World History Semester 2 Final Study Guide
1. What was the Scientific Revolution and how or why did it begin?
2. Name each of the important contributions of the people listed below:
Copernicus, Brahe, Kepler, Galileo, Newton, Jansen, Van Leeuwenhoek, Torricelli, Fahrenheit, Celsius, Vesalius, Jenner, Boyle.
3. What is the difference between the geocentric theory and the heliocentric theory/
4. What is the scientific method, how is it used, and how is it different from previous methods used earlier? List the steps of the scientific method in order.
1. What was the Enlightenment?
2. Name the type of government each person, listed below, favored and what book they wrote, and how they affected our own government or society, if they did.
Hobbes, Locke, Voltaire, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Beccaria, Wollstonecraft
3. What are Locke’s three natural rights a man is born with? How is it different from the declaration of Independence?
4. Who are philosophes and what are the 5 main concepts they believe in?
5. What are the three branches of government? What is the point of checks and balances?
6. Compare and Contrast Locke’s ideas and Rousseau’s ideas.
7. How were women treated in the Beginning of the Enlightenment and how were treated as the Enlightenment progressed?
8. What are the three long term effect of the enlightenment and describe them?
1. How did the Enlightenment spread and what were the ideals seen in?
2. What are saloons?
3. What is Diderot’s Encyclopedia?
4. What is the difference between baroque and neoclassical styles?
5. What was the new kind of music called and name some famous composers?
6. How did literature change name some pieces of work?
7. What does an enlightened despot mean and name some rulers and how they changed their country. Focus mostly on some of the specifics on Catherine the Great
1. Name all the acts and taxes and put them in chronological order.
2. What did the British do in order to pay the debts of the French and Indian war and how did the colonists feel/
3. What caused the Boston Tea Party and what happened? What was the effect?
4. Describe what happened in both of the Continental Congresses.
5. Who wrote the Declaration of Independence?
6. Name some reasons for the colonist’s success.
7. After independence what happened to the government, how did they try to solve the problem and what was their new government called?
8. What is the bill of rights; name some of the basic human rights?
1. What was the Old Regime and which country was it in?
2. Describe the jobs and lives of all three estates.
3. How did the enlightenment ideas affect the Third Estate?
4. Why was the meeting of the Estates-General called?
5. What was the National Assembly and what was the cause and the effect of it?
6. What was the Tennis Court Oath?
7. What was the storming of Bastille?
8. What was the Great fear and what was the cause and effect?
1. What were some of the rights men had according to the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen? Were women treated the same way?
2. What happened due to the assembly taking over the church?
3. What government did they eventually put? What was the Legislative Assembly and what power did they have?
4. How was the Legislative Assembly split and what were the polices?
5. There were factions that also wanted to have some power, name them and describe their polices and what they did to try to exert their own power?
6. What was the cause of the war in 1792 and what happened because of it? What was the new governing body and what did it want?
7. Who were the Jacobins?
8. Who is Maximilien Robespierre? What is the republic of virtue? What is the reign of terror and what is the job of The Committee of Public Safety?
9. What is the Directory?
1. What method did Napoleon use to take over and what does it mean?
2. What is a plebiscite?
3. How did he fix the economy and the corrupt government?
4. What are lycées?
5. What is a concordat and how did signing one increase Napoleon’s power?
6. What is the Napoleonic Code?
7. What were some of the benefits Napoleon got from selling the Louisiana territory to the U.S.?
8. What happened at the battle of Trafalgar important and what was the effect of this outcome?
1. Name some of the reasons for Napoleon’s fall.
2. What was the Continental System?
3. What happened in the Peninsular War?
4. What is the scorched-earth policy and why was it a mistake for Napoleon going to Russia?
5. After Napoleon was exiled why was he welcomed back by the people of France?
6. What happened at Waterloo and what was the Hundred Days?
1. What was the Congress of Vienna and when did it take place?
2. Who was Prince Clemens von Metternich and what three things did he want to happen? What did the Congress do to make those happen?
3. What is legitimacy?
4. How did governments differ between the countries?
5. What were the Holy Alliance and the Concert of Europe?
6. How did the French Revolution influence the people and about what? Why did this scare some of the political leaders?
7. What began happening in Latin America due to the French Revolution?
8. What was the long-lasting legacy of the Congress of Vienna?
1. How was the ladder of society in Latin America structured? Describe the people and what jobs they could have.
2. Who was Toussaint L’Overture and what did he do?
3. Why did Jean-Jacques Dessalines take over and what did he do?
4. Why did the creoles revolt in Latin America?
5. Who was Simón Bolívar and what did he do?
6. Who was José de San Martin and what did he do?
7. What happened when the forces met up and what did they do after that?
8. Who was Padre Miguel Hidalgo and what did he do?
9. Who was José María Morelos what did he do?
10. How and why did creoles get Mexico’s independence?
11. How did Central America and Brazil get their own independence?
1. What are the 3 groups who thought their type of government was good? What were their beliefs and what kind of people thought these ideas?
2. What is nationalism?
3. What is a nation-state?
4. What was the Balkans?
5. Who was Louis-Napoleon and what did he do?
6. Who was Alexander II and what did he do? What happened after he died?
1. How did different people think about nationalism?
2. Describe what happens in the Austrian Empire, the Russian Empire, and the Ottoman and why does this happen?
3. What is Russification?
Who is Count Camillo di Cavour and how did he help Sardinia gain land?
4. Who is Giuseppe Garibaldi and how did he help Sardinia gain land? Why was his group named the Red Shirts?
5. What section of Italy did the pope control?
6. Who is Wilhelm and why did he chose Otto von Bismarck as his prime minister?
7. Who are Junkers?
8. What is realpolitik?
9. What caused the Seven Week’s war and what resulted due to it?
10. What caused the Franco-Prussian war and what resulted due to it?
11. Who became Kaiser and what does it mean? What is the first and second Reich?
1. What view did intellectuals and artists begin to express?
2. What is romanticism and what are some of its ideals?
3. Who are George Gordon and Lord Bryon and what did they do?
4. How did romanticism affect literature, music, and plays name some specific people and pieces of work?
5. What is realism and why and when does the world switch over to it?
6. How is photography improved and how does it help show realism?
7. How is literature affected?
8. What impressionism and name some famous painters who used this style?
9. How is music affected?
1. What is the Industrial Revolution and where did it begin?
2. What are enclosures and what were they used for?
3. What is crop rotation and what other techniques and inventions helped the Agricultural Revolution?
4. Why did many farmers become factory workers?
5. What is industrialization? What are some natural resources and what were they used for?
6. How and why did industrialization increase?
7. What is meant by the factors of production and what are they?
8. What inventions helped the textile industry grow, describe the inventions and tell the order they were made in?
9. What is a factory?
10. Name some inventions that improved transportation and what this did to the world?
11. What are entrepreneurs?
1. What is urbanization and why did people move to the city?
2. How were living conditions and working conditions in the cities during the 1800s?
3. Who got the money from the Industrialization Revolution and who made up the middle class?
4. How did the working class feel about working conditions? Who were the Luddites and what did they do?
5. What were some of the long-term effects of the Industrial Revolution, good and bad?
6. What was the Factory Act and what did it do?
1. How did the textile industry start in the U.S.?
2. What helped the technological boom happen in the U.S?
3. Why and how did Chicago and Minneapolis prosper?
4. What are stocks, corporations, and stockholders?
5. What did corporations try to do?
6. How and why did Belgium, Germany, and other European countries go into industrialization? Why did some European countries not industrialize?
7. Why did the gap in wealth increase between countries?
8. How did society change?
1. How did different people want the government to act?
2. What does laissez faire mean?
3. Who is Adam Smith and what are the three natural laws of economics?
4. What is capitalism?
5. Who are Thomas Malthus and David Ricardo and what did they believe in?
6. What is utilitarianism?
7. Who are Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill and what did they believe in?
8. Who is Robert Owen and what did he do?
9. What is socialism and how does it differ from capitalism? What do socialists believe?
10. Who are Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels and what do they believe in?
11. What does proletariat and bourgeoisie mean and who are they?
12. What is communism?
13. What are unions and strikes?
14. What do the combination acts do and what eventually happened to them?
15. What is the AFL?
16. What are Factory act of 1833, Mine Act, and the Ten Hours Act of 1847?
17. What is the National Child Labor Committee?
18. How and why did slavery get abolished?
19. How and why did women fight for their rights?
20. What did Jane Addams do?
21. What other areas were affect by reforms?
1. How did the House of Lords and commons change in Britain?
2. What does suffrage mean?
3. What did Reform Bill of 1832 do and why was it passed?
4. What was the Chartist movement and what party was made because of it? What did the party want?
5. Why did members of Parliament have to be rich?
6. Who was Queen Victoria and what happened to Britain in the Victorian Age?
7. Why didn’t many people want women to vote?
8. What is the WSPU and who was the leader?
9. What was the Third Republic and where was it located?
10. What was the Dreyfus affair and what happened because of it?
11. What are anti-Semitism and Zionism?
12. Who are Émile Zola and Theodor Herzl?
1. What did the British do to stop the French people and the English people from fighting?
2. Why was Lord Durham sent and what did he suggest?
3. What is a dominion?
4. Who are the Maori and the Aborigines?
5. What is a penal colony?
6. Why did people begin to settle in Australia?
7. How was Australia different from Canada?
8. Describe Australia’s and New Zealand’s government?
9. What began to happen to the native people?
10. When did Ireland formally join Britain?
11. What were the effects of the Greta famine?
12. Some Irish wanted independence, but more of them preferred home rule, what is home rule?
13. Just as Britain was about to give home rule, what happened?
14. What was the IRA do and what did they accomplish?
15. What did Eamon De Valera do for Ireland?
1. What was manifest destiny?
2. What was the Trail of Tears and what caused it?
3. How did the U.S get Texas?
4. Why did Mexico declare war on the U.S and what did we gain from winning?
5. How did the North and South’s economies and ideas about the west differ?
6. What was the direct cause of the southern sates seceding and what does secede mean?
7. What advantages did the North have that allowed them to beat the South?
8. What did the Emancipation Proclamations do?
9. What do the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments do?
10. What did the South encourage after federal troops left?
11. What did the railroads do for the U.S.?
1. What kinds of new power were coming in the late 1800’s?
2. Name Edison’s three main inventions.
3. How did Alexander Bell’s and Guglielmo Marconi’s inventions affect communication?
4. How did Henry Ford make cars cheap and affordable and what is an assembly?
5. Who are the Wright brothers and what did they do?
6. What did Louis Pasteur find out and what is pasteurization?
7. What did Joseph Lister do?
8. What public officials and medical researchers do that helped people live longer?
9. Who is Charles Darwin and what was his theory of evolution?
10. What did Mendel find out?
11. What did Dalton, Mendeleev, and the Curies each discover?
12. What is radioactivity?
13. What did Ernest Rutherford suggest?
14. What is phycology and what does Ivan Pavlov believe?
15. What does Sigmund Freud believe in?
16. What is mass culture?
17. What did people do for entertainment?
1. What is imperialism?
2. Why couldn’t Europeans control that much land in Africa until the late 1800’s?
3. What was Henry Stanley’s job the first time in the Congo
4. What did King Leopold II ask Stanley to do and what did he use the lands for? Who took the lands away?
5. Why drove European countries to colonize Africa?
6. What is racism and Social Darwinism?
7. What things allowed the Europeans to finally go and take over parts of Africa?
8. What was the point of the Berlin Conference?
9. What happened between the Zulus and Britain? Who was Shaka?
10. Who are Boers and why were they fighting the British and about what?
11. What was the Boer War and what happened in it? What was the cause of it?
1. What are the different ways the African colonies were controlled and explain them?
2. What is the difference between indirect control and direct control?
3. What is paternalism and assimilation?
4. What was the Royal Niger Company?
5. Why was Nigeria so complicated to control?
6. What happened in the rebellions in Algeria, West Africa, and German East Africa?
7. Ethiopia had the only successful rebellion, why did they win, but not the others? Who is Menelik II?
8. What were some of the positive and negative effects of Europeans coming? Which were more positive effects or negative effect?
1. Why was the Ottoman Empire losing power?
2. What does geopolitics mean? Why was the land of the Ottoman Empire wanted so badly?
3. What was the cause of the Crimean War and why happened because of it?
4. Who was Florence Nightingale and what did she do?
5. What was “The Great Game”
6. Who is Muhammad Ali and what reforms did he pass in Egypt?
7. What is the Suez Canal and who had control of it first? Who eventually got control of it?
8. What is a concession and why did Persia grant some?
9. What happened after Nasir al-Din sold a tobacco concession to Persia?
10. How did the government change in 1906 and in 1907?
1. What are sepoys?
2. Why was India a “jewel in a crown”?
3. Why did the railroad system and wars make India more valuable?
4. What were some of the positive and negative effects of British colonialism on India?
5. What was the Sepoy Mutiny and what caused it? What was the effect of it?
6. Why couldn’t the Indians unite?
7. What does the term Raj mean?
8. Who was Ram Mohun Roy and what did he help do? Why did Indians hate the system that made them second-class citizens? What 3 ideas did the Indians start thinking about?
9. What were the two nationalist parties? What did they focus on?
10. What event also inflamed nationalists?
1. What is the Pacific Rim? Why did the European countries want these islands?
2. What was the Dutch East Indies? How did they get that land?
3. What colonies did Britain take? What did France take?
4. What was the colonial impact?
5. Why did Siam stay independent? How did King Mongkut use that to their advantage?
6. How did the U.S get the Philippines and the other islands? Who is Emilio Aguinaldo and what did he say that the U.S. promised? What did he do in response and what did the U.S. do after?
7. What the U.S do after the war was over?
8. What is annexation? What caused people to push forward for the annexation of Hawaii?
9. Who was Queen Liliuokalani and what happened to her? What happened to the government after her?
1. Why did China not need much from other countries? What did other countries want from China?
2. How did the British get the Chinese to buy items?
3. What happened in the Opium War? What did Britain gain because of the Opium War?
4. What are extraterritorial rights?
5. What caused the Taiping Rebellion and what was it? What resulted because of it?
6. Who was the Dowager Empress Cixi and what did she do?
7. Why did many countries attack China and what did they gain from this?
8. What is a sphere of influence?
9. What is the Open Door Policy and why was it proposed?
10. What did Guangxu try to do? How was he stopped?
11. What caused the Boxer Rebellion and what happened? What was the effect of it?
12. How did China try to reform its government?
1. What did the U.S. do to get Japan to trade with other Countries? What were the terms of the Treaty of Kanagawa?
2. Why did the Japanese people want Mutsuhito to take over? What was his reign called and what did he do?
3. How did modernizing pay off for Japan?
4. What was the Sino-Japanese war and what caused it? What was the effect of it?
5. What was the Russo-Japanese War and what caused it? What was the effect of it?
6. What steps did Japan take in annexing Korea? How did they treat Koreans?
7. What was the yellow peril and what caused it?
1. How did Landowners treat the workers?
2. Why couldn’t Latin America’s economy develop?
3. Who are caudillos?
4. How did the government usually work?
5. How did new inventions help increase trade in Latin America?
6. What usually happened when Latin America usually borrowed money?
7. What was the Monroe Doctrine?
8. Who is José Martí and what did he do? How did Cuba try to gain its independence?
9. Why did the U.S. help Cuba? What happened in the Spanish-American War?
10. Why was Cuba mad at the U.S. at the end of the war?
11. Why did the U.S. encourage Panama to revolt?
12. What is the Panama Canal?
13. What is the Roosevelt Corollary?
1. Who is Antonio López de Santa Anna and how did he stay in power?
2. What happened to Mexico due to the Texas revolt?
3. What happened as a result of the U.S. annexing Texas? What happened to Santa Anna?
4. Who is Benito Juárez and what happened to him?
5. What is La Reforma?
6. What happened, when the French invaded Mexico?
7. Who was Porfirio Díaz and how was he different from Juárez?
8. Who was Francisco Madero and what did he try to do?
9. Who was Francisco “Pancho” Villa and what did he do?
10. Who was Emiliano Zapata and what did he do?
11. Who was General Victoriano Huerta and what did he do?
12. Who was Venustiano Carranza and what did he do?
13. Describe Mexico’s new constitution?
14. What is the PRI?
1. What is militarism? What four things contributed to the start of WWI?
2. What countries were in the Triple Alliance? What countries were in the Triple Entente?
3. Who is Kaiser Wilhelm II and why kind of person is he?
4. What is the “powder keg” of Europe?
5. Why did Austria-Hungary oppose Serbia’s nationalism and what did they do in 1908 to stop Serbia from gaining more power?
6. What happened in the capital of Bosnia that infuriated Austria-Hungary? What did Austria do in response?
7. What did Serbia do when it answered the ultimatum? What followed that?
1. Who were the Central Powers and who were the Allies? What happened to Italy?
2. Where was the Western Front?
3. What was the Schlieffen Plan? How well did it work out?
4. How did winning the first battle of Marne affect the war greatly?
5. What is trench warfare?
6. What new weapons were used in this war?
7. Describe the Battle of the Somme
8. Where was the Eastern Front?
9. Why was Russia having a hard time fighting in the war?
1. Why did the Allies attack the Ottoman Empire?
2. How the war Gallipoli going?
3. What is unrestricted submarine warfare? What is the Zimmerman Note?
4. What eventually lead the U.S. joining the war?
5. What is total war?
6. What is rationing and propaganda?
7. How did women help in the war?
8. Why some reasons Russia withdraw and what happens to the government?
9. How does the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk help Germany?
10. Describe how and why Germany collapses. What is an armistice?
11. What was the legacy of WWI?
1. Who are the Big Four in the Paris Peace Conference?
2. What are the Fourteen Points? Name some of them? What is self-determination?
3. What was the Treaty of Versailles and what was some of the stuff in it?
4. What was the League of Nations? Why did the U.S. reject it? Did it have any real power?
5. What new nations were created?
6. How did the people of Germany feel about the treaty?
7. Why did Japan and Italy not feel satisfied?
1. How did Alexander III try to keep Russia under control?
2. What are pogroms?
3. How did rapid industrialization change Russia? What is the Trans-Siberian Railway?
4. What happened as a result of factories? What revolutionary movements happened due to those factors?
5. What does proletariat mean?
6. How do the Russian Marxists split up?
7. Who is Lenin and what happens to him in the early 1900s?
8. What events weakened the czar and how?
9. What was Duma?
10. Who was Rasputin?
11. What happened in the March Revolution?
12. Who takes over after Nicholas II? What kind of government do they set up?
13. What happens as the war drags on?
14. What were Soviets?
15. Why does Germany help Lenin get home?
16. What do the Bolshevik Red Guards do in November 1917?
17. What does Lenin do about the land and the factories once he gets home?
18. Why does a civil war start in Russia? What was the White Army?
19. What happens in the civil war? Who is Leon Trotsky?
20. What are the effects of the Russian Revolution?
21. What does Lenin do to try to restore the economy?
22. What did the Bolsheviks rename their party into and why?
23. How does Stalin gain power?
1. What is totalitarianism? What methods does Stalin use to achieve it?
2. What was the Great Purge?
3. What is a command economy?
4. What are the Five-Year Plans and what is the point of them?
5. What are collective farms and what are the effects of them?
6. How do women’s rights increase under Stalin?
1. What is Kuomintang and who is its first leader?
2. What are the three principles of the people?
3. Why did a civil war break out and who had most of the power?
4. What is the May Fourth Movement?
5. Who is the leader of the communist party and what did that person believe in?
6. Who befriends China?
7. Who takes over Sun’s spot and what did he believe in?
8. What happened when the nationalists and communists fought?
9. What was the Long March?
10. Why is the civil war suspended?
1. How did people feel about the British lying?
2. What was the Rowlatt Acts and why were they passed?
3. What happens at the Amritsar Massacre?
4. Who was Mohandas K. Gandhi and how did he approached the independence movements? What does Mahatma mean?
5. What is civil disobedience and why was it endorsed?
6. How did the boycotts, strikes, and demonstrations affect the British?
7. Why did the Salt March happen and what happened?
8. What does Britain finally give India and what tensions were raised because of it?
9. Who is Mustafa Kemal and what reforms did he want?
10. Who was Persia’s new leader and what was the name of the country changed to? Who reforms did he put?
11. What happened to Saudi Arabia?
12. How does oil affect the development of some countries