World War II back to Isolationism



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World War II

Back to Isolationism

  • During the _________________ _______________________, the United States returned to isolationism.

  • Congress was more concerned with the _______________________ than international affairs.

  • So, they signed several _______________________ _______________ intended to prevent another war from occurring.

Totalitarian Regimes

  • During the ___________________ in Europe, ________________________________ governments began to arise as people blamed governments for the bad economy.

  • Totalitarian governments are governments that take control of the _____________________ country and restrict _____________________ ________________________.

  • In Japan, Hideki ______________________ took power over the military. He invaded Manchuria (part of ___________________) in 1931.

  • This was designed to increase Japanese power in the world. The Japanese would also invade other countries in the ________________________.

  • Because of the neutrality acts, FDR could not use the ______________________ to stop Japan.

  • So, the U.S. just restricted ______________________, which cut off _______________ supplies to Japan.

  • In ________________, Adolf _________________________ seized power in Germany. He turned Germany into a totalitarian regime immediately.

  • Hitler intended to have all of _______________________ come under Germany’s rule.

  • First, he invaded _________________________________________. Then, in 1939, Hitler invaded ________________________. This started all-out war in Europe.

“Blitzkrieg”

  • In the invasion of Poland and other countries, Germany used a strategy called “_____________________.”

  • Blitzkrieg means “________________________ _______________.”

  • In this strategy, Germany concentrated all of its __________________ and weapons at one place and _______________________________ the enemy.

  • Once they broke through, they _________________________ the enemy on all sides.

  • Germany also used devastating ____________ ____________________ to fight Great Britain.

Lend-Lease Policy

  • _________________ no longer wanted the United States to remain neutral. So, he had ____________________ get rid of the neutrality acts.

  • They were replaced first by “_____________________-and-____________________.” In this policy, America sent supplies to Great Britain and the _______________________, but they had to pay cash immediately for the supplies

  • Then, America ended neutrality altogether with the _________________-________________ Act.

  • Lend-Lease policy meant the United States was giving _____________ ________________________ needed to Great Britain and the Allies.

Pearl Harbor

  • __________________________ sank U.S. ships sending supplies to Great Britain. By ___________, the U.S. was in an undeclared ____________________ war with Germany.

  • Then, on ____________________________________________, the Japanese bombed an American naval base at ____________________ _____________________, Hawaii.

  • FDR, in a famous speech, called it “________________________________________________________________________.” _____________________ Americans were killed at Pearl Harbor.

  • The next day, the United States ______________________ _________________ on Japan. World War II had begun for America.

Mobilization

  • World War II was such a massive war, that it required the full power of the American __________________________.

  • FDR persuaded businesses to transform into ____________ _____________________. The government also controlled the country’s ___________________________ and prices.

  • In addition to urging the people to plant “victory gardens,” the government also __________________ food.

  • Americans were given ration __________________________, and they could only have as much food as their ration coupons allowed.

  • Soon, a ______________________ ___________________ of rations emerged.

  • Because _________________, __________________ _______________ were wanted on the battlefield, ________________________ and minorities were needed to work in factories.

  • Women took traditional jobs of men. “_________________________________________” became an icon of the period. Women were also allowed to serve in some support positions in the military.

  • A black labor leader, _________________________________________, threatened to march on Washington if blacks were not allowed to have equal jobs.

  • So, FDR created a ______________________________ to make sure blacks had equal access to jobs. This is when many northern blacks began voting ____________________________.

  • ___________________________ workers were also welcomed to America to work on farms.

Racial Problems

  • Despite this progress, there was still a huge race problem in America. Blacks had to serve in their own, ______________________________ units in the war.

  • They faced severe _______________________________ in the military.

  • Young ___________________________________-Americans were attacked in Los Angeles because their clothing was considered “_______________________________________.”

  • After Pearl Harbor, many people in western states were fearful of __________________________ people.

  • So, Japanese-Americans were ordered to sell all of their property and move into ________________________ in inland deserts.

  • In the case of ___________________________ v. ______________________ _______________, the Supreme Court said that the government had the right to put the Japanese into camps.

The Big Three

  • The three main “_____________________” during the war were Great Britain (led by ___________________ __________________________), the United States (led by Franklin Delano ___________________________), and the Soviet Union (led by ______________________ _______________________).

  • These three met throughout the war to make war ______________________ and plan for the post-war world.

  • From ____________________________ the Soviet Union fought Germany on the ground almost completely by itself. By 1942, the Nazis had control of nearly all of Europe except the Soviet Union.

  • The Soviet Union tried to use their superior __________________________ to defeat Hitler. This resulted in the Soviet Union suffering the heaviest losses.

  • About ___________________________ Russians died during fighting in WWII.

The Battle of Britain

  • The Soviet Union desperately wanted the United States and the other Allies to form a “_____________________ _________________” on the west.

  • This would provide the Soviets with some relief. But Great Britain was more worried with “_____________________________________________.”

  • “The Battle of Britain” was an all-out ___________________________ campaign by the Nazis on Great Britain.

  • In order to combat this, Great Britain and the U.S. started building their own bombers to attack Germany.

Turning Points – Eastern Front

  • In 1942, Great Britain and the United States decide to invade ___________________ __________________ and take it back from Germany and Italy.

  • This was meant to take control of the _____________ ____________________ in the Middle East and cut off the Nazis’ supply.

  • This helped relieve some of the stress on the _________________ __________________.

  • But, one of the turning points in the war was the ___________________ of __________________________.

  • Here, the Soviets fought hard and lost ______________________ of men. This finally stopped the German _________________________ across Europe.

  • “Never invade ____________________________________________.”

  • Also, Allied forces landed in ____________________ and began trying to take it back.

Turning Points – Western Front

  • Finally, in ________________, Allied forces started a ground invasion to take back _______________________.

  • This invasion would be called “Operation Overlord” or “_______-__________________.”

  • This was the largest __________________________________ invasion of all time. Meaning, it used ____________________, ___________, and ______________________ forces.

  • Now, Germany was fighting on _____________________ ____________________: Italy, France, and the Soviet Union, and had to send troops to fight on the western front.

  • The Battle of the ____________________ was Germany’s major offensive on the war.

  • They were defeated, and British, American, and French troops began marching towards _____________________. (The capital of Germany)

  • ________________________ troops also began marching towards Berlin.

  • This laid the foundation for the split of Berlin, which will help cause the _______________ ______________ later on.

  • Finally, the Soviets reached Berlin and it fell in ______________ of ________________.

  • On April 30th, 1945, ___________________ ________________ committed suicide, shooting himself. His wife also committed suicide with him, by chewing a ____________________ pill.

The Pacific Theatre

  • Now the United States could focus its efforts on ________________________. The strategy in the Pacific was “___________________ _____________________.”

  • In April of 1945, ________________ died of cerebral hemorrhage. So, his Vice President, ___________________ ______________________, became President.

  • The U.S. hoped to take back the ____________________ in the _________________ that Japan had invaded, until they were closer and closer to Japan.

  • A huge victory at ______________________ stopped the Japanese advance in the Pacific. But the Japanese were a fierce enemy.

  • The Battles of _____________ ______________ and _____________________ ended in thousands of Americans dead.

  • This showed the United States that a ______________ _________________ of Japan would be long and hard.

  • But, the USSR (Soviet Union) promised to help in an invasion of Japan. So, the USSR invaded ______________________ as promised. (Korea is directly beside Japan)

  • But, on August 6th, 1945, President Truman decided to drop an ___________________ bomb on _________________________, Japan in order to prevent the need for invasion.

  • Japan did not surrender. So on August 9th, 1945, another bomb was dropped on _____________________, Japan.

  • The result was devastating. An estimated ___________________________ died from the bombs. As a result, Japan fully ___________________________.

  • The use of the atomic bomb by the United States was one of the most _____________________________ acts of war in world history.

  • It also laid the foundation for the _______________ ________________. The USSR did not trust the United States.

  • Also, the Soviets were occupying Korea, which laid the foundation for the ____________________ ____________.

The Beginning

  • During the _________________, the Jews began to face severe persecution and ________________________ in Germany.

  • During the 30s, laws were passed in Germany that required __________________________________ for “inferior” people. Over ______________________ people were sterilized against their own will.

  • The Holocaust came from a long history of ______________-_____________________________ (hatred of Jews) and _____________________ _______________________.

  • In ___________, the __________________________ _______________ were passed. These laws greatly limited Jews’ rights. They also made it illegal for Jews to have _____________ with “____________________” (whites).

  • In ____________, the Nazis began targeting Jewish neighborhoods and burning down Jewish _________________________, homes, and businesses.

  • This was called ______________________________ or “Night of the Broken Glass.”

  • Kristallnacht and the Nuremberg Laws were widely ________________________, but no action was taken by the world community to stop it.

  • _________________________ __________________ of the United States, Great Britain, and others were not changed to allow Jews to come and find safety.

The Holocaust

  • Once the war started, there was no _____________________ action taken to stop the shipment of Jews to camps.

  • “_____________________________________” was the name given to the program of trying to exterminate all Jews in Europe.

  • Jews were sent to “________________________” and “________________________” camps.

  • This program of genocide ended with over ________________________ Jews being murdered and 5.5 million others.

  • Jews were sent to camps where sometimes they were sent directly to the ______________ ________________________. Some were saved temporarily because they were deemed fit to ______________.

  • Jews were often given a ________________ of ___________________ to make them believe they were going to take a shower.

  • As the war ended, the soldiers who found the camps and the ______________________ were horrified.

  • The “___________________________________” were set up to charge the Nazis for their war crimes.

  • Many of the Nazis pleaded that they were “___________________________________________________.” But, these people were still executed or given prison sentences.

  • This set the precedent that ________________________________ are responsible for their actions during times of war.

  • __________ Nazis were sentenced to death.

  • After the war, many Jews began migrating to the area of the Middle East known as _____________________________.

  • Soon, the _____________________ ______________________ created the state of _____________________ for Jews. This is where many Jews live today.

  • The ______________________ ___________________ supported the creation of Israel and has supported Israel as an ally ever since.

The Cold War

Beginning of the Cold War

  • The Soviet Union and the United States were only allies during the war because they wanted to defeat ____________________________.

  • After the war, they immediately had disagreements over the _______________-________________ world.

  • The USSR wanted to create governments in Poland and other countries around it to help prevent another German ____________________________.

  • The United States wanted Poland and these other countries to have ______________________ to decide on their government.

  • The capital city of Germany, ________________________, was split into ____________ and _______________. Germany was also split into east and west.

  • The ____________________ was controlled by the United States and its Allies. The __________________ was controlled by the Soviet Union.

  • In 1946, Winston Churchill proclaimed that an “_____________________________” had fell on Europe. The curtain separated ______________________-controlled countries from the rest of the world.

  • In _______________________ and Turkey, the government was threatening to turn _______________________________. The United States did not want this.

  • This is when the United States began a policy called “___________________________________.” This policy was meant to stop countries from becoming _____________________________.

  • In Greece and Turkey, the United States gave money to help the ___________________________ leaders fight the Communists there.

  • “____________________________” would be an important policy throughout the Cold War for the United States.

  • “Containment” was a policy first used by President Truman, so it is also known as the “____________________ ______________________.”

Marshall Plan

  • The United States was afraid that Europe’s terrible economy would lead to the rise of __________________________ in many countries.

  • So in order to “contain” Communism in Europe, the ________________________ Plan was introduced. The Marshall Plan gave _________________________ to Europe to rebuild their economies.

  • This would provide money for _______________________ reforms to stop Communism.

Berlin Airlift

  • In June of ___________, the first major crisis of the Cold War took place. The Soviet Union began blockading all of the roads and railways leading to _____________ _________________.

  • The Soviets hoped to cut off American ________________ supplies and troops from entering, and basically take over all of ______________________.

  • In response, the Western Allies (U.S., Great Britain, France) began what was known as the “_________________________ ______________________.”

  • The plan was to provide West Berlin with all of the necessary food and supplies by __________________ into West Berlin and dropping off them off.

  • The _________________________ refused to believe that this plan would actually work.

  • But by the spring of 1949, there were ________________________ supplies being sent into West Berlin than there were before through ____________________ and ___________________.

  • This was a huge ________________________________ for the Soviets. America had won the first major crisis of the Cold War.

  • So, the Soviets finally stopped the _________________________ of West Berlin.

Berlin Wall

  • East Germany (controlled by the USSR) had strict _________________________ on people moving to West Germany.

  • But despite the restrictions, during the 1950s, ________________________ people escaped East Germany and moved to West Germany. Most of these people escaped by passing through ____________________.

  • In order to stop people from escaping, the Soviet Union erected the ______________________ ____________ in _________________. This was meant to keep people from escaping from East Germany to West Germany.

  • After the wall was built, almost all ______________________________ from East to West Germany stopped. The wall worked.

1949 – The Cold War Escalates

  • A series of events in _______________ made the Cold War ______________________ – or get worse.

  • First, the United States formed ________________ – ______________________________________________________ ________________________________.

  • This organization was a system of ________________________ that were directed at preventing the Soviet Union from becoming too powerful.

  • Also in 1949, the Soviet Union tested their first ____________________ bomb. This frightened people in the United States and led to the U.S. accelerating the creation of its first “__________________________________.”

  • Also during 1949, a ____________________ war broke out in ____________________ between the Nationalists and the ___________________________. America supported the Nationalists.

  • But, the _________________________________ won, and China became a Communist country. This worried many who felt China was the first of many countries who could turn Communist.

  • Mao Tes-tung (__________________________________) was the leader of the Communist forces in China. He became the head of the Chinese government.

The Korean War

  • When World War II ended, _________________________ was divided between North Korea, which was __________________________, and South Korea, which was ______________________________.

  • In ____________________, North Korea ___________________________ South Korea. President Truman believed that the Soviet Union was behind the invasion. He urged the United Nations to stop it.

  • The United Nations supported “__________________________________” but not an all-out war to defend South Korea. So, the United States sent troops.

  • When U.S. troops gained the advantage and crossed the ______________________________ into North Korea, China intervened in the war and sent troops. The Chinese pushed the U.S. troops back below the 38th parallel.

  • The public no longer supported the war when this happened. So, a peace was signed and Communism was “______________________________” to North Korea.

  • About _____________________________ American troops died in the Korean War.

Soviet Advances

  • In 1955, the Soviet Union organized the “___________________________________.” This was a treaty organization meant to counter NATO.

  • Then, in _________________, the Soviets launched the first satellite into Earth’s orbit. It was called _____________________________.

  • Sputnik shocked the world. The United States was determined to match the Soviet Union’s space technology, this was the start of the “______________________________.”

  • The United States passed the ______________________________________________________, which invested more money in math and _____________________ in order to win the space race and arms race.

  • American began using _______________________ _______________________ and schools began doing nuclear bomb test drills.

The Red Scare: 1940s and 1950s

  • The (2nd) Red Scare came as Americans were scared because of the Soviet _________________ _______________, the Korean War, and the fall of __________________ to Communism.

  • The Truman Administration told Americans that the Cold War was a battle of good (_______________________) vs. _____________________ (Communism).

  • They released _____________________________ about the evils of the Soviet Union. This led Americans to look for enemies within the country.

  • _______________________________ took advantage of the fear of Communism. They had not won a presidential election since ____________________ and they were desperate.

  • They began accusing the Democrats of being “_____________________ on Communism.”

  • Senator ____________________ ______________________ would be the leader of the Republicans who criticized the Democrats.

  • McCarthy began accusing countless people within the government of being Communists or ____________ for the Soviet Union.

  • He used the strategy of “________________________” – meaning that it was a lie so crazy that people would never believe that someone could make it up. (originally ________________________ idea)

  • Then, public hearings were ____________________________ in ________________ for the people that McCarthy had accused.

  • In these hearings, McCarthy appeared to Americans to be a ______________________.

  • This caused the public to reject McCarthy. The hearings found that there were some Soviet spies within the government, but the vast majority of people were _________________________.

Cuba

  • During the 1950s, Communist forces under the leadership of _____________________ __________________ overthrew the government in Cuba.

  • Immediately after taking office, Castro began to have a close relationship with the ____________________ Union.

  • He also began Communist ___________________________ in Cuba. He took over American businesses and brought them under the control of the government.

  • The fact that Cuba had fallen to Communism and was so close the United States scared many Americans.

Bay of Pigs Invasion

  • The _______________________ ________________________ ____________________ (_____________) came up with a plan during Dwight Eisenhower’s presidency on how to deal with Cuba.

  • The CIA plan was to train Cubans __________________ (Cubans in America who escaped or were expelled from Cuba) to invade Cuba and start a _____________________________.

  • The CIA believed that once the Cubans began invading, _________________ _____________________ would join them in overthrowing Castro.

  • The Cubans were being trained for the invasion when President ______________________________________________ took office.

  • Kennedy approved the invasion. So, in ____________________ of __________________, the Cuban exiles tried to invade. It was a miserable failure.

  • This was a major defeat for the United States in the Cold War. _______________________________ lived on in Cuba.

“Cuban Missile Crisis”

  • In the Fall of _______________, American spy planes photographed _________________________ __________________________ sites begin built in _______________________.

  • Castro and the Soviet leader, Nikita ________________________________, had a secret plan to start arming Cuba with nuclear missiles.

  • With Cuba being only ___________ miles from the U.S., it would be easy for a nuclear attack to be launched from there.

  • President _______________________ was determined to stop any nuclear missiles from coming to Cuba.

  • So, he ordered a _______________________ of Cuba to prevent Soviet ships from coming with nuclear missiles.

  • He demanded that the Soviets ___________________________ all weapons sites in Cuba. He never expected the Soviets to agree.

  • Instead, Kennedy was ready for __________________. For _____________ days, American ships blockaded Cuba, and America and the Soviet Union inched closer to war.

  • Finally, the tensions ended and an ____________________________ was signed.

  • The Cuba Missile Crisis was the closest the two countries ever came to war, and the closest the world has ever come to _________________________ __________________________.

  • As a result of the crisis, a permanent ________________________ was installed between the United States and the Soviet Union in order to prevent ____________________ __________________.

  • Also as a result of the crisis, both countries signed a _____________________ test __________________ treaty.

Cold War in the Middle East

  • During the 1950s, the ______________ helped the “_______________________________” overthrow the government of Iran and become __________________.

  • The Shah was an oppressive __________________________, but the U.S. supported him because it created a ______________________ country near the Soviet Union.

  • The Shah’s government was later overthrown in the _________________. As a result, ____________ Americans were taken hostage in Iran for more than a year, until they were finally released.

  • In 1979, the Soviet Union invaded _____________________________. In order to “_________________________” Communism, the United States supported one of the groups who fought against the Soviets.

  • These rebels won the war over the Soviet Union, but they would later turn into a terrorist group called _________ _________________________.

  • Al Qaeda is the group who was responsible for the attacks on America on _______________________________________.

French Control of Vietnam

  • From the late 1880s until the _______________________, Vietnam was a colony of ______________________.

  • After _____________________________, however, a group of nationalists called the _________________ ___________________ wanted to fight to end French control of Vietnam.

  • They were led by a man named _________ _____________ _________________, who was supportive of ______________________________ ideas.

  • Presidents Truman and Eisenhower sent aid, ________________________, and money to help the French, but they were defeated badly.

  • In the last battle, the Viet Minh dealt the French a devastating blow. _______________________ French soldiers died. After this, the French signed a peace which gave Vietnam independence.

The Geneva Accords

  • In 1956, ________________________, France, Great Britain, the _________________ ____________________, and the United States met to discuss what to do with _________________________.

  • “_________________________________________” was the final agreement of this meeting. This said that Vietnam would be split at the ____________ parallel into 2 zones: North Vietnam and South Vietnam.

  • The accords said that in 1956, ____________________________ would be held and North and South Vietnam would be ______________________________ into one country.

  • The government would be based on who the people voted for. _______ ________ __________ would probably be elected because he was popular in Vietnam.

  • So, the United States did not support holding elections because Ho Chi Minh was a _____________________________.

The Viet Cong

  • The ___________________ Vietnamese government went against the ___________________ ___________________ and did NOT hold elections, since they knew Ho Chi Minh would win.

  • President ____________________________ supported this decision. The “_______________________ theory” was the reason for Eisenhower’s support.

  • Domino theory said that if one country falls to Communism, it will start a _________________ _____________________ of other countries becoming Communist too.

  • As a result, a group called the ___________________ ___________________ (who were led by Ho Chi Minh) developed to try and overthrow South Vietnam.

  • The United States began supplying military aid and ____________________ ___________________ to the government of South Vietnam to fight the Viet Cong.

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

  • When President Kennedy took office, he steadily __________________________ the number of military advisers sent to South Vietnam.

  • Then, President ________________________ B. ___________________________ took office in November of ______________ following Kennedy’s assassination.

  • Then, in 1964, the _____________________ of _______________________ ___________________ occurred. This was when three ____________________ Vietnamese torpedo boats shot at an American ship.

  • Later on, it was discovered that the incident was very __________________________, but it led to Congress passing the Gulf of Tonkin _____________________________.

  • The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution allowed President Johnson to _____________________ ___________________ to help South Vietnam WITHOUT the approval of ____________________________.

  • Congress never made a _____________________ _______________________ of war against Vietnam.

The War Escalates

  • As President Johnson sent more and more troops, there was still no __________________. The Viet Cong would not go away. So, Johnson continued to send more troops. By 1967, there were ______________American troops in Vietnam.

  • Johnson wanted to send more troops so he did not appear “____________________ on Communism” as Republicans had said he was.

  • Americans’ opposition to the war grew. People felt the __________________ was unfair because the rich found ways around it.

  • Thousands of Americans took to the streets to _______________________ against the war. These protests appeared on ___________________________ nightly.

The Tet Offensive

  • But the protests became more and more ________________________. This caused the protestors to lose public support.

  • The media coverage led America to become divided into war “____________________” and “____________________.”

  • Then, in January of 1968, the Viet Cong launched the “______________ ___________________________.” This was a series of _________________________ attacks on American soldiers.

  • The Tet Offensive was very successful for the __________________ ____________________. It was shown on American television, and it led to most of the country to begin to oppose the war.

  • The war was a miserable _________________________ for Lyndon Johnson. So, in a speech on national television, Johnson announced he would not run for _______-________________________.

Nixon

  • Richard _______________________ was elected in 1968. He began a policy of ___________________________________, which meant the Vietnamese were going to fight the war themselves.

  • But, he also invaded ____________________________, where many Viet Cong were. This angered anti-war protestors.

  • At ______________ _________________ University, four college students were shot and killed by National Guardsmen as they protested the invasion of Cambodia. This was called “The ___________________________________________________.”

  • Nixon then started a policy of “__________________________” – which meant relaxing of tensions. There were several _________________________ signed during détente to relax the Cold War.

  • In 1973, Nixon announced that an agreement had been made with North Vietnam and American soldiers were __________________________ ___________________.

  • In 1975, the capital of South Vietnam, __________________________, fell to the North Vietnamese. The policy of “____________________________” failed in Vietnam as the entire country was Communist.

Distrust of the Government

  • ________________________ Americans died in Vietnam, and the war was a failure.

  • “_____________________________________________” were released during the war. These showed that the government was actually lying to the public and to Congress about the war.

  • Furthermore, the _____________ ______________ _______________________, the use of Agent Orange, and _____________________ led to distrust between Americans and the government.

  • This is called the “_________________________ ________________.”



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