World history semester review



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It is when the market price of labour exceeds its natural price that the condition of the labourer is flourishing and happy, that he has it in his power to command a greater proportion of the necessaries and enjoyments of life, and therefore to rear a healthy and numerous family. When, however, by the encouragement which high wages give to the increase of population, the number of labourers is increased, wages again fall to their natural price, and indeed from a reaction sometimes fall below it.”
David Ricardo, On Wages, 1817

____ 156. Read the quote by David Ricardo. David Ricardo’s ideas are most similar to the ideas of which of the following?



a.

Robert Owen

c.

Richard Arkwright

b.

Andrew Carnegie

d.

Thomas Malthus

____ 157. Read the quote by David Ricardo. A person who agreed with David Ricardo’s ideas would likely endorse which of the following economic systems?



a.

communism

c.

laissez-faire economics

b.

mercantilism

d.

Socialism


____ 158. Which of the following Mughal leaders came into conflict with the Sikhs?



a.

Babur

c.

Jahangir

b.

Shah Jahan

d.

Akbar

____ 159. The D-Day invasion of Normandy was launched from



a.

Belgium.

c.

Berlin.

b.

the United Kingdom.

d.

the Soviet Union.

____ 160. After Charles X abdicated, French leaders formed what kind of government?



a.

an absolute monarchy

c.

a constitutional monarchy

b.

a democratic republic

d.

an empire

____ 161. Johannes Gutenberg’s invention has been described as revolutionary because



a.

coupled with a large pool of unemployed workers, it led to early industrialization in parts of Central Europe.

b.

with oil paints, Renaissance artists could paint much more detail than they could with watercolors.

c.

until guilds were created, craftspeople were unable to control the goods they produced.

d.

with easier access to books, more people learned to read and more books were printed.

____ 162. The Ming dynasty declined because



a.

competition among heirs to the throne led to a divided dynasty.

c.

Zheng He depleted the government’s treasury and was unable to provide for the people.

b.

a combination of high taxes and crop failures led to rebellions.

d.

Europeans began to colonize China.

____ 163. Revolts in the Austrian Empire were set off by



a.

revolutions in France, Italy, and the German states.

c.

Ferdinand’s abdication.

b.

Metternich’s resignation.

d.

the Russian invasion.

____ 164. Brazilian colonists achieved their independence from Portugal when



a.

they attacked the capital city.

b.

they threatened to fight to the death.

c.

they hired José de San Martín to lead their army.

d.

Prince Pedro declared Brazil independent.

____ 165. Which of the following legislative bodies ended the monarchy and proclaimed France a republic?



a.

the National Convention

c.

the Directory

b.

the National Assembly

d.

the Legislative Assembly

____ 166. The Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution because



a.

some people argued the Constitution did not protect the rights of citizens.

c.

Americans believed in equality and justice for all.

b.

leaders needed some guidance on how to create an effective court system.

d.

framers believed the nation needed a stronger system of government.

The pretended power of suspending laws, or the execution of laws, by regal authority, without consent of parliament is illegal. . .”

The English Bill of Rights

____ 167. Which of the following does the passage from The English Bill of Rights guarantee?



a.

Members of parliament will enjoy freedom of speech.

c.

The monarch will be abolished.

b.

Democratic, free elections will be held regularly.

d.

The monarch will not have absolute power.

____ 168. How did electric power impact industry?



a.

It allowed factories to move away from water sources.

b.

It increased safety hazards in manufacturing plants.

c.

By increasing efficiency, it shortened the work day.

d.

It reduced the cost of powering heavy machinery.

____ 169. Before World War II, Hitler’s Nazi government



a.

outlawed emigration.

c.

passed restrictive laws severely limiting the rights of Jews.

b.

did not limit the rights of any German citizens.

d.

sent Einsatzgruppen into the Soviet Union.

____ 170. During the British Raj



a.

British officials appointed many Indian officials.

c.

India became a significant source of rubber for British tire factories.

b.

the Indian textile industry flourished.

d.

Indian and British people lived in segregated neighborhoods.

____ 171. The work of Joseph Lister with an antiseptic would have been impossible without the discoveries of



a.

Louis Pasteur.

c.

Albert Einstein.

b.

Marie Curie.

d.

Isaac Newton.

____ 172. Janissaries contributed to the success of the Ottoman Empire because they



a.

spied on the Byzantine army and passed on important strategic information.

c.

converted people to Islam, giving Ottomans a shared religious background.

b.

were elite soldiers loyal only to the sultan.

d.

were part of a highly organized and effective bureaucracy that ran the empire.

____ 173. The Choson kings isolated Korea from most of the rest of the world because



a.

they preferred to remain neutral in international conflicts.

c.

it had faced invasions and become a vassal state to the Qing dynasty in China.

b.

Christian missionaries had been active in the country.

d.

most Koreans were monks and spent their time in prayer and meditation.

____ 174. Until the Scientific Revolution, the traditional authorities were



a.

the Church and ancient scholars.

c.

Plato and Aristotle.

b.

Aquinas and his followers.

d.

navigators and explorers.

____ 175. Which of the following revolutionary leaders came to oppose the violent excesses of the Revolution?



a.

Jean-Paul Marat

c.

George-Jacques Danton

b.

Maximilien Robespierre

d.

Olympe de Gouges

____ 176. The mercantile system in Britain was replaced by



a.

socialism.

c.

department stores.

b.

entrepreneurship.

d.

laissez-faire economics.

____ 177. Which of the following military alliances became known as the Axis Powers?



a.

Germany and the Soviet Union

b.

Germany, Italy, and Japan

c.

England and France

d.

Czechoslovakia, Poland, and the Rhineland

____ 178. Portugal refused to comply with the Continental System because



a.

it depended on its trade with France.

c.

it did not have enough young men to spare for the draft.

b.

its people resented having a foreign ruler.

d.

it depended on its trade with Great Britain.

____ 179. Following World War I,



a.

European colonies became more loyal to their mother countries.

c.

France’s economy flourished.

b.

the economy of the United States took several years to recover.

d.

Europe lost its role as the dominant economic region of the world.

____ 180. What was the immediate cause of the Sepoy Mutiny?



a.

the requirement that the sepoys practice sati

c.

the requirement that Indian soldiers bite off the end of an ammunition cartridge greased with animal fat

b.

the refusal of Hindu priests of Delhi to support Christian rule in India

d.

widespread political imprisonment and random executions

____ 181. Which European campaign was a disaster for Napoleon?



a.

the Russian Campaign

c.

the Saint Domingue Expedition

b.

the Peninsular War

d.

the Continental System

____ 182. What enabled the Ottomans to expand beyond Anatolia?



a.

Christianity’s decline in the Byzantine Empire

c.

the assistance of Serbs in the Balkans

b.

a powerful military and gunpowder weapons

d.

their tolerance of other cultures and religions

____ 183. Before entering World War II, the United States



a.

provided monetary aid to the Axis Powers.

c.

provided military aid to Great Britain.

b.

attacked German submarines.

d.

remained strictly neutral.

____ 184. The Church’s scholastic education gave way to the subjects known as humanities and inspired the movement known as



a.

the vernacular.

c.

humanism.

b.

the Protestant Reformation.

d.

secularism.

____ 185. Which of the following was one effect of the factory system?



a.

More people joined the middle class.

b.

Workers dealt directly with merchants.

c.

The price of products increased.

d.

Workers became more skilled.

____ 186. One outcome of the Council of Trent was that



a.

the distinction between Catholicism and Protestantism blurred.

b.

Charles Borromeo helped return most of Germany to the Catholic Church.

c.

Austria and Poland returned to the Catholic Church.

d.

Lutherans rebelled against Church decrees in Sweden and established a theocracy.

____ 187. Which of the following was one result of the Treaty of Tordesillas?



a.

The Spanish Empire was larger than the Portuguese Empire.

b.

The British Empire was larger than the Portuguese Empire.

c.

Spain took control of Brazil.

d.

The Portuguese Empire was larger than the Spanish Empire.

____ 188. Manifest destiny affected Native Americans by



a.

forcing them to convert to Christianity.

c.

separating them into distinct tribes.

b.

introducing them to manufactured products.

d.

forcing them westward and into reservations.

____ 189. Which of the following leaders began a program of reforms in Russia?



a.

Karl Marx

c.

Nicholas I

b.

Alexander III

d.

Alexander II

____ 190. What caused the growth in leisure time activities in the late 1800s?



a.

the move from cities to suburbs

c.

private funding of concert halls and theaters

b.

automobiles

d.

higher incomes and more free time

____ 191. Who wrote “Man is born free but everywhere is in chains”?



a.

Rousseau

c.

Montesquieu

b.

Locke

d.

Voltaire

____ 192. During Qing rule, the emperor Kangxi



a.

increased commerce with Europeans, restored the Great Wall, and built an opulent palace.

c.

granted equal citizenship to all Chinese, initiated communism, and conquered Taiwan.

b.

raised taxes, isolated the empire from European influence, and threw out the Jesuits.

d.

reduced taxes, expanded the empire, and supported the arts and sciences.

____ 193. How did Hitler respond to the successful invasion of France by the Allies?



a.

He reconquered the beaches of Normandy.

c.

He personally surrendered to Soviet troops in Berlin.

b.

He ordered a counterattack in Belgium.

d.

He invaded the Soviet Union.

____ 194. The Siege of Leningrad resulted in



a.

a British victory.

c.

the starvation of one million German troops.

b.

the starvation of one million Russian civilians.

d.

a Germany victory.

____ 195. What was the result of the Russo-Japanese war of 1904–1905?



a.

Russia retained its control over two Manchurian ports and influence over Korea.

b.

Russia retained control of railway lines in southern Manchuria but Japan gained influence over Korea.

c.

Japan’s victory over Russia was celebrated all over Asia.

d.

Japan gained control over two Manchurian ports but lost influence over Korea.

____ 196. Which of the following natural resources was most important for the early development of industry in Great Britain?



a.

water

c.

coal

b.

iron ore

d.

timber

____ 197. The Edict of Nantes was a remarkable document because



a.

for the first time France was a Protestant nation.

c.

it contained the signature of Cardinal Richelieu.

b.

it set into motion the events that led to the Court of Blood.

d.

people were no longer forced to follow the monarch’s religion.

____ 198. Despite Queen Victoria’s views,



a.

Gladstone insisted on independence for Ireland.

c.

Disraeli voted against extending the vote to women.

b.

Pankhurst did not want women’s suffrage.

d.

Disraeli supported women’s voting rights.

____ 199. Why did both sides in World War I turn to new weapons?



a.

because there were not enough weapons to arm the millions of soldiers

c.

because advances in radar technology made bombers almost useless

b.

because both sides wanted to avoid the deaths of too many soldiers

d.

because trench warfare had led to a stalemate

____ 200. Which of the following was a challenge to the French monarchy’s philosophy of “one king, one law, one religion”?



a.

the Huguenots

c.

the Catholic Church

b.

German princes

d.

absolute monarchy

____ 201. Who disproved the long-held belief that an atom is a solid piece of matter?



a.

Dmitri Mendeleyev

c.

Marie Curie

b.

Albert Einstein

d.

Ernest Rutherford

____ 202. Christian missionary activity in Japan resulted in



a.

the adoption of Christianity as the official state religion.

c.

few conversions and little interest from Japanese people or the government.

b.

the conversion of many Japanese and later government persecution of Christians and missionaries.

d.

a new era of religious tolerance.

____ 203. When Hitler attacked the Soviet Union in June 1941, he



a.

was breaking the Soviet-German nonaggression pact.

c.

felt invincible because of his victory in Great Britain.

b.

hoped to draw the United States into war.

d.

threatened the alliance between the Axis Powers.

____ 204. Which of the following realistic writers revealed the unfair treatment of women within families?



a.

William Wordsworth

c.

Leo Tolstoy

b.

Henrik Ibsen

d.

Mary Wollstonecraft

____ 205. Which series of events led to World War I?



a.

An Austrian-Hungarian nobleman was assassinated, Germany moved to support Austria, and Great Britain declared war on Germany.

b.

Germany declared war on Serbia, Russia moved to support Serbia, and Great Britain declared war on Russia.

c.

Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, Russia moved to support Serbia, and Germany declared war on Russia.

d.

Austria took over Bosnia, Serbia declared war on Austria, and Germany declared war on Serbia.

____ 206. Americans went to war with Great Britain in 1812 in part because



a.

Britain was seizing American sailors.

c.

they wanted independence from Britain.

b.

Americans wanted to admit Texas as a state.

d.

Britain blocked the purchase of the Louisiana Territory.

____ 207. The new way of thinking that emerged in the mid-1500s is called the



a.

geocentric theory.

c.

American Revolution.

b.

Scientific Revolution.

d.

Enlightenment.

____ 208. As the Chinese military weakened in the late 1800s, which countries rushed to claim more territory in China?



a.

Sweden, France, Russia, Portugal and Spain

c.

Great Britain, France, Germany and Russia

b.

Germany, France, Great Britain and the United States

d.

Japan, Russia, France, Denmark, Spain and Canada

____ 209. Which of the following scientists invented the first periodic table?



a.

Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier

c.

Antony van Leeuwenhoek

b.

Galen

d.

Robert Boyle

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