World History: Unit 5 Test Absolutism & Scientific Revolution

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World History: Unit 5 Test - Absolutism & Scientific Revolution

  1. Copernicus, Brahe, Kepler, and Galileo all contributed to what scientific theory, one which challenged Biblical standards and upset many Christian churches?

  1. Deism, or the theory that God does not interfere in the universe He created

  2. Heliocentrism, or the theory that the earth is in orbit around a stationary sun

  3. Evolution, or the theory that all life on Earth has evolved through adaptation over millions of years

  4. Atomism, or the theory that all matter is made up of minute particles

  1. Between 1642 and 1649, England was engaged in a Civil War fought between "Cavaliers" and "Roundheads." Whom did each of these factions support?

  1. Cavaliers supported American colonists, while Roundheads supported English homelanders

  2. Cavaliers supported King Charles I, while Roundheads supported Parliament

  3. Cavaliers supported Protestants, while Roundheads supported Catholics

  4. Cavaliers supported the Scottish, while Roundheads supported the Irish

  1. What happened to King Charles I after he failed in his efforts to establish absolute monarchy in England?

  1. Charles was forced to flee to safety in France

  2. Charles was executed by Parliament for his abuses of royal power

  3. Charles was allowed to remain king in title only, but all of his governing powers were stripped

  4. Charles escaped any serious penalty due to his position as head of the Church of England

  1. What two new major powers emerged from the wreckage of the Thirty Years War?

  1. Austria and Prussia

  2. Poland and Lithuania

  3. Belgium and The Netherlands

  4. Italy and Germany

  1. What was accomplished by the Peace of Westphalia in 1648?

  1. The Thirty Years War was ended, shattering The Holy Roman Empire into hundreds of small states

  2. The War of the Austrian Succession was ended, placing Maria Theresa on the throne of Austria

  3. The English Civil War ended with the surrender of the New Model Army

  4. The Protestant Reformation ended with the reconciliation of the various Protestant sects with the Catholic Church

  1. Louis XIV nearly bankrupted France with his heavy spending on unsuccessful wars and the construction and maintenance of the palace at Versailles. What was the purpose of Versailles?

  1. It provided the king with a secure fortress which protected him from potential rebellions

  2. It allowed the king to house the nobility of France, keeping them nearby and under his control

  3. It's position far from the French capital of Paris allowed the king to relax and ignore state affairs

  4. It served as the seat of the pope, allowing the king to maintain control over the Catholic Church

  1. Charles V, King of Spain, is often considered to be one of the first monarchs to practice "absolutism." What does it mean to be an "absolute" monarch?

  1. The king allows his nation to practice mercantilism

  2. The king rejects the philosophy of "divine right"

  3. The king shares power with a legislature

  4. The king has complete, unquestioned authority over the government

  1. In 1588, King Philip II of Spain attempted an invasion of England, constructing a fleet of 130 ships known as the "Spanish Armada;" his ambitions were spoiled, however, by bad weather and English ingenuity. What was the long term impact of the failure of the Spanish Armada for Spain?

  1. Spain and England remain bitter enemies to this day

  2. Spain's economy was ruined by the loss of the Spanish Armada, greatly weakening their power

  3. The pope condemned Spanish aggression, causing the Spanish to abandon Catholicism in favor of Protestantism

  4. The people of Spain, embarrassed by the defeat, overthrew the monarchy in favor of a republic

  1. What major breakthrough in medicine was achieved during the Scientific Revolution?

  1. The discovery of antibiotics such as penicillin to combat infection

  2. The use of plaster casts to set broken bones

  3. The discovery of the importance of proper diagnosis of diseases in order to prescribe treatment

  4. The use of stitches to close wounds and promote healing

  1. Cogito ergo sum - "I think, therefore I am" - was the basis of a new approach to scientific thinking developed by Rene Descartes, known as ...

  1. Empiricism

  2. Rationalism

  3. Absolutism

  4. Capitalism

  1. Francis Bacon's method of scientific inquiry embodied which of the following concepts?

  1. Greek classicism

  2. Careful physical observation and experimentation

  3. Exhaustive trial and error

  4. Cartesian dualism

  1. Sir Isaac Newton's contributions to science included all of the following EXCEPT ...

  1. the development of calculus

  2. the theory of gravity based on the laws of motion

  3. the first accurate spring operated clock

  4. a better understanding of the visible spectrum of light

  1. Blaise Pascal believed that ...

  1. man can come to know God only through pure reason

  2. Christians should trust only what God has revealed in the Holy Scriptures, never science

  3. God can be known only through faith, not through reason

  4. God is a fiction, created by humans to explain natural forces they do not understand

  1. What belief was King Louis XIV of France promoting when he referred to himself as the "Sun King" and proclaimed "I am the state!"?

  1. Constitutional monarchy

  2. Absolutism

  3. Enlightened despotism

  4. Inflationary capitalism

  1. In which of the following ways did Peter the Great exert influence over the boyars (nobles) of Russia?

  1. Through forcing them to adopt Roman Catholicism as their religion

  2. Through freeing Russia's serfs and putting a greater tax burden on the nobility

  3. Through restricting trade with Western European states

  4. Through forcing them to dress and groom themselves like Western Europeans

  1. What was the objective of the Gunpowder Treason?

  1. To kill England's King James I and replace him with a Catholic monarch

  2. To steal sufficient enough guns to support the rebellious Scots during the English Civil War

  3. To carry out a genocide against the Irish people

  4. To replace England's King James II with his more Parliament-friendly daughter Mary

  1. What prevented the monarchs of England from ever successfully establishing an absolutist system of government?

  1. England's religious divisions

  2. Parliament's control of taxation

  3. The rebellion of England's American colonies

  4. The monarch's dual role as both political leader and head of the Church of England

  1. Which of the following best describes the Glorious Revolution?

  1. A period of intense scientific research, leading to new ideas about the natural laws which control the universe

  2. The Westernization of Russia under Peter the Great, making Russia one of the great powers of Europe

  3. The bloodless removal of the unpopular King James II of England and expansion of Parliamentary power under his replacements, William & Mary

  4. The destruction of the English monarchy with the victory of Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army during the English Civil War

  1. Why is the signing of the English Bill of Rights by William & Mary seen as a pivotal moment in British history?

  1. It allowed for the development of a constitutional monarchy, eventually moving both England and America towards more democratic systems of government

  2. It allowed the establishment of the Commonwealth, a period of British history where there was no king or queen as head of state

  3. It dissolved the British Empire, freeing many of Britain’s colonies, such as Ireland, Canada, and Australia

  4. It divided British Parliament into two houses (a bicameral system), the House of Lords (upper house) and the House of Commons (lower house)

  1. Which of the following was an accomplishment of French scientist Antoine Lavoisier?

  1. The discovery of the laws of motion

  2. The development of the metric system of measurement

  3. The development of an explanation for the functions of the heart, veins, and arteries

  4. The discovery of an inverse relationship between pressure and volume in gases

  1. Which of the following religious groups was so heavily persecuted under King James I of England that they emigrated to America in order to exercise their religious freedoms?

  1. The Anglicans

  2. The Jews

  3. Members of the Church of England

  4. The Puritans

  1. Which of the following was the biggest change to the English Church under King James I?

  1. A newly translated version of the Bible for use in worship services

  2. The abolishment of the Mass

  3. A switch from baptizing infants to only baptizing consenting adults

  4. The legalization of divorce

  1. In general, what was the biggest challenge for scientists such as Galileo and Newton?

  1. Convincing absolutist monarchs to allow their research

  2. Reconciling their religious beliefs with their scientific findings

  3. Gaining funding from the ultraconservative universities of their day

  4. Overcoming Europeans’ prejudicial attitudes towards Jews

  1. Which of the following traits did the “Enlightened Despots” have in common?

  1. Promoting freedom of speech

  2. Freeing the serfs in their countries

  3. Religious tolerance

  4. Widespread popularity amongst their people

  1. In class we discussed twelve major issues addressed by the English Bill of Rights. List four of these issues. Any that you can list beyond four will count as 1 point each of extra credit, BUT any that you list which are incorrect will cancel out 1 point of extra credit. (You will still get full basic credit, so long as you have four correct answers, regardless of the number of incorrect responses)

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