad capital in Damascus, Syria, and the Abbasid capital was in Baghdad. Trade was important. Also, taxation by the Umayyads of “People of the Book.” Umayyads overthrown by Abbas of Persia, established the Abbasid Dynasty.
Prophet Muhammad (b. 570CE)
Hijrah/ left from Mecca to Yathrib(Medina) 622CE= year 1 of Muslim Calendar
Holy book: Qur’an
Five Pillars: Prayer 5x a day facing Mecca, Fast from sun-up to sun-down during Ramadan, Profession of faith: there is one god, Allah, and Muhammad is his prophet
Songhai(3rd) Key leader: Askia Muhammad, continued to spread Islam amongst the elites.
European Nationalism (19th century)
Conservatism: Belief that governments should be traditional-based (monarchies).
Liberalism: Belief that governments should allow for greater participation of its citizens (ex: Increased male suffrage, Constitutional Monarchy in England.)
Congress of Vienna: 1815- following Napoleonic Wars. Led by Klemens von Metternich- desire to return Europe to the way it was BEFORE Napoleon. CONSERVATISM- Balance of Power, Containment of France, Legitimacy
Unification of Italy: Led by Count Camilo di Cavour