World history semester review



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____ 84. Before the rise of the Ottoman Empire, Anatolia was a



a.

country ruled by a Mongolian king.

b.

part of western Persia.

c.

region consisting of a number of small, independent Turkish states.

d.

part of the Christian Byzantine Empire.

____ 85. Which of the following is a social science?



a.

chemistry

c.

law

b.

psychology

d.

biology

____ 86. What was the effect of the Reform Act of 1832?



a.

It gave women the right to vote for members of Parliament.

c.

It created the United Kingdom by joining England, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales.

b.

It regulated working conditions and minimum wages in industry.

d.

It gave industrial cities representation in Parliament for the first time.

____ 87. Hongwu rebuilt China by



a.

building a large naval fleet and conquering nearby lands.

c.

instituting a government-sponsored network of Buddhist temples.

b.

raising taxes to support infrastructure and new government buildings.

d.

reducing taxes and passing reforms to improve agriculture and stimulate trade.

____ 88. Control of North Africa was vital for the Allies because



a.

North African countries provided the best area from which to launch air attacks against Italy.

c.

large numbers of terrorist attacks against Allied ships were being launched from the area.

b.

they needed to control the Suez Canal in order to obtain oil from the Middle East.

d.

they needed to control the Panama Canal in order to obtain oil from the Middle East.

____ 89. Why did the British occupy Egypt in 1882?



a.

to maintain access to the Suez Canal when the Egyptian government appeared unstable

c.

to secure the Congo River to aid Leopold of Belgium

b.

to set up trading posts along the coast

d.

to rebuild the Suez Canal to accommodate larger ships

____ 90. On which two fronts did Germany fight during World War I?



a.

Russia to the east and France to the west.

c.

France to the west and Belgium to the north.

b.

Switzerland to the south and Russia to the east.

d.

Russia to the east and Italy to the south.

____ 91. What led to the growth of the middle class?



a.

industry’s need for managers and other mid-level employees

c.

the increase in prices of manufactured goods

b.

the increasing profit earned from small, family-owned farms

d.

the growth of universities

____ 92. Hitler’s Final Solution included



a.

less restrictive laws benefiting Germany’s Jewish population.

c.

concentration camps, death camps, and Einsatzgruppen.

b.

opening a second front in Western Europe.

d.

deportation of European Jews.

____ 93. The Congress of Vienna



a.

made France a colony of Great Britain.

b.

rewarded Napoleon’s supporters with large tracts of land.

c.

strengthened nations surrounding France.

d.

outlawed monarchies.

____ 94. Roosevelt and Churchill’s joint declaration proclaiming what they viewed as the purpose of going to war is called the



a.

Yalta Charter.

c.

Treaty of Versailles.

b.

Declaration of the Three Powers.

d.

Atlantic Charter.

____ 95. Which of the following countries was the first to industrialize?



a.

Great Britain

c.

France

b.

Japan

d.

the United States


____ 96. The difficulties Allied leaders had in reaching agreement at the Potsdam Conference were due to



a.

growing ill-will between the Soviet Union and other Allies.

c.

uncertainties about when the war would end in Europe.

b.

the refusal of the Soviet Union to join the United Nations.

d.

the fight of many colonized people for independence.

____ 97. Which of the following disciplines do you think benefited from Charles Darwin’s work?



a.

physical anthropology

c.

psychology

b.

medicine

d.

cultural archaeology

____ 98. The idea of separate spheres implied that



a.

boys and girls should be educated separately.

c.

women and men should work side by side in industry.

b.

men provided moral guidance in the business world.

d.

women stayed home while men supported the family.

____ 99. How did the politics of General Antonio López de Santa Anna change during his years in power?



a.

He used the Catholic Church to gain power but then limited the Church’s power.

c.

He first courted the United States and then rebelled against it.

b.

He seized power in a conservative military coup, but became a liberal reformer.

d.

He first allied with liberal reformers but later became conservative.

____ 100. Before 1858, British imperialism in India was carried out by the



a.

British East India Company.

c.

British National Congress.

b.

British government.

d.

Indian Civil Service.

____ 101. Which of the following statements best describes the rule of Shah Jahan?



a.

He renounced Islam and made Hinduism the official religion of India.

b.

His chief concern was to expand India’s borders, and the empire reached its greatest size during his reign.

c.

He imposed heavy taxes on the people of India to pay for costly monuments, palaces, and wars.

d.

He continued the agricultural reform legacy of his father, increasing the amount of land farmers were allowed to hold.

____ 102. Control of Constantinople was important to Russia because



a.

Russians considered it a holy city.

b.

it provided access to the Red Sea.

c.

it provided access to the Mediterranean Sea.

d.

most of the world’s amber was mined there.

____ 103. What caused the English Civil War?



a.

Elizabeth I’s death with no heir

c.

Charles I’s decision to arrest Puritan leaders in Parliament for treason

b.

Parliament’s vote to bring back the monarchy

d.

division over the Act of Supremacy

____ 104. Industrialization had which of the following effects on middle-class people?



a.

They now had time and money to spend on leisure.

b.

Their standard of living decreased.

c.

They worked harder than ever before.

d.

They became active in the labor movement.

____ 105. What areas did Suleyman I take for the Ottoman Empire?



a.

Eastern Persia, Jerusalem, and Constantinople

c.

Hungary, the eastern Mediterranean, and the North African coast

b.

the eastern coast of Italy, southern Austria, and eastern France

d.

Greece, northern Syria, and northern Egypt


Primary Source 1

That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed,—That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government . . .”

____ 106. The passage labeled “Primary Source 1” is from the

a.

Declaration of Independence.

c.

United States Constitution.

b.

Townshend Acts.

d.

Treaty of Paris.


____ 107. According to the map titled, “The Spread of Protestantism” which country was Anglican?



a.

Sweden

c.

the Holy Roman Empire

b.

England

d.

France

____ 108. By the 1400s, the Ottomans controlled much of



a.

the Arabian Peninsula.

c.

Hungary.

b.

the Balkan Peninsula.

d.

Algeria.

____ 109. The Congress of Vienna did which of the following?



a.

restored Louis XVIII to the French throne

b.

fulfilled hopes of ethnic groups who wanted to govern themselves

c.

formed democratic republics across Europe

d.

supported democratic reforms in areas conquered by Napoleon

Here was the greatest misery that I have seen in my whole life. An endless wailing of wounded and dying men. . . most of them had received nothing to eat for days.”

Alois Dorner, German Soldier, January 1943

____ 110. Read the quote by Alois Dorner. In the quote, this German soldier was referring to



a.

the Battle of Stalingrad.

c.

the Battle of Midway.

b.

the Battle of Britain.

d.

the Bataan Death March.

____ 111. Charles Darwin’s book, On the Origin of Species, was controversial because it



a.

suggested there were patterns among elements in the periodic table.

c.

justified withholding welfare from the poor.

b.

differed from the creation story in the Bible.

d.

stated that all human diseases could be cured.

____ 112. Who controlled the spice trade in Southeast Asia starting in the 1600s and 1700s?



a.

the French

c.

the Germans

b.

the Dutch

d.

the British

____ 113. King Philip decided to invade England in order to



a.

stop the seadogs and return England to the Catholic Church.

c.

satisfy his suspicions about spies based in England.

b.

convert it to Anglicanism.

d.

rob its treasury of gold and silver.

____ 114. The Soviets most likely responded to the Allied invasion of western North Africa with



a.

promises to send military support, including soldiers.

c.

relief that the invasion would draw troops away from Soviet territory.

b.

disappointment that the Allies chose to delay invading Europe.

d.

distrust because Soviet troops were being used in a lost cause.

____ 115. Which best describes conditions in Russia on the eve of World War I?



a.

Russia was a troubled country, with a worsening economy and an ineffective ruler.

c.

The provisional government that was put into place after the revolution resisted entering the war.

b.

Russia had a strong economy, and a recent revolution had put an effective leadership into government.

d.

Russian nobles wanted to overthrow the czar and claim Russia for themselves.

____ 116. Many colonial people volunteered to fight for the Allied forces because they



a.

hoped their service would win their colony’s independence.

c.

believed in the German cause.

b.

supported the terrorist acts used by the Serbians.

d.

hated Communism.

____ 117. Who wrote the first draft of the Declaration of Independence?



a.

Thomas Paine

c.

John Adams

b.

John Locke

d.

Thomas Jefferson

____ 118. What was the Zimmermann Note?



a.

the German policy of attacking all ships entering or leaving Great Britain

b.

Wilson’s speech detailing reasons why the United States should remain neutral

c.

a note left behind by a suicide bomber in Serbia

d.

a proposal by a German official that Mexico attack the United States in return for territory

____ 119. Why did the British government create the Canadian dominion?



a.

to provide a market for British goods

b.

to create a buffer zone between Canadian colonies and the United States

c.

to exploit the territory’s vast natural resources

d.

to keep the colonies from rebelling against British rule

____ 120. The increasingly educated population, explosion of newspapers, and the telegraph made a career in which of the following possible in the late 1880s?



a.

journalism

c.

art

b.

carpentry

d.

teaching

____ 121. What recent invention allowed the British to more effectively defend against German air attacks?



a.

trench warfare

c.

the submarine

b.

the sitzkrieg

d.

radar

____ 122. The Ottoman Empire was founded by



a.

Osman I.

c.

Timur.

b.

Mehmed II.

d.

Orhan I.

____ 123. What did the Edict of Worms decree about Martin Luther?



a.

It named him leader of the Catholic Church.

b.

It named him king of Germany.

c.

It made him an outlaw and condemned his writings.

d.

It excommunicated him.

____ 124. How did the Zimmermann Note affect American neutrality?



a.

It led to strong public support for U.S. entry into the war.

b.

It made American leaders more resolved to safeguard their neutral rights.

c.

It led the United States to attack Mexico.

d.

It led the Allies to beg the United States to support their war effort.

____ 125. Which political faction was the most radical?



a.

the Louisites

c.

the Girondins

b.

the Plain

d.

the Montagnards

____ 126. What led the British government to take control of India from the British East India Company?



a.

missionary impulses

c.

the Sepoy Mutiny

b.

the spice trade

d.

the Mughal Revolt

____ 127. The Reform Act of 1832 was passed to address which of the following issues?



a.

widespread alcoholism in Britain

c.

unequal representation in Parliament

b.

harmful conditions for child workers

d.

women’s lack of suffrage

____ 128. Part of the legacy of the French Revolution is that



a.

it has inspired people to fight for their rights in other parts of the world.

b.

all European monarchies became democracies.

c.

it has discouraged revolutions worldwide for 200 years.

d.

citizens’ rights in Europe were never again restricted.

____ 129. What new approach allowed scholars to gain new scientific knowledge?



a.

financing by the Church

c.

the scientific method

b.

universal public education

d.

the Inquisition

____ 130. In addition to personal communication the telegraph was used to



a.

help hearing-impaired students learn to speak.

c.

conduct business and transmit news from far away places quickly.

b.

advance the study of aerodynamics.

d.

speak with loved ones who lived far away.

____ 131. Which of the following proposed the geocentric theory?



a.

Copernicus

c.

Aristotle

b.

Galileo

d.

Johannes Kepler

____ 132. Why was the Revolutionary Tribunal created?



a.

to manage the country’s military defense against foreign forces

c.

to write and approve laws

b.

to eliminate people who threatened the Revolution from within

d.

to write a democratic constitution

____ 133. What caused the War of Austrian Succession?



a.

the Holy Roman Emperor’s attempt to combat Protestantism

c.

the launch of the Spanish Armada

b.

the rivalry between the Hapsburgs and the Hohenzollerns

d.

the death of Frederick the Great without a male heir

____ 134. What were the Young Turks fighting against in 1908?



a.

reforms and a representative government

c.

religious freedom

b.

independence from the Ottoman Empire

d.

the absolute power of the sultan

____ 135. Austria-Hungary opposed the formation of a “greater Serbia” because



a.

its leaders strongly supported the principle that all people should choose their own government.

c.

the government’s policy forbade negotiating with terrorists.

b.

any Serbian expansion might encourage other ethnic groups to rebel.

d.

the Serbs had pledged to join the Triple Entente once they achieved independence.

____ 136. According to Marx and Engels, establishing a society based on cooperation and equal distribution of wealth would require



a.

a revolution.

c.

universal public education.

b.

development of a wealthy industrial class.

d.

an energy crisis.

____ 137. One goal of Louis XIII was to



a.

limit the power of nobles and Huguenots.

c.

conquer Spain.

b.

end the Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre.

d.

conquer England.

____ 138. What led Hitler to believe that European powers would not interfere in his plans for Anschluss?



a.

the nonaggression pact he negotiated with them

c.

England and France’s lack of support for the Republicans in the Spanish Civil War

b.

the Allies’ refusal to help Poland

d.

the lack of direct action to stop his militarization of the Rhineland

____ 139. Who wrote that without government, people’s lives were “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short”?



a.

Hobbes

c.

Locke

b.

Voltaire

d.

Montesquieu

____ 140. Germany attempted to “bleed France white” in the



a.

Second Battle of the Marne.

c.

Battle of Somme.

b.

First Battle of Ypres.

d.

Battle of Verdun.

____ 141. Which of the following countries achieved independence with the least violence and bloodshed?



a.

Bolivia

c.

Brazil

b.

Mexico

d.

Venezuela

____ 142. What enabled the United States to industrialize rapidly?



a.

a strong navy and merchant marine

c.

the enclosure movement

b.

the criminalization of the labor movement

d.

a wealth of natural resources and a large labor force

____ 143. Who was the first czar of Russia?



a.

Ivan I

c.

Ivan IV

b.

Catherine the Great

d.

Frederick the Great

____ 144. For the Soviet Union, what was the turning point in the war in Europe?



a.

their victory at Stalingrad

c.

the end of the Siege of Leningrad

b.

the Battle of Iwo Jima

d.

the Battle of Midway

____ 145. What did Otto von Bismarck mean by the phrase “blood and iron”?



a.

He would continue to fight until he was named emperor.

c.

Prussia would fight to obtain iron.

b.

He would use the Prussian military as a force for German unification.

d.

Germany needed railroads to unite the country.

____ 146. After Napoleon’s exile, France became a(n)



a.

democracy.

c.

republic.

b.

monarchy.

d.

empire.

____ 147. When Charles became Holy Roman Emperor as Charles V



a.

he lost all of Spain’s holdings in the Americas.

c.

he became known as Charlemagne.

b.

his territory grew to include parts of Italy, Austria, and various German states.

d.

he fought to convert all of Europe to Protestantism.



____ 148. Which of the following phrases belongs in Step 5 in the chart titled “The Scientific Method”?



a.

Identify a problem.

c.

Answer the question.

b.

Observe the natural world.

d.

Form a conclusion.

____ 149. What event caused the Great Fear?



a.

the Tennis Court Oath

c.

the assassination of Jean-Paul Marat

b.

the execution of Louis XVI

d.

the fall of the Bastille

____ 150. During its golden age, which of the following helped establish the Safavid Empire as a major Muslim civilization?



a.

a strong naval military, which annexed the eastern coast of Arabia

c.

a religious revival in which all Muslims accepted the Sunni faith

b.

a tourist economy spurred by the growing European middle-classes’s interest in architecture

d.

the manufacture and export of traditional products such as hand-woven Persian carpets

____ 151. France, Russia, and Great Britain made up the



a.

Central Powers.

c.

Triple Entente.

b.

Triple Alliance.

d.

Eastern Block.

____ 152. The French people welcomed Napoleon because



a.

he completely disavowed the ideals of the Revolution.

b.

he promised order after the chaos of the Revolution.

c.

he was the grandson of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette.

d.

they hoped he would help the collapsing French economy.

____ 153. Why did Ming emperors decide to isolate China?



a.

They did not want to divert people’s attention from building the Great Wall.

c.

They thought European weapons might cause the peasants to rebel.

b.

They were disappointed with the tribute gained from Zheng He’s voyages.

d.

They disliked the influence of the Europeans and sought to preserve China’s traditions.

____ 154. The Nazi campaign to imprison inferior people included which of the following targets?



a.

all residents of Allied countries

c.

only Jews

b.

Jews and Aryans

d.

Jews, homosexuals, disabled people, Poles, Slavs, and Gypsies

____ 155. Who led the Second Empire in France?



a.

Charles X

c.

Louis Philippe

b.

Napoleon III

d.

Napoleon I

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