Worst comes to worst, my people come first…
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“Worst comes to worst, my people come first…”: 2 nd Period
Ended exploration programs in 1433
Trade with the interior Grand Canal
Limited trade with Europeans to the ports of Canton
“ “ Japan
1467-1477 Onin War
1600 Founding of Tokugawa Shogunate in Japan
Period of Warring States
Ashikaga Shogunate (1336-1573)
Johnathan, Caitlin, Danielle
Qin: Qin Shi Huangdi: died 210 BCE- Used Legalism
Wu Ti (140-87BCE): important leader- Confucianism tested with Civil Service Exams
Sui: Wendi: founder, murdered by son, Yangdi(new capital city)
Li Yuan and his son, Tang Taizong(627-649), Empress Wu(690-705)Buddhism
Song: Zhao Kuangyin/ Emperor Taizu: founder
Yuan: Kubilai Khan: founder 1260-1294
Mao Zedong: Communist Leader of the Communist or Great Proletariat Revolution 1949. Helped establish the People’s Republic of China
Deng Xiaping: Took over in the 1960’s. Was a pragmatist and tried to strengthen the economy.
Ernest, Emily, Anna
Zhou: (1029 to 258BCE)
Mandate of Heaven, “Middle Kingdom”, standardization of Mandarin Chinese, Kong Fuzi (Confucianism)
402 to 201BCE: Period of Warring States
Qin: Qin Shi Huang-di, Legalism, standardized
weights and measures, Terra-cotta soldiers, Great Wall connected
Qin died 210BCE
Han: (202BCE to 220 CE)Confucianism, paper, Civil Service Exam, Pax Sino,
220-589CE: unrest, Warring States Period: unrest,
spread of Buddhism from India
Sui: 589-618CE Confucianism, building of Grand Canal
Tang:618-907CE Confucianism: spread and persecution of Buddhism (pure land vs. Chan/Zen Buddhism), footbinding
Song: 960-1279CE: Neo-Confucianism, move of capital to South because of Jurchen invasion.
founded by Kubilai Khan, rule by Mongols
Qing: rule by Manchus
Republic: Overthrow Qing, nationalist movement led by Sun Yixian (Sun Yat-sen)
Mao Zedong: Gained power in 1949 Communist Revolution. Inspired by peasants,
Great Leap Forward, Cultural Revolution, Little Red Book
Deng Xiaoping: A Pragmatist, wanted to open up economy to more international trade
Umayyads/ Abbasids: Umayyads: Sunni/ Abbasids: Sunni, supported by the Shi’a
“Gunpowder Empires”: Mughals, Safavids, Ottomans
C&C Aztecs and Incas
A and I were polytheistic, controlled
large areas by tribute system, human sacrifice,
I empire was larger (2,000 miles long), A had a more established merchant class, A practiced more human sacrifice (flower wars, captives, etc). I practiced veneration of leaders (mummified in Temple of the Sun)
Religious trends in China
Buddhism: spread from India via the Silk Roads during the Warring States Period, following the decline of the Han Empire.
C&C Umayyads and Abbasids
Similarities: Sunni Muslims (but Abbasids had support of the Shi’as), Umayyad capital in Damascus, Syria, and the Abbasid capital was in Baghdad. Trade was important. Also, taxation by the Umayyads of “People of the Book.” Umayyads overthrown by Abbas of Persia, established the Abbasid Dynasty.
Prophet Muhammad (b. 570CE)
Hijrah/ left from Mecca to Yathrib(Medina) 622CE= year 1
of Muslim Calendar
Holy book: Qur’an
Five Pillars: Prayer 5x a day facing Mecca, Fast from sun-up to sun-down during Ramadan, Profession of faith: there is one god, Allah, and Muhammad is his prophet
Dravidians/ Aryans: Vedic Age 1500-1000BCE- establishment of social classes
Kshatriyas (warriors), Brahmins (priests), Vaisyas (traders/farmers), Sudras (common laborers), Pariahs (untouchables/ outcastes).
Hinduism- no single founder, no central holy figure
Encouraged political and economic goals (artha) and worldly pleasures (called Karma)
Gurus= mystics/ teachers
Vishnu= preserver Shiva= destroyer
Reincarnation- souls (atman) do not die with bodies- but pass into other beings (animal and human)
Soul depends on karma/ dharma- how good a life someone led
Ultimately- full union with Brahman (MOKSHA)
322BCE Chandragupta Maurya, Ashoka 269BCE
Jasmine, Eric, Titi
Middle Eastern Empires
Al-Mahdi (775-785 CE):luxurious living, criticized, not able
to balance the religious sects
Harun al-Rashid (786-809 CE): Leader of Abbasids, associated with luxury (1,001 Nights)
1055: Seljuk Turks took over.
Salah-uh-din: Muslim leader during the 3
rd Crusades, last decades of 1100’s, won back land from the Christians, well respected.
535CE: Gupta Dynasty overthrown by the Huns
of Gupta Empire
Middle East 1750-1914
Ottoman Empire in control
Crimean War (186__) between Ottoman Empire and Russia (Ottomans aided by Britain and France, Ottomans win).
Locke: Two Treatises on Government (humans are good, and government should protect basic rights of life, liberty, and property.)
Hobbes: Leviathan (Humans are naturally selfish and wicked, and need a strict ruler to keep them under control- divine right/ absolute monarchy)
Montesquieu: On the Spirit of Laws (Power is a check to power- US Constitution- 3 branches of government)
Rousseau: The Social Contract (Government makes a contract with its people, Legitimate rule only comes from the consent of the governed)
Between Sparta (Peloponnesian League) vs. Athens (Delian League)
Battles on land(S) and sea (A)
1453: Conquered Constantinople/renamed Istabul.
Maritime Indian Ocean Trade Routes
Sub-Saharan Trade Routes
Sea Trade Routes
South China Sea Routes
Ghana (1 st)(taxed gold-salt trade)
nd)Founded by Sundiata, (“Lion Prince”) Key leader Mansa Musa, went on a pilgrimage to Mecca
rd) Key leader: Askia Muhammad, continued to spread Islam amongst the elites.
European Nationalism (19 th century)
Conservatism: Belief that governments should be traditional-based (monarchies).
Liberalism: Belief that governments should allow for greater participation of its citizens (ex: Increased male suffrage, Constitutional Monarchy in England.)
Congress of Vienna: 1815- following Napoleonic Wars. Led by Klemens von Metternich- desire to return Europe to the way it was BEFORE Napoleon. CONSERVATISM- Balance of Power, Containment of France,
Unification of Italy: Led by Count Camilo di Cavour
Unification of Germany
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