World history semester review



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WORLD HISTORY SEMESTER REVIEW

Multiple Choice

____ 1. Why did American and British forces plan a massive invasion of Western Europe?



a.

to open a second front and put the Axis forces on the defensive

b.

to help the Soviets, who were battling German forces in Stalingrad and Leningrad

c.

to avenge Pearl Harbor

d.

to maintain control of Atlantic shipping routes

____ 2. The ascension of William and Mary to the throne of England became known as the



a.

Glorious Revolution.

c.

English Civil War.

b.

Puritan Revolution.

d.

Restoration.

____ 3. Which of the following leaders most helped to defuse the liberal ideals of the French Revolution?



a.

Charles Maurice de Talleyrand

c.

Frederick William III

b.

Lord Castlereagh

d.

Prince Klemens von Metternich

____ 4. Which of the following published a book supporting the heliocentric theory?



a.

Galen

c.

Descartes

b.

Copernicus

d.

Ptolemy

____ 5. Both Miguel Hidalgo and José María Morelos were



a.

opposed to Iturbide’s proposal.

c.

executed by Spanish authorities.

b.

executed by Portuguese authorities.

d.

peninsulares.

____ 6. What initially delayed the growth of industry in Germany?



a.

a lack of natural resources

c.

the lack of a central government

b.

a reactionary dictatorship

d.

a revolution

____ 7. What development was essential to the expansion of cities to the suburbs?



a.

the emergence of public transportation systems

c.

the invention of the telegraph

b.

the growth of sports

d.

the professionalization of nursing

____ 8. Which of following was written by Denis Diderot in order to promote knowledge?



a.

Candide

c.

Leviathan

b.

the Encyclopedia

d.

Two Treatises on Government

____ 9. Which group was treated most harshly by the U.S. government during World War II?



a.

German Americans

c.

African Americans

b.

Italian Americans

d.

Japanese Americans

____ 10. Which of the following statements most accurately describes the economy of Italy in the years after unification?



a.

Plentiful land and a well-developed transportation network resulted in a nation of small, prosperous farmers.

b.

Rising industry led to rapid urbanization and a modern economy.

c.

The unification of industrial, agricultural, and banking states led to a strong national economy.

d.

Widespread poverty and unemployment led to violence and emigration.

____ 11. Hongwu expanded his power as emperor by



a.

building the Forbidden City and adding high-level officials.

c.

destroying Beijing, the seat of Mongol power.

b.

getting rid of high-level positions in the government, and killing his rivals.

d.

relaxing religious restrictions, creating rituals around his leadership, and moving the capital to Beijing.

____ 12. Which of the following posed theories that brought him into direct conflict with the Church?



a.

Francis Bacon

c.

Ptolemy

b.

Aristotle

d.

Galileo

____ 13. Which of the following groups of people in Latin America were most likely to be revolutionaries?



a.

Indians

c.

peninsulares

b.

Africans

d.

creoles

____ 14. Who argued that people had a right to overthrow a government that does not protect their natural rights?



a.

Voltaire

c.

Hobbes

b.

Newton

d.

Locke

____ 15. Which of the following represents the correct sequence of French rulers?



a.

Charles X, Louis Philippe, Louis Napoleon

c.

Louis Philippe, Charles X, Napoleon III

b.

Charles X, Louis XVIII, Louis Napoleon, Louis Philippe

d.

Napoleon I, Napoleon II, Napoleon III, Louis XVIII

____ 16. How did Agustín de Iturbide become emperor of Mexico?



a.

by overthrowing the democratically-elected government in a bloodless coup d’etat

c.

by marrying the daughter of the king of Spain

b.

by cultivating the favor of the Roman Catholic Church and receiving the title from the pope

d.

by bringing together creoles, peninsulares, royalists, and revolutionaries

____ 17. Absolute monarchs argued that their power must not be challenged because



a.

they were the most intelligent men in their nations.

c.

they ruled by divine right.

b.

they were democratically elected.

d.

the pope had crowned them.

____ 18. Which of the following countries declared war on Germany in 1914 as part of a military agreement with Great Britain?



a.

the Netherlands

c.

Belgium

b.

Japan

d.

New Zealand

____ 19. Which of the following revolutionaries wanted to unite all of South America into the Federation of the Andes?



a.

Simón Bolívar

c.

José María Morelos

b.

Pedro I

d.

José de San Martín

____ 20. What did Benjamin Disraeli, Emmeline Pankhurst, and the Chartists have in common?



a.

All sought to extend the voting rights.

c.

All opposed child labor.

b.

All worked to limit immigration.

d.

All donated large sums of money to orphanages.

____ 21. The Crimean War began because of a dispute over



a.

the Holy Land.

c.

Britain’s borders.

b.

Greek independence.

d.

the crown of Hungary.

____ 22. People who advocated social democracy wanted to



a.

elect Karl Marx president of the United States.

c.

move from capitalism to socialism by democratic means.

b.

move from capitalism to socialism through a revolution.

d.

establish utopias around the world.

____ 23. During the Boston Tea Party, the Sons of Liberty dumped tea into Boston Harbor to



a.

raise money to fight the War for Independence.

c.

get back at Boston merchants.

b.

protest the tax on tea.

d.

protest the Intolerable Acts.

____ 24. One effect of the expansion of the railroads was that



a.

horse-drawn carriages were no longer used.

c.

consumers had a greater choice of low-cost products.

b.

the population of the East declined.

d.

the price of steel rose.

____ 25. Which of the following was a social change influenced by the war?



a.

Universal public education was implemented.

b.

The government took permanent control of heavy industry.

c.

Public views of what women could do were transformed.

d.

All men won the right to vote, regardless of race or class.

____ 26. Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill issued the Atlantic Charter, a document



a.

which established the United Nations.

c.

which affirmed that nations should choose their governments.

b.

that negotiated shipping lanes in the Atlantic.

d.

which asserted their right to territorial gains.

____ 27. How did the radio differ from the telegraph?



a.

The radio was used primarily in the United States, while the telegraph was used mostly in Europe.

c.

The radio became wildly popular by 1900; the telegraph did not.

b.

Radio operators used Morse code; telegraph operators did not.

d.

The telegraph required wires; the radio did not.

____ 28. Nationalism remained a problem under the Dual Monarchy because



a.

ethnic minorities continued to seek self-government.

c.

Magyars felt they should have special privileges.

b.

Marxists spread discontent.

d.

Franz Joseph I was not a strong leader.

____ 29. Karl Marx and Frederick Engels argued that capitalism would inevitably lead to



a.

enslavement of most of the population.

c.

poverty and a workers’ revolution.

b.

an energy crisis.

d.

an extensive welfare state.

____ 30. Which of the following best describes Germany’s position for much of the war?



a.

Germany did not have a military strategy for this war.

c.

All of Germany’s military efforts were focused on Serbia.

b.

Germany was a neutral country.

d.

Germany faced war on two fronts.

____ 31. Which art form or style does the phrase “the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings from emotions recollected in tranquility” represent?



a.

rationalism

c.

Enlightenment thought

b.

romanticism

d.

realism

____ 32. The rights outlined in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen did not extend to



a.

the First Estate.

c.

the bourgeoisie.

b.

the workers.

d.

women.

____ 33. Why were William and Mary crowned king and queen of England?



a.

to end the English Civil War

c.

to prevent a Catholic monarch from occupying the throne

b.

to restore the English monarchy

d.

to prevent a Puritan monarch from occupying the throne

____ 34. Throughout the Napoleonic Wars, France’s greatest enemy was



a.

Portugal.

c.

the Kingdom of Tuscany.

b.

Great Britain.

d.

Austria.

____ 35. Mass production, which created an increase in the quantity of goods produced, led to



a.

more consumer goods available to more people.

c.

higher wages and shorter hours.

b.

an increase in the cost of factory-made goods.

d.

an increase in the number of workers factories needed.

____ 36. German liberals who revolted in 1848 all wanted



a.

a republic.

c.

the Zollverein.

b.

reforms that would promote individual rights.

d.

a constitutional monarchy.

____ 37. Which of the following individuals developed vaccines for anthrax and rabies?



a.

Louis Pasteur

c.

Charles Darwin

b.

Crawford Long

d.

Albert Einstein

____ 38. A region in northwestern England became known as the “black country” because



a.

iron-smelting factories polluted the air.

b.

industries located there were all immensely profitable.

c.

laborers there smudged coal dust on their faces to keep the sun out of their eyes.

d.

the sand on the beaches was dark gray.

____ 39. To represent three-dimensional objects on flat paper, Renaissance artists studied



a.

humanism.

b.

astronomy.

c.

perspective.

d.

the work of Lorenzo de Medici.

____ 40. The Reign of Terror resulted in



a.

a strengthened National Assembly.

c.

peace throughout France.

b.

the election of Robespierre to the presidency.

d.

increased foreign opposition to the French Revolution.

____ 41. How did the Model T differ from earlier automobile models?



a.

It was luxurious.

c.

It used electric power.

b.

It came in many bright colors.

d.

It was affordable.

____ 42. Which of the following began World War II?



a.

the defeat of Franco’s Nationalists

c.

Hitler’s attack on Czechoslovakia

b.

Hitler’s attack on Poland

d.

the Anschluss

____ 43. Bolshevik opponents came to be called



a.

Soviets.

c.

Marxists.

b.

the White Army.

d.

the Red Army.

____ 44. Akbar created unity through much of India by



a.

allowing local governors complete autonomy in governing diverse regions.

c.

stationing military units at strategic points throughout the empire.

b.

forcing conquered people to convert to Islam.

d.

promoting religious tolerance and abolishing taxes on non-Muslims.

____ 45. Britain’s colonial empire fueled the development of industry in that country because



a.

the war machine required quick and efficient production of goods.

c.

colonies provided slave labor for growing industries.

b.

the nation had access to vast amounts of raw materials.

d.

workers in the colonies earned far less than workers in Britain.

____ 46. Increasing numbers of people learned to read after the mid-1400s because



a.

printed materials became more available.

b.

illumination made works of literature extremely beautiful.

c.

most people had ample disposable income.

d.

most people had ample leisure time.

____ 47. Which of the following was one of the first acts of the National Convention?



a.

convening of a Constitutional Convention

b.

the declaration that France was a republic

c.

a declaration of war against England

d.

a declaration of war against Austria

____ 48. Russian Marxists wanted to create what form of government in Russia?



a.

a socialist republic

c.

an autocracy

b.

a Communist dictatorship

d.

a capitalist democracy

____ 49. American colonists objected to the Stamp Act because



a.

the Act restricted the colonists’ trade.

b.

they resented forced conscription in the British military to fight the Seven Years’ War.

c.

contrary to British belief, Americans thought stamps were necessary.

d.

they objected to taxes levied by the British Parliament without representation.

____ 50. According to the concept of natural selection, which of the following birds would be most likely to produce offspring?



a.

one who had been swept hundreds of miles off course to the Galapagos Islands

c.

on who was too sickly to migrate

b.

one with a beak well-adapted to catching insects or picking up seeds

d.

one with a bright color and a sweet song

____ 51. The goal of Peter I was to



a.

introduce democratic reforms to Russia.

c.

kill the son of Ivan the Terrible to prevent his ascension to the throne.

b.

end the Thirty Years’ War.

d.

transform Russia into a modern state.

____ 52. Decisions made by the Congress of Berlin in 1878 resulted in



a.

many years of ethnic conflicts in the Balkans.

b.

the collapse of the Ottoman Empire.

c.

the collapse of Austria-Hungary.

d.

the end of the Crimean War.


Decree on Land

All private ownership of land is abolished immediately without compensation [payment to the owners]. All landowners’ estates and all land belonging to the Crown, to monasteries, church lands and all their livestock and. . . property. . . are transferred to the disposition of [control of] the township Land Committees. . .”

____ 53. The policy described in the quote from Decree on Land was put in place by which of the following?

a.

the Russian monarch

c.

the Russian czar

b.

Bolsheviks

d.

Russian capitalists

____ 54. What was the immediate result of trench warfare?



a.

massive deadlock

c.

an easy victory for the Central Powers

b.

an easy victory for the Allied Powers

d.

fewer casualties on both sides

____ 55. What led scientists to study the natural world more closely in the mid-1500s?



a.

the death of Aristotle

c.

a series of natural disasters

b.

Thomas Paine’s pamphlet

d.

exploration

____ 56. The revolutionary group later referred to as the Decembrists included many military officers



a.

who refused to declare allegiance to the new czar.

c.

who defected to Germany.

b.

who became pacifists and refused to stay in the army.

d.

who overthrew the czar in a military coup.

____ 57. Which of the following was one factor that allowed Britain to industrialize first?



a.

a strong army

c.

widespread famine

b.

British colonies

d.

government-owned factories

____ 58. Europeans outside of France reacted to the execution of Louis XVI with



a.

glee.

c.

horror.

b.

grief.

d.

relief.

____ 59. Which of the following was a negative result of the growth of the textile industry in Great Britain?



a.

the expansion of agriculture in India

c.

the spread of slavery in the United States

b.

the huge population growth in the country

d.

fewer cotton farms in Great Britain

____ 60. Which of the following battles signified a turning point in the Allied Powers’ favor in the war?



a.

the Battle of Verdun

c.

the Battle of Caporetto

b.

the Second Battle of the Marne

d.

the Battle of the Frontiers

____ 61. Which of the following statements best describes trade between Japan and Europe by 1650?



a.

Japan had ceased to trade with any European nations at all.

c.

Japan was trading only with the Dutch.

b.

Japanese trade was flourishing, particularly with Portugal, Holland, and Spain.

d.

Trade agreements with European nations had undermined Japan’s economy.


____ 62. Study the chart titled “The Scientific Method.” Which of the following phrases belongs in Step 2 in the chart?



a.

Ask a question.

c.

Form a hypothesis that can be tested.

b.

Observe the natural world.

d.

Prove or disprove the hypothesis.


____ 63. Which of the following Mexican revolutionaries gathered support from the lowest classes and forced Porfirio Díaz to resign as president?



a.

Francisco “Pancho” Villa and Emiliano Zapata

c.

Benito Juarez and Francisco “Pancho” Villa

b.

Francisco Madero and Francisco “Pancho” Villa

d.

Emiliano Zapata and Francisco Madero

____ 64. Charles V gave up his thrones in 1556 because he



a.

no longer enjoyed the support of the pope.

c.

feared his sons would assassinate him.

b.

was terminally ill.

d.

was frustrated by failure in Europe.

____ 65. Indian nationalism became more radical when the British announced plans to partition



a.

Kashmir.

c.

Calcutta.

b.

Bengal.

d.

the Northwest Provinces.

____ 66. The October Manifesto was issued in response to



a.

the Russian Revolution of 1905.

c.

the Franco-Prussian War.

b.

the assassination of Alexander II.

d.

Bloody Sunday.

____ 67. The Continental System restricted



a.

trade with Great Britain.

c.

freedom of speech and of the press.

b.

trade with French possessions in Asia.

d.

the rights of women.

____ 68. Planters in the Americas began to use African slaves for labor because



a.

Aztecs refused to work on plantations.

b.

disease had killed millions of Native Americans.

c.

African slaves were less expensive than Native American slaves.

d.

they believed Native Americans were not human.

____ 69. The dynasty that ruled Korea from the late 14th century to the early 20th century was the



a.

Tokugawa.

c.

Turtle.

b.

Confucian.

d.

Choson.

____ 70. According to Sigmund Freud, mental illness could be caused by



a.

repressed thoughts in the unconscious mind.

c.

a concussion.

b.

a chemical imbalance in the brain.

d.

an inherited trait.

____ 71. Which of the following was one factor that allowed European nations to extend their control over Asia and Africa after 1800?



a.

European democratic traditions

c.

the rise of great empires in Asia and North Africa

b.

the superiority of European trading networks

d.

military advantages such as superior weapons

____ 72. John Kay’s invention of the “flying shuttle” led to



a.

the invention of the spinning jenny.

c.

the expansion of slavery in Great Britain.

b.

a rise in the price of cloth.

d.

many weavers losing their jobs.

____ 73. The Treaty of Nanjing



a.

strengthened the Qing dynasty.

c.

benefited European countries at the expense of China.

b.

allowed the Chinese to try British citizens in Chinese courts.

d.

returned Shanghai to the Chinese.

____ 74. Who was the first leader of an independent Brazil?



a.

Pedro I

c.

Antonio Nariño

b.

Simón Bolívar

d.

John VI

____ 75. Which of the following resulted from the October Revolution in Russia?



a.

Russia became a communist country.

c.

Russia negotiated for peace with the Allies.

b.

A provisional government was formed.

d.

The Soviet Union was formed.

____ 76. Which of the following best describes the food exchange between Europe and the Americas?



a.

Europeans brought wheat, sugar, and sheep to the Americas, and took corn, potatoes, and turkeys to Europe.

b.

Europeans brought coffee, corn, and potatoes to the Americas, and took rice, wheat, and oranges to Europe.

c.

Europeans brought squash, peanuts, and tobacco to the Americas, and took sheep, turkeys, and pigs to Europe.

d.

Europeans brought tomatoes, potatoes, and wheat to the Americas, and took horses, beans, and rubber to Europe.

____ 77. How did industrialization hurt skilled craft workers working in cottage industry?



a.

by shifting populations from countryside to city

c.

by leading to a shortage of raw materials

b.

by leading to a labor movement that raised wages

d.

by undercutting prices for their products

____ 78. Who became known as the Sun King?



a.

Louis XIV

c.

Henry IV

b.

Cardinal Richelieu

d.

Louis XIII

____ 79. Why did Britain begin exporting opium to China?



a.

to improve the health of Chinese citizens

c.

to change the balance of trade in favor of Britain

b.

to prevent opium from going to British subjects

d.

to make colonization of China easier

____ 80. Henry IV was able to claim the throne of France because he



a.

converted to Catholicism.

b.

converted to Protestantism.

c.

fought a successful civil war.

d.

ordered the Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre.

____ 81. Which of the following monarchs is history’s best example of an absolute monarch?



a.

Philip II

c.

Henry IV

b.

Charles II

d.

Louis XIV

The stench of the hold. . . was so intolerably loathsome, that it was dangerous to remain there for any time. . . The closeness of the place, and the heat of the climate. . . almost suffocated us. . . The shrieks of the women, and the groans of the dying, rendered the whole scene of horror almost inconceivable.”

Olaudah Equiano, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, 1789

____ 82. In the passage by Olaudah Equiano, he describes



a.

an encomienda.

c.

plantation life.

b.

indentured servitude.

d.

a slave ship.

____ 83. What caused the War of the Spanish Succession?



a.

Louis XIV’s desire to have the Spanish throne for his son

b.

the bankruptcy of France

c.

Elizabeth I’s death with no heir

d.

the ascension of a Huguenot to the French throne
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