World history



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WORLD HISTORY

STUDY GUIDE



STANDARD 1 – Apply the four interconnected dimensions of historical thinking to the WH Essential Standards in order to understand the development of the world over time.

1.1 – Use Chronological Thinking to: 1) Identify the structure of a historical narrative or story (beginning, middle, end) … 2) Interpret data presented in time lines and create time lines.

  • Chronological thinking is the foundation of historical reasoning – the ability to examine relationships among historical events and explain history.

  • Deconstruct the temporal structure of various types of historical narratives or stories. Be able to identify the beginning, see the problems/issues in development, anticipate an outcome …

  • Interpret data presented in time lines to identify patterns of change (succession) and continuity (duration).

  • Create time lines to record events according to the temporal order in which they occurred and to reconstruct patterns of historical succession and duration.

1.2 – Use Historical Comprehension to: 1) Reconstruct the literal meaning of a historical passage … 2) Differentiate between historical facts and historical interpretations … 3) Analyze data in historical maps … 4) Analyze visual, literary and musical sources.

  • Historical passages are primary sources that provide first-hand testimony or direct evidence concerning a topic under investigation.

  • Historical narratives are researched stories or accounts that describe or interpret historical events.

  • Comprehending a historical passage requires that it be read to reveal the humanity of the individuals and groups who lived in the past … motives, intentions, values, ideas, hopes, doubts, fears, strength, weaknesses.

  • Comprehending a historical passage or narrative requires the appreciation for and the development of historical perspective – judging the past in consideration of the historical context in which the events unfolded.

  • Reconstruct the literal meaning of a historical passage by identifying who was involved, what happened, where it happened, what events led to these developments and what consequences of outcomes followed.

  • Differentiate between historical facts and historical interpretations but acknowledge that the two are related.

  • Analyze historical data and sources beyond written passages or narratives in order to clarify, illustrate or elaborate on data presented in passages, narratives, maps, data, photos, political cartoons, paintings, music, and architecture.

1.3 – Use Historical Analysis and Interpretation to: 1) Identify issues and problems in the past … 2) Consider multiple perspectives of various peoples in the past … 3) Analyze cause-and-effect relationships … 4)Evaluate competing historical narratives and debates among historians … 5)Evaluate the influence of the past on contemporary issues.

  • Historical analysis involves more than a single source.

  • The study of history is subject to an individual’s interpretation of past events, issues, and problems.

  • Historians may differ on the facts they incorporate in the development of their narratives and disagree as well on how those facts are interpreted. Thus, history is a written dialogue.

  • Historical issues are frequently value-laden and create opportunities to consider moral convictions.

  • The past inevitably has a degree of relevance to one’s own times.

  • Identify issues and problems in the past and analyze the interests, values, perspectives, and points of view of those involved in the situation.

  • Consider multiple perspectives of various peoples in the past by demonstrating their differing motives, beliefs, interests, hopes and fears.

  • Analyze past events in terms of cause and effect relationships.

  • Use specific criteria to critique competing historical interpretations of past events in order to differentiate between opinion and informed hypotheses grounded in evidence.

  • Use specific criteria to judge the relevance of the past to contemporary events and their own lives through a variety of settings (debates, simulations, seminars, etc.).

1.4 – Use Historical Research to: 1) Formulate historical questions … 2) Obtain historical data from a variety of sources … 3) Support interpretations with historical evidence … 4) Construct analytical essays using historical evidence to support arguments.

  • Historical inquiry, the research or investigation of past events, often begins with a historical question. Typically, addressing “how” and/or “why” decisions, actions, events occurred.

  • Historical inquiry requires the acquisition and analysis of data and documents beyond the classroom textbook.

  • Historical inquiry allows for the analysis of preexisting interpretations, to raise new questions about events, to investigate perspectives of those not in textbook accounts, and to investigate issues that the textbook largely bypasses.

  • Formulate historical questions by deconstructing a variety of sources (narratives, passages, accounts, letters, diaries, artifacts, photos, sites, art, architecture and other records of the past).

  • Collect historical data from a variety of sources to help answer historical questions (library and museum collections, historic sites, photos, journals, diaries, accounts, newspapers, documentary films, oral histories, censuses, tax records, directories, statistics, economic indicators, etc.).

  • Interpret historical data, construct reasoned arguments and draw conclusions using evidence from a variety of sources.

  • Create analytical essays that demonstrate historical interpretations, analysis, conclusions, and supporting evidence from a variety of sources.


STANDARD 2 – Analyze ancient civilizations and empires in terms of their development, growth and lasting Impact.

2.1 – Compare how different geographic issues of the ancient period influenced settlement, trading networks and the sustainability of various ancient civilizations (e.g., flooding, fertile crescent, confluence, limited fertile lands, etc.).

  • Role of flooding, natural barriers, drought, famine and limited fertile land

  • Settlement patterns in the rise of river valley civilizations

  • Role of physical geography to shape trade and migration

  • Control of rivers to hold back floods and to irrigate fields

  • Rivers for communication, travel and trade networks

  • Difference between nomadic and settled peoples

  • Expanded trade networks of the eastern Mediterranean

    • Phoenician & Greek traders connected peoples of Europe, Africa, and Asia

2.2 – Analyze the governments of ancient civilizations in terms of their development, structure and function within various societies (e.g., theocracy, democracy, oligarchy, tyranny, aristocracy, etc.).

  • Role religion plays unifying and governing expanding territories with diverse populations

  • Ancient civilizations developed into empires by centralizing gov’t, promoting commerce and common culture: Greece, Rome, India, China

  • Types of governments in ancient civilizations

  • Structure of governments in major ancient civilizations

  • Functions of gov’t differed depending on type of gov’t system

2.3 – Explain how the codifying of laws met the needs of ancient societies (e.g., Hammurabi, Draco, Justinian, Theodosius, etc.).

  • Meaning of codifying laws into a code to create a body of law (Hammurabi)

  • Hammurabi & Justinian codifying laws reinforces belief that gov’t has responsibility to regulate behaviors

  • Codifying laws centralized power for ancient rulers

  • Draco’s laws lead to development of democracy in ancient Greece

2.4 – Analyze the rise and spread of various empires in terms of influence, achievements and lasting impact (e.g., Mongol, Mughal, Ottoman, Ming, Mesoamerica, Inca, Imperial States in Africa, etc.).

  • Impact of “silk roads” on Chinese & Roman empires, and people of Central Asia

  • Decline of ancient/classical civilizations result from internal weaknesses and external invasions

  • Declined civilizations left lasting legacies: Manchu Pichu, Pyramids of Egypt, Greek & Roman art/lit/architecture/gov’t, Chinese Silk Road & paper money, Indian decimal system, African irrigation and math

  • Ways ancient empires expanded and controlled lands/people

  • Ways ancient empires spread political, military, economic and cultural influence across continents/est. legacies

    • Unification of China, expansion of Islam



2.5 – Analyze the development and growth of major Eastern and Western religions (e.g., Buddhism, Christianity, Confucianism, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, Shintoism, etc.).

  • Differences btw mono- & poly-theistic belief systems – impacts on political/econ/cultural development

  • Meaning of term medieval

  • Impact of religion on values/beliefs for Eastern & Western civilizations

    • Spread of Christianity in Roman empire

    • Connections btw breakup of Roman (Christianity) and Han (Buddhism)

    • Brahmanism evolving from Hinduism

    • Conversion of diverse Afro-Eurasian peoples to Christianity, Islam, Buddhism

    • Emergence of Islamic civilization and its econ/cultural influence in Iberia

  • Factors that led to expansion of religious influences/practices in Europe, Asia, Africa

  • Similarities btw tenets of world religions that developed in the medieval period & patterns of expansion

  • Constantinople’s location, econ, religious importance as a source of conflict, but enabled Christianity’s spread

  • Influence of the Byzantine Empire on Islamic world & Western Europe

2.6 – Analyze the interaction between the Islamic world and Europe and Asia in terms of increased trade, enhanced technology innovation, and an impact on scientific thought and the arts.

  • Impact of interaction btw Islamic world & medieval Europe on trade, technology, science and arts

  • Islamic cultural achievements influencing European tech advances

  • Discovery of many new goods, people and info as carried back to Europe due to advances in navigational tech and increased trade; contributing factor that led to the Renaissance

  • Extent to which the Byzantine Empire influenced the Islamic world & Western Europe

2.7 – Analyze the relationship between the trade routes and the development/decline of major empires (e.g., Ghana, Mali, Songhai, Greece, Rome, China, Mughal, Mongol, Mesoamerica, Inca, etc.).

  • Emergence of empires in Asia, Africa, Europe and the Americas resulted from the promotion of interregional trade, cultural exchanges, new technologies, urbanization, and centralized political organization.

  • Ancient trade routes in W.Africa allowed for the development of major empires.

  • Maritime and overland trade routes such as the African caravan and Silk Road impacted urbanization, transportation, communication, and the development of international trade centers.

  • Impact of increased trade on the balance of power of major empires (Romans, Timbuktu in Africa).

  • Ancient trade routes increased the power and influence among African trading states.

2.8 – Compare the conditions, racial composition, and status of social classes, castes, and slaves in ancient societies and analyze changes in those elements.

  • The caste system limited the social mobility within India.

  • Ancient and classical societies addressed social imbalances and inequalities.

STANDARD 3: Understand how conflict and innovation influenced political, religious, economic and social changes in medieval civilizations.

3.1 – Explain how religion influenced political power and cultural unity in various regions of Europe, Asia and Africa (e.g., Carolingian Dynasty, Holy Roman Empire, Ottoman Empire, Mughal Empire, Safavid Empire).

  • The characteristics of the Early Middle Ages, Middle Ages, and High Middle Ages.

  • The political significance of Europe being largely cut off from advanced civilizations in the Middle East, China and India.

  • How and why a new European civilization emerged that blended Greco-Roman, Germanic and Christian traditions.

  • The reasons why Holy Roman emperors failed to build a unified state in Germany.

  • The reasons for the emergence of “feudalism” and the development of the manor economy and political system.

  • Christianity was a unifying force culturally, politically and militarily in the European empires. That medieval popes enjoyed powerful positions of absolute authority during the middle ages.

  • How the role of religion was used to unify and centrally govern expanding territories with diverse populations of Europe.

  • The causes and out comes of the Crusades.

  • Religion played an integral role in the expansion of empires.

  • The powers the church had at its height.

3.2 – Explain how religious and secular struggles for authority impacted the structure of government and society in Europe, Asian and Africa (e.g., Cluniac Reforms, common law, Magna Carta, conflicts btw popes and emperors, Crusades, religious schisms, Hundred Years War, etc.)

  • Conflict between differing religious ideals led to changes economically, politically and socially within Europe.

  • Monarchs struggled to exert royal authority over nobles and churchmen.

  • Conflict within the Catholic church led to changes in the political design of European nations.

  • Religious authority between popes and rulers caused conflict especially in regard to values and beliefs.

  • How the role of religion was used to unify and centrally govern expanding territories with diverse populations of Europe

  • Struggles for limiting the power of kings leads to political changes in government (e.g., Magna Carta).

  • The importance of the Magna Carta as it relates to the development of democracy in England.

  • The importance of the rise of nation-states of Europe.

3.3 – Analyze how innovations in agriculture, trade and business impacted the economic and social development of various medieval societies (e.g., Feudalism, Agricultural Revolutions, Commercial Revolution and the development of the banking system, manorial system, growth of towns, etc.)

  • The connection between peasants adapting new farming technologies that made their fields more productive and the agricultural revolution

  • How and why the fact that Europe’s growing population created a need for goods not available on the manor led to the revival of trade across Europe.

  • How and why new business practices such as banking houses, partnerships and bill of exchange transformed medieval economies in the commercial revolution.

  • The evolution of medieval towns and cities due to rapid growth.

  • Increased trade and the growth of towns create the need for a banking system.

  • That the decline of feudalism occurs due to the Agricultural Revolution and Commercial Revolution.

  • How the feudal and manorial systems provided a foundation for political, economic and social relations in Europe.

  • The importance of the rise of the middle-class in Europe.

  • Why the intro of a new class (bourgeoisie) had no place within the medieval system of lord, church and peasant. This bourgeoisie included master artisans and merchants.

3.4 – Analyze how the desire for farmable land created conflict and impacted the physical environments of Europe, Asia, Africa and the Americas (e.g., Agricultural Revolution in Europe, Muslim Agricultural Revolution, Mesoamerican and Andrean agricultural innovations, etc.)

  • The use of slash and burn agriculture will cause the growth of deserts in Africa.

  • The use of step terraces on hillsides enabled Incas to increase the amount of farmland they had available.

  • The chinampas used among the Aztecs created farmland.

  • The reasons why feudal lords wanted more land.

  • The types of things that feudal lords did to the environment in order to boost their incomes (clear forests, drain swamps, and reclaim wasteland for farming and grazing).

  • The impact of different farming techniques on the physical environment.

  • An increasing population creates the need for more farmland which in turn causes political conflict.

  • The shift from a two field to a three field system leads to the Agricultural Revolution.

  • The enclosure movement in Europe forces people off their land and in turn creates a population shift, conflict among people, and permanent changes to the physical environment.

  • Population growth creates a need for more farmland and colonization.


STANDARD 4: Analyze the political, economic, social and cultural factors that lead to the development of the first age of global interaction.
4.1 – Explain how interest in classical learning and religious reform contributed to increased global interaction (e.g., Renaissance, Protestant Reformation, Catholic Reformation, Printing revolution, etc.)

  • How and why innovations from Asian and Islamic civilizations, as well as from ancient Greek and Roman culture, laid the foundation for the Renaissance.

  • How and why increased availability of print material increased literacy and resulted in the spread of ideas that both supported and challenged authority.

  • The factors that led to the Renaissance and the impact it had on the arts.

  • The factors that led to the Reformation and the impact it had on European politics.

  • The reasons why classical knowledge becomes the foundation for cultural growth.

  • That the geographic location of Italian city-states played a significant role in the fact that Italy was the center of the Renaissance.

  • How and why the Reformation led to the religious reforms.

  • That the printing revolution is a catalyst for the Reformation.

  • How the Protestant Reformation affected the development of Northern and Southern European society.


4.2 – Explain the political, social and economic reasons for the rise of powerful centralized nation-states and empires (e.g., Reformation, absolutism, limited monarchy, empires, etc.).

  • That with the rise of national monarchies two themes dominate the political life of the High Middle Ages:

    • Successful development of national monarchies in England & France, with medieval England laying the foundations for a parliamentary monarchy and France establishing the basis for absolutism

    • The failure to develop national monarchies in Germany and Italy

  • The ways in which both the Protestant and Catholic reformations brought sweeping changes to Europe.

  • Why the idea of a nation-state is associated with the rise of the modern system of states (i.e., Westphalian system in reference to the Treaty of Westphalia).

  • The reasons for the consequences of the rise of powerful, centralized nation-states in Europe (e.g., the French absolute monarchy and the English limited monarchy).

  • Why the Glorious Revolution and the creation of the English Bill of Rights were important contributions to eventual limits on British monarchy.

  • How and why the English Civil War led to the downfall of absolutism in England.

  • Characteristics that show how Louis XIV personified the ideals of absolutism.

  • The significance of absolute monarchs (e.g., Peter the Great, Catherine the Great, Louis XIV, etc.).

  • The significance of the division of European regions into those that remained Catholic and those that remained Protestant.


4.3 – Explain how agricultural and technological improvements transformed daily life socially and economically (e.g., growth of towns, creation of guilds, feudalism and the manorial system, commercialization, etc.).

  • The significant relationships between the “agricultural revolution,” population growth, industrialization, specialization in labor, and patterns of land-holding that encourage growth of towns, creation on guilds and unions and changes in the feudal and manorial systems.

  • Better diets increased the average life span of people as a result of agricultural advancements.

  • Technological improvements made agricultural advancements possible.

  • How and why the impact of the printing press and other technologies helped to disseminate beliefs as well as improve communication.

  • How and why scientific and technological changes, transportation and new forms of energy brought about social, economic and cultural changes across Europe.


4.4 – Analyze the effects of increased global trade on the interactions between nations in Europe, Southwest Asia, the Americas and Africa (e.g., exploration, mercantilism, inflation, rise of capitalism, etc.).

  • Mercantilism prompted the colonization of the Americas.

  • Trade competition among European nations fueled economic growth.

  • Exploration fueled the economy and led to global interaction.

  • How and why the desire to spread Christianity, acquire economics wealth and achieve social or political notoriety were reasons individuals, groups and governments participated in or financed exploration of the western hemisphere and the far east.

  • How and why powerful nations benefited from the acquisition of colonial possessions.

  • How and why the desire for trade route that bypassed the Mediterranean, providing direct access to Asia influenced European exploration.

  • How and why the desire to crusade against the Muslims was a reason for European exploration.

  • How and why the Crusades became one of the many reasons for European exploration.

  • The major economic, political and cultural features of European society that stimulated exploration and conquest in the Asia, the Americas and Africa.

  • Factors influencing the founding of the Mongol Empire by Genghis Khan.

  • Epidemics or outbreak of disease spread disastrous economic, political and social consequences across the places and regions impacted (Black Death).


STANDARD 5 – Analyze exploration and expansion in terms of its motivations and impact.
5.1 – Explain how and why the motivations for exploration and conquest resulted in increased global interactions, differing patterns of trade, colonization and conflict among nations (e.g., religious and political motives, adventure, economic investment, Columbian exchange, commercial revolution, conquistador destruction of Aztec and Incan civilizations, Triangular Trade, Middle Passage, trading outposts, plantation colonies, rise of capitalism, etc.).

  • How and why the recovery of the late Middle Ages set the stage for changes during the Age of Discovery.

  • The major technological innovations that were made by the Portuguese and Spanish in shipbuilding, navigation and naval warfare and that those innovations had a direct affect on the confidence explorers had in expanding their travel beyond traditional routes.

  • The economic and geopolitical causes that lead groups and nations to seek expansion.

  • The voyages for exploration marked the beginning of European domination of the globe and these voyages helped Europe emerge as a powerful new force in the world of the 16th & 17th centuries.

  • Factors such as the Scientific Revolution, the search for a sea route to Asia, the arrival of Columbus and other Europeans to the Americas helped create the Columbian Exchange.

  • The migration of Europeans to the Americas and the exchange of ideas and culture between the Europeans and the Native Americans as well as the death of millions of Native Americans and the trans-Atlantic slave trade are effects of the Columbian Exchange.

  • How and why colonization prompted conflict between Europeans and Native Americans.

  • How and why the movement of people (ingenious Americans, European, African) into, from and within the Americas and Africa resulted in conflict between the New World and European nations.

  • The African slave trade and resulting migration caused a shift in societal settlement patterns in Africa, European societies and the Americas.


5.2 – Explain the causes and effects of exploration and expansion (e.g., technological innovations and advances, forces that allowed the acquisition of colonial possessions and trading privileges in Africa, Asia, the Americas and the Columbian exchange).

  • The major technological innovations that were made by the Portuguese and Spanish in shipbuilding, navigation and naval warfare and that those innovations had a direct affect on the confidence explorers had in expanding their travel beyond traditional routes.

  • The various technologies (e.g., printing, the marine compass, cannonry, Arabic numerals) derived from Europe’s interactions with Islam and Asia provided the necessary tools for European exploration and conquest.

  • The economic and geopolitical causes that lead groups and nations to seek expansion.

  • How and why colonization occurred and impacted both European and American civilizations.

  • The balance of power within Africa changes due to European exploration.

  • The voyages for exploration marked the beginning of European domination of the globe and these voyages helped Europe emerge as a powerful new force in the world of the 16th & 17th centuries.

  • Factors such as the Scientific Revolution, the search for a sea route to Asia, the arrival of Columbus and other Europeans to the Americas helped create the Columbian Exchange.

  • The migration of Europeans to the Americas and the exchange of ideas and culture between the Europeans and the Native Americans as well as the death of millions of Native Americans and the trans-Atlantic slave trade are effects of the Columbian Exchange.


5.3 – Analyze colonization in terms of the desire for access to resources and markets as well as the consequences on indigenous cultures, population, and environment (e.g., commercial revolution, Columbian exchange, religious conversion, spread of Christianity, spread of disease, spread of technology, conquistadors, slave trade, encomienda system, enslavement of indigenous people, mixing of population, etc.).

  • How and why the new social stratification created by voluntary and coerced interactions among Native Americans, Africans, and Europeans in Spanish colonies laid the foundation for centuries of conflict.

  • That the founding of the British colonies in North America occurred within a wide context of events: the decline of American Indian populations, the rise of the Spanish Empire, the African slave trade, and the trans-Atlantic trade and migration of Europeans.

  • The Commercial Revolution was a result of the need for new resources and economic markets.

  • The various motivations for the Atlantic slave trade and the impact it had on Europeans, Africans, and Americans.

  • Spanish colonization and the need for new markets created political, economic, and social change in the Americas.

  • The decline in the population of Native Americans as a result of disease spread through the Columbian Exchange.

  • Cultural changes occurred as a result of the Spanish conquest of the Americas.

  • Negative effects of colonialism are that a nation takes land belonging to natives without any consent and generally mistreats the natives afterwards.


5.4 – Analyze the role of investment in global exploration in terms of its implications for international trade (e.g., transatlantic trade, mercantilism, joint-stock companies, trading companies, government and monarchial funding, corporations, creation of capital markets, etc.).

  • The economic system of mercantilism and how it affected decisions involving exploration and expansion.

  • How and why the role of mercantilism in stimulating European expansion through trade, conquest and colonization.

  • How economic systems changed as a result of exploration.

  • New business and investment methods (e.g., joint-stock companies) developed in the medieval times that allowed people to pool large amounts of capital needed for overseas ventures.

  • The Commercial Revolution was a period of European economic expansion, colonialism and mercantilism which lasted from approximately the 16th century until the early 18th century.

  • Expanded international trade and the push for overseas empires helped the growth of European capitalism.


STANDARD 6 – Understand the Age of Revolutions and Rebellions.
6.1 – Explain how new ideas and theories of the universe altered political thought and affected economic and social conditions (e.g., Scientific Revolution, Enlightenment, rationalism, secularism, humanism, tolerance, empiricism, natural rights, contractual government, laissez-faire economics, Bacon, Descartes, Galileo, Newton, inductive and deductive reasoning, heliocentric, inquisition, works of Locke, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Bolivar, Jefferson, Paine, Adam Smith, etc.).

  • How and why the recovery of the late Middle Ages set the stage for changes during the Renaissance and Reformation.

  • Meanings of key terminology as it relates to the Age of Revolutions (e.g., rationalism, reason, humanism, empiricism, heliocentric, geocentric).

  • The impact of humanism on the growth of the Renaissance and the spread of new ideas.

  • Enlightenment theories initiated the questioning of current government practices and prompted the desire for self-rule.

  • How and why various ideals became driving forces for reforms and revolutions (e.g., liberty, popular sovereignty, natural rights, democracy, and nationalism).

  • That new intellectual, philosophical, and scientific ideas caused people to reevaluate how they viewed themselves and how they viewed their physical and spiritual worlds.

  • The Inquisition was a direct result of the spread of ideas of the Enlightenment that were in conflict with the doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church.

  • How economic conditions were impacted by Enlightenment thinkers.

  • How and why the printing press and other technologies where a catalyst to better communication and more rapid dissemination of ideas across Europe.


6.2 – Analyze political revolutions in terms of their causes and impact on independence, governing bodies and church-state relations (e.g., Glorious Revolution, American Revolution, French Revolution, Russian Revolution, Haitian, Mexican, Chinese, etc.).

  • How changes in political thought resulted in revolution around the globe.

  • The American Revolution was a catalyst for revolutions around the globe.

  • The need for independence created revolutions in the Americas.

  • New ideas developed during the Enlightenment became the motivation behind the American & French Revolutions.

  • The Russian & Chinese Revolutions were a result of weak leadership, global conflict and revolutionary ideas.

  • Ways in which the American, French, and Haitian revolutions influenced independence movements in Latin America.

  • That the Haitian & Mexican Revolutions occurred because of a quest for independence.


6.3 – Explain how physical geography and natural resources influenced industrialism and changes to the environment (e.g., agricultural revolutions, technological innovations in farming, land use, deforestation, industrial towns, pollution, etc.).

  • The Industrial Revolution was a consequence of technological innovation and expanding economic activity and markets.

  • Why population shifts, urbanization, and the development of complex economic systems were a result of industrialization.

  • The role of geography (place, location, region, human interaction, movement) played in the development and spread of industrialism.

  • That European industrialism begins because of the availability of natural resources.

    • Industrialization began in England because of the surplus of resources such as the use of water to power mills.

  • That mining for natural resources was influenced by geographic factors spurred by technological innovation and help facilitate not only industrialism but employment and urbanization.

6.4 – Analyze the effects of industrialism and urbanization on social and economic reform (e.g., Industrial Revolution, urbanization, growth of middle class, increase in productivity and wealth, changes in economic status, new types of labor organizations, etc.).

  • Rapid growth of factories and cities were an effect of industrialism.

  • A migration of people to the cities occurred as a result of the Industrial Revolution.

  • The Industrial Revolution created material benefits as well as social problems (e.g., the “new” middle class, labor unions).

  • The Industrial Revolution fostered new ideas about business and economics (laissez-faire economics, emergence of socialism, Marxism).

  • Labor organizations were created due to the working conditions spurred by rapid industrialism.

  • How and why European nations set out to acquire resources and markets.

  • How and why the economic troubles of France let to the French Revolution.


STANDARD 7 – Understand how national, regional, and ethnic interests have contributed to conflict among groups and nations in the modern era.
7.1 – Evaluate key turning points of the modern era in terms of their lasting impact (e.g., conflicts, documents, policies, movements, etc.).

  • The meaning of “turning point” and “watershed.”

  • How geography impacted major turning points during major wars during the modern era.

  • How and why political, military, and economic campaigns or decisions have forever changed the course of history.

  • The role leadership has played in key events throughout history.


7.2 – Analyze the increase in economic and military competition among nations in terms of the influences of nationalism, imperialism, militarism, and industrialization (e.g., Ottoman Empire, Japanese Empire, Prussian Empire, the German Empire, “Haves and Have Nots of Europe, industrial America).

  • Nationalism becomes a focal point for unity in Italy and Germany.

  • Imperialism brings European nations into conflict as they compete for limited resources such as land.

  • How the disintegration of the Ottoman empire and the mandate system led to the creation of new nations in the Middle East.

  • Why pressures of extreme nationalism and economic upheaval set Japan on a militaristic and expansionist path in the early 20th century.

  • How and why Bismarck was successful with German unity when others had failed.

  • How Hapsburg rulers dealt with ethnic diversity within their empire.

  • How and why war with Japan contributed to the Revolution of 1905 with Russia.


7.3 – Analyze economic and political rivalries, ethnic and regional conflicts, and nationalism & imperialism as underlying causes of war (e.g. WW1, Russian Revolution, WW2).

  • Underlying and immediate causes of WW1 & WW2. (MAIN – Militarism-Alliances-Imperialism-Nationalism)

  • How and why the increased feelings of nationalism combined with the assassination of the heir to the A-H throne (Archduke Franz Ferdinand) sparked WW1.

  • Debt from WW1 became a motivating factor for Germany’s increased nationalism.

  • How the writings of Karl Marx influenced the Russian Revolution and created the Soviet Union.

  • Why the Second World War developed from the inadequate peace following the First World War.

  • Why the failure of the Treaty of Versailles, the impact of global depression, and the expansionist policies and actions of Axis nations are viewed as major factors that resulted in WW2.

  • How Allied countries responded to expansionist actions of Germany and Italy.


7.4 – Explain how social and economic conditions of colonial rule contributed to the rise of nationalistic movements (e.g., India, Africa, Southeast Asia).

  • Why the methods used by Mao Zedong and Chiang Kai-Shek influenced the desire for Chinese independence.

  • How the use of passive resistance by Mahatma Gandhi helped lead to an end of British rule in India.

  • World Wars 1 & 2 challenged economic and political power structures and gave rise to a new balance of power in the world.

  • How economic power and bureaucracies have been used by nations to deliberately and systematically destroy ethnic/racial, political, and cultural groups.


7.5 – Analyze the emergence of capitalism as a dominant economic pattern and the responses to it from various nations and groups (e.g., utopianism, social democracy, socialism, communism, etc.).

  • The Marshall Plan, Truman Doctrine, and Eisenhower Doctrines were used to solidify the economies of new democratic nations.


7.6 – Explain how economic crisis contributed to the growth of various political and economic movements (e.g., Great Depression, nationalistic movements of colonial Africa and Asia, socialist and communist movements, effect on capitalist economic theory, etc.).

  • The factors that contributed to the Great Depression (unequal distribution of wealth).

  • How and why the methods used by Mao Zedong and Chiang Kai-Shek were prompted by the economic crisis within China.

  • That both the Korean and Vietnam Conflicts began because of the desire to bring equality among social classes.


STANDARD 8 – Analyze global interdependence and shifts in power in terms of political, economic, social and environmental changes and conflicts since the last half of the 20th century.
8.1 – Evaluate global wars in terms of how they challenged political and economic power structures and gave rise to new balances of power (e.g., Spanish American War, WW1, WW2, Vietnam War, Colonial Wars in Africa, Persian Gulf War).

  • How and why the rise of totalitarian governments contributed to WW2.

  • Nationalism, imperialism, industrialization, and militarism contributed to an increase in economic and military competition among European nations, the Ottoman Empire, and Japan, and led to WW1.

  • The failure of the Treaty of Versailles, the impact of global depression, and the expansionist policies and actions of Axis nations are viewed as major factors that resulted in WW2.

  • WW1 & WW2 were “total wars” in which nations mobilized entire populations and economies and employed new military tactics that resulted in unprecedented death and destruction, as well as drastic changes in political boundaries.

  • The intended and unintended consequences of new national boundaries established by the treaties that ended WW2.

  • WW1 & WW2 challenged economic and political power structures and gave rise to a new balance of power in the world.

  • The causes and consequences of the genocides of Armenians, Roma (gypsies), and Jews, as well as the mass exterminations of Ukrainians and Chinese.

  • How and why American isolationism contributed to both WW1 & WW2.

  • How and why the United States emerges as a world power after the Spanish American War.

  • The reasons that political instability within Vietnam caused political and military changes as well as chaos globally.


8.2 – Explain how international crisis has impacted international politics (e.g., Berlin Blockade, Korean War, Hungarian Revolt, Cuban Missile Crisis, OPEC oil crisis, Iranian Revolt, “9/11”, terrorism, etc.)

  • The reasons for and impact of various foreign policies of the U.S. as well as those of other nations (containment, Eisenhower’s brinkmanship, Kennedy’s Flexible Response, Kruschev’s Peaceful Coexistence, the Brezhnev Doctrine, glasnost, perestroika, etc.)

  • How and why post-independence struggles in South Asia, including the struggle over the partitioning of the subcontinent into India & Pakistan, as well as later tensions over Kashmir contributed to ongoing religious and regional divisions.

  • Cold War conflicts in Eastern Europe and Asia led to increased tensions and prompted the U.S. policy of containment.

  • Reason why the Cuban Missile Crisis was a result of hesitation of the Soviet Union and the United States to compromise on the positioning of weapons.

  • That the Iranian Revolt was one of the first acts of international terrorism against the U.S. and the reason behind the capture of the 52 American hostages.

  • The basic tenets of major foreign policy programs of the U.S. and other superpower nations during the Cold War.

    • Brezhnev Doctrine retroactively justified Soviet invasions/interventions in Czechoslovakia (1968) and Hungary (1956) – used to end democratic liberalization and uprisings that would compromise Soviet influence and make the security buffer with the West/NATO less protective.

  • “9/11” prompted political changes that were designed to give gov’t extended powers into the private lives of US citizens in an attempt to protect US borders from terrorism.

  • Post “9/11” issues that have changed the way nations interact.


8.3 – Analyze the “new” balance of power and the search for peace and stability in terms of how each has influenced global interactions since that last half of the twentieth century (e.g., post WW2, Post Cold War, 1990’s Globalization, New World Order, Global Achievements and Innovations).

  • World War and the Cold War challenged economics and political power structures and gave rise to a new balance of power in the world.

  • Winston Churchill’s Iron Curtain speech defined the division between the communist and non-communist countries.

  • The political purpose for the Berlin Wall being erected as a physical barrier of division between communist and non-communist countries in Europe.

  • How the building and destruction of the Berlin Wall served as a symbol of the division of political ideology between communist and non-communist countries.

  • That post-WW2 global interactions increased cooperation between nations that had once been adversaries.


8.4 – Analyze scientific, technological and medical innovations of postwar decades in terms of their impact on systems of production global trade and standards of living (e.g., satellites, computers, social networks, information highway).

  • How and why scientific and technological improvements in the second half of the 20th century have resulted in an increasingly global economy and societies that face challenges of limited natural resources.

  • How medical discoveries such as the polio vaccine and antiretroviral (ARV) therapy for HIV/AIDS patients have increased the life span of people.

  • How and why Sputnik initiated the race to explore outer space.

  • The significance of the shift in education among developed nations to focus on an emphasis to teach science, math, and foreign language after the 1957 Sputnik launch.

  • How and why the internet has allowed for the exchange of ideas to take place at such as rapid pace.

  • Both positive and negative global effects of the information highway and the 21st century technologies (The Three Gorges Dam (TVA on the Yangtze)).


8.5 – Explain how population growth, urbanization, industrialization, warfare and the global market economy have contributed to changes in the environment (e.g., deforestation, pollution, clear cutting, Ozone depletion, climate change, global warming, industrial emissions and fuel combustion, habitat destruction, etc.).

  • How and why increased population has a negative impact on the environment (pollution, deforestation, and fuel emissions).

    • Large part of deforestation in Brazil due to clearing of pastureland by commercial and speculative interests, misguided gov’t policies, inappropriate World Bank projects, and commercial exploitation of forest resources.

    • World Bank reported in 2002 that pollution causes $2.42 billion of damage to the Egyptian environment annually – equally 5 % of the nation’s GDP

    • The tailpipe emissions from cars & trucks account for almost 1/3 of air pollution in the U.S.


8.6 – Explain how liberal democracy, private enterprise and human rights movements have reshaped political, economic and social life in Africa, Asia, Latin America, Europe, the Soviet Union, and the United States (e.g., U.N. Declaration of Human Rights, end of the Cold War, apartheid, perestroika, glasnost, etc.).

  • Definition for and examples of human rights.

  • Similarities of the U.N. Declaration of Human Rights to the Magna Carta.

  • Although not a legally binding document, the UNDHR has achieved the status of customary international laws because people regard it “as a common standard of achievement for all people and all nations.”

  • The intent of the creation of the United Nations.

  • That the end of the Cold War along with the ability to openly exchange ideas led to the quest for human rights.

  • Glasnost and Perestroika created a climate that helped lead to the collapse of the Soviet Union.

8.7 – Explain why terrorist groups and movements have proliferated and the extent of their impact on politics and society in various countries (e.g., Basque, PLO, IRA, Tamil Tigers, Al Qaeda, Hamas, Hezbollah, Palestinian Islamic Jihad, etc.).

  • Indonesian gov’t pressure to relieve the economic hardships faced by the people in Bali after the 2002 attack and the tightening of airport security in order to prevent terrorism.

  • The creation of a new state from an existing state or replacement of the existing state with another form (PLO and Islamic Jihad in Israel, the Chechnyans in Russia, the IRA in the UK, etc.)

  • The jihadi’s in Saudi Arabia wanting the existing Al-Saud dynasty to be replaced and to remove the U.S. support to the Al-Saud regime, the FARC in Columbia, the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt.

  • The UN definition of terrorism.

  • Definition of “fundamentalism” and how the modern connotation differs from its historical use.

  • Meaning of jihad and the Islamic principles and laws that are relevant to military activity.

  • Factors that influence terrorist acts and the pressing problems facing nations that have faced a breakdown of authority in the last two decades of the 20th century and the first decades of the 21st.

  • Various methods nations use to protect their citizens from terrorist acts.

  • The importance of international cooperation and multinational organizations in attempting to solve global issues.


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