World history I review unit I: global concepts



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WORLD HISTORY I

REVIEW

UNIT I: GLOBAL

CONCEPTS


A. What is culture? The way of life of a given group of people.

  1. What are things that make one culture different from an other? Language, religion, customs

  2. What is the importance of language? communication

  3. What is the purpose of government? Provide order and structure and prevent chaos

  4. What does codified mean? Written down

  5. What is the importance of things that are codified? people know what the law is and it’s consequences

  6. ETHNOCENTRICITY- believing in the superiority of your culture.



B. What is the importance of BELIEF SYSTEMS to a culture? Cultural code of conduct.

  1. Monotheism-belief in one god

  2. Polytheism-belief in many gods

  3. Divine Right/Mandate of Heaven-the right to rule comes from God

4. With the help of Copernicus and Galileo, what challenged

religion (the Catholic Church)? Heliocentric theory

  1. People like scientists and philosopher used what to challenge

The church?Science and reason.

C. Political Systems/Social Order, what's the purpose? Establish order
1.Hierarchy-rigid social structure – everyone has a defined role

  1. Label two examples of hierarchies:




Feudalism Medieval Europe Feudalism in Japan Caste System in India
2. What was the process of being able to move up a social ladder or hierarchy known as? Social mobility

  1. In civilizations prior to 1500 CE, if you were wealthy and powerful you owned much? land

  2. What does CE stand for?Common era

  3. Government ruled by king or queen? monarchy

  4. Government where citizens vote directly for leader? Direct democracy


D. Economics:

1. Prior to the Neolithic Revolution, people obtained food by? hunting and gathering

2.Paleolithic Civilization? old stone age

3.Neolithic Revolution? New stone age

4.Barter System? Economic system based on trade

  1. When people produce just enough to survive? subsistence

  2. Society based on farming? Agrarian

  3. What is the name of the economy based on the exchange of goods and services? barter

  4. A coastline suitable for trade is? Irregular

  5. When one nation relies on another? Interdependence


E. Geography, what is it? Study of the earth and its features

1.The earliest civilization were located along? rivers

2. Why? Food, water, trade, transportation

3. What impact does geography have on an area? (use examples)

a)Rivers- cultural diffusion

b)Mountains- Protect/Isolate

  1. c)Deserts Protect/Isolate



  1. When nations or cultures exchange good and ideas, it is known as, cultural diffusion

  2. When one country (bigger) takes over another country (smaller) for political, social and economical benefits imperialism



F. Comparisons: Define the following, how are they different?
TRADITIONAL SOCIETY MODERN SOCIETY
1. Hierarchy vs. Democracy

ascribed status achieved status

(born into) (earned placement)
2. Agricultural vs. Industrial

farming machine
3. Geocentric vs. Heliocentric

earth is the center sun is the center of the

of the universe universe


UNIT II

GEOGRAPHY


  1. Geography? Study of the earth and its features




  1. Geography concerns? People - environmentplants/animals.


2. 5 Themes of Geography:

  1. Location

  2. Place

  3. Human/environment interaction

  4. Movement

  5. Region




  1. What are two types of location? absolute (exact) and

Relative (description of a place in relation to another)


  1. Geographic Tools and Measurements:

  1. Globe

a. It shows?Earth as a sphere


  1. Maps

a. Physical-geographic/natural features

  1. Political-man-made, shows boundaries/borders




  1. Imaginary Lines

  1. Equator-0 degrees latitude

  2. Prime Meridian-0 degrees longitude – stretches from the North Pole to the South Pole

  3. Hemisphere-North/South and East/West

  4. Latitude-run north and south of Equator

  5. Longitude-measure east or west of the Prime Meridian



  1. Geographic Features are: natural/physical




  1. MOUNTAINS, what is their role? Protect/isolate

  1. Examples:

MOUNTAIN RANGE NATION/AREA

Himalayas South Asia

Andes South America



  1. DESERTS-arid land

  1. Examples:

DESERT NATION/AREA

Sahara North Africa

Gobi China


  1. OCEANS, role?Trade, transportation

  1. Examples:

OCEANS BORDER WHAT CONTINENTS

Atlantic N+S America, Africa, Europe

Pacific N+S America, Asia

Indian Africa and Asia


  1. RIVERS, function? Cultural diffusion, trade, transportation

a.Examples:

RIVERS NATION

Nile Egypt

Amazon Brazil

Rhine Western Europe


  1. CLIMATE, effects on an area? How people adapt to it

  1. Examples:

CLIMATE AREA OF WORLD

Tropical Brazil

Arid/Dry North Africa


  1. SEAS, importance? Trade, transportation

  1. Examples:

SEAS BORDER WHICH AREAS

Mediterranean Sea Europe and Africa

Red Sea Africa and Middle East



  1. COASTLINES

  1. Examples:

COASTLINE CONTINENT

Irregular Europe

Regular Africa
D. QUESTIONS:


  1. Deserts and Mountains have historically isolated people from one another.

  2. Closeness to waterways and easy land travel has caused much cultural diffusion throughout the centuries.

  3. A variety of geographic features in a region has lead to diverse groups of people in one nation. (different ways of life).

  4. If people in a region all share the same culture and same way of life, they are said to be? homogeneous.

  5. If people in a region do not share the same way of life or culture, they are said to be? Heterogeneous

  6. The destruction of the forest? Deforestation

  7. The growth of the desert? desertification

  8. Process of farming on a mountain? Terrace farming

  9. Process of bringing water to an area without? Irrigation

10.Seven Continents: North America, South America, Europe,

Asia, Africa, Antarctica, Australia.

11.Developed nation- technologically advanced

12.Another name for a key on a map? Legend

13.Process of creating power with use of water? Hydroelectric


UNIT III: POLITICAL SYSTEMS



  1. Reasons for developing Political Systems:

  1. Order

  2. Stability

  3. Security

  4. Protection




  1. Parts of Political Systems:

  1. LAW-require certain behavior

Enforcing laws- police – consequences for breaking laws

Interpreting law- courts – make sure people understand law correctly

Justicewhat is right for people in a society


  1. Political Organization:

City-state-­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­a city that has no other governments controlling it

  1. Examples:

1. Athens

2. Sparta


  1. 2. Nation- a government that controls many cities and/or states

  1. Examples:

1. United States

2. Germany
3. Empire-government that controls many nations

  1. Examples:

1.Roman

2.Byzantine


  1. Political Systems:

  1. Monarchy- rule by king/queen

  1. Examples: (Who and from where?)

1. Elizabeth I - England
2. Louis XIV – France
3. Phillip II – Spain


  1. Absolutism- monarch has TOTAL control of country and people

  2. Limited Monarchy- monarch’s power is limited by LAW

  1. EXAMPLES: What limited the Monarch's power in England (1215-1689)




DOCUMENTS:

WHAT DOCUMENT SAID:


1.Magna Carta


Limited the power of the monarch



2. Petition of Right


Limited the power of the monarch



3. English Bill of Rights


Limited the power of the monarch

  1. Glorious Revolution-bloodless overthrow of James II

  2. Divine Right-right to rule comes from God

  3. Autocracy-one person rules



2. Democracy-government in which citizens hold power


  1. Examples: (Where?)

1. United States

2. Switzerland

b.) Direct Democracy- citizens vote directly on all isusses

c.) suffrage-right to vote
3.Republic- citizens vote for representatives – people elect leaders

  1. Examples:

1. Ancient Rome

2. United States
4. Dictatorship-government headed by a ruler with absolute authority

  1. Examples: (Who and where?)

1. Stalin – Russia (USSR)

2. Hitler – Germany


  1. Totalitarian-Ruler has total control of country and people

1)Example:

1. Stalin –Russia (USSR)

2. Mussolini - Italy
5.Feudalism- land for loyalty

  1. Examples:

WHERE WHEN

Western Europe Middle Ages 500-1200

Japan 1100-1800


  1. decentralized government_power is spread out (feudalism)

  2. centralized government- strong central government (USA)



  1. Codified Law:

  1. Codified- written down

  1. Examples:

LAWS AREA

Twelve Tables Rome

Hammurabi’s Code Babylon

Justinian’s Code Byzantine Empire


UNIT IV: ECONOMIC

SYSTEMS


ECONOMICS-satisfying the material needs of people (use of money)

  1. Types of Economic Resources:

1.natural -land

2.human -labor

3.capital -money


  1. Scarcity: not enough – lacking

  1. If there are not enough people to work, this

Can increase the cost of labor.

  1. If a nation is short on natural resources, it can lead

To interdependence, which is relying on other nations for help.

  1. job shortages may force people to go bankrupt.

  2. Wants-things people desire (vacations, luxury items)

  3. Needs-things everyone must have to survive (food, clothing, shelter)

  4. Capital-money

  5. CAPITALISM-private ownership of the means of production and distribution of goods.




  1. Types of Economic Systems:




ECONOMIC SYSTEM

DEFINE


Traditional Economy

Subsistence – taking care of needs of yourself and family


Hunter-Gatherer

Nomadic – following the food


Agrarian

farming


Trading Economy

Exchanging surplus



  1. Nomads-wanderers with no permanent home

  2. Barter System- economic system based on trade

  3. Colonies-mother country owns and controls land and people

  4. Cultural Diffusion-blending/sharing/spread of goods and ideas



E. MANORALISM- an economic system structured around a lord’s manor or estate

  1. The time period was called? Middle Ages

  2. In what part of the world? Western Europe

  3. When? 500s-1500s

  4. MANORS were self sufficient, everything needed to survive was produced on manor.

  5. Manoralism was an exchange of goods and services.

  6. If a peasant used a Lords oven for baking, the peasant was required to leave bread as a payment.


F. Commercial Revolution:

  1. When did it occur? 1300-1600 AD

  2. By this time period, nations were competing for new territories.

  3. Commercial Revolution introduced new method of investing money, to increase the flow of wealth and reduce risks.

  4. Individual merchants who wanted to help with the payment of sailing ventures, raised money by combing their resources in to joint-stock companies.(Organizations that sold stock, enabling small investors to share in the profit.)

  5. If a loss occurred, investor only lost what was invested.

  6. Mercantilism-colony serves to benefit mother country (wealth=power).

  7. Favorable balance of trade-export more than you import.


G. Industrial Revolution:

  1. Began in England

  2. Why?

a) natural resources c) stable gov’t e) money

b) waterways d) labor source
3. How did the Industrial Revolution affect the rest of the world economically? Rise of factory system and growth of capitalism
H. Non Capitalist Economies:


SYSTEM

DEFINE


Agrarian


Farming


Command Economy


Government Controls Economy


UNIT V: BELIEF

SYSTEMS


  1. ANIMISM

WHERE

BELIEFS

WHO IS WORSHIPED

Africa


Every living and non living thing has a spirit

Ancestors

nature

  1. Diviners are- medicine men

  2. Griots are-story tellers

  3. If you obey the gods, you will be blessed with good harvest and many children.

  4. If you fail to obey gods, you will be punished with sickness, crop failure and death.

  5. Animism is a polytheistic religion.




  1. HINDUISM

WHERE

BELIEFS

WHO IS WORSHIPED

HOLY WRITTINGS


India

Caste System

Karma

Dharma

* Brahma

* Vishnu

* Shiva


* Vedas

* Upanishads




  1. It is the world's oldest religion.

  2. Hindus believe in reincarnation, where the souls are reborn into another body.

  3. Each Hindu is born into a caste, a station of life.

  4. Dharma? Duties of your caste.

  5. Karma? Deeds you commit in your lifetime.

  6. Ultimate goal in Hinduism is? moksha.

  7. The top of the varna is? Brahmans.

  8. Bottom of varna is? untouchables.




  1. BUDDHISM




WHERE

FOUNDER

BELIEFS


India


Siddhartha Gautama (born 500 BC)

4 Noble Truths

1.All life is suffering

2.Suffering is caused by desire for things that are illusions

3.Eliminate suffering by eliminating desire.

4. Follow Eightfold Path to overcome desire
* reincarnation

* nirvana

  1. Buddha was in search for the meaning of human suffering

  2. Buddha means? Enlightened one

  3. In order to eliminate earthly desires, a person needs to follow the Eight-Fold Path.

  4. The form of relaxation used by Buddhists is Meditation.



  1. CONFUCIANISM




WHERE

FOUNDER

BELIEFS

HOLY WRITING

THE FIVE RELATION-SHIPS


China


Confucius

(born 551 BC)


5 relationships

Filial Piety


Analects

*ruler/subject

*husband/wife

*father/son

*older/younger

*friend/friend




  1. Confucianism began as a philosophy, not a religion.

  2. Respect for parents and elders? Filial Piety

  3. Dynasty- ruling family.

  4. Mandate of Heaven? Power to rule comes from God.


** Daoism is another Chinese religion emphasizing self-knowledge. Stresses personal freedom.

  1. Opposites in nature are symbolized by the yin and yang.




  1. JUDAISM




WHERE

FOUNDER

-BELIEFS

- Place of worship

HOLYBOOK? WRITINGS


Middle East



Abraham/God

* monotheistic

* ten commandments

* synagogue

* Torah
* Talmud


1.Judaism is the oldest monotheistic religion of the Middle East.

2. God's promise that the Jews were his chosen people is known

as the covenant.

3. Jewish religious teachers? rabbis.


  1. CHRISTIANITY:




WHERE

FOUNDER

-BELIEFS

- Place of worship

HOLYBOOK/

RULES


Middle East



Jesus

* monotheistic

* Jesus is God the Messiah



* Bible

* Ten Commandments





  1. Jesus is considered the messiah, or savior.

  2. The Roman Catholic Church became the most powerful institution in Europe from the time of the HOLY

Roman Empire through the Great Schism


  1. ISLAM:




WHERE

FOUNDER

BELIEFS

HOLYBOOK


Middle East



Mohammad

* Pray 5x day

* one God (Allah)
* fast during Ramadan
* alms giving (money) to the poor

* pilgrimage to Mecca


* Koran



  1. A follower of Islam is a? muslim.

  2. Muslims believe that Mohammad was the last and greatest prophet of Allah, or God.

  3. As Islamic Holy War? jihad

  4. The ninth month of the Islamic calendar is? Ramadan.

  5. A pilgrimage is known as a? hijra.

  6. Two different sects of Islam are the sunni- and the shiite.

  7. Islamic religious leader is a? caliph


KEY TURNING POINTS FROM GLOBAL I
A. Neolithic Revolution

  1. When? 8000 BCE after the Paleolithic Era when people hunted and gathered (nomads).

  2. Neolithic Era started when people invented stone tools for farming and began to settle near rivers such as the Nile, Huang, Indus, and Tigris and Euphrates.

  3. Rivers provided water for crops and for drinking, as well as a means of transportation. As a result, the first civilizations emerged.


B. Fall of Rome: Middle Ages Begin

  1. When? 500-1200 CE

  2. Political Causes: Invasions, Corrupt Rulers

  3. Social Cause: Lack of Patriotism

  4. Economic Causes: High Taxes

  5. Political power changed from centralized to decentralized: Middle Ages begin

  6. System of government: Feudalism = land for loyalty


C. Crusades

  1. when? 1100-1300 CE

  2. why? Regain holy land from Muslims

  3. Results:

a.) Europe rediscovered Greek and Roman classics by Plato,

Aristotle, and Socrates.

b.) Muslims kept Christians from regaining the holy land.

c.) Crusades led to the rise of absolute monarchs and to the decline of the Church’s power.

d.) Trade increased and Europeans were introduced to the advances of Byzantine and Muslim civilizations.

e.) The rebirth of Greek and Roman ideas led to a new era called the Renaissance.
D. Renaissance

  1. when? 1350-1600 CE

  2. main cause: Crusades

  3. Renaissance means rebirth.

  4. Main concept: humanism emphasized individual achievement.

  5. Artwork featuring humanism: David by Michelangelo and Mona Lisa by Leonardo Da Vinci.

  6. Rich patrons such as the Medicis funded great art works.

  7. Commercial revolution: A money economy emerged so people wouldn’t have to barter and banks were started.

  8. Invention of the Printing Press (1450s) – books became more available, literacy increased and ideas spread rapidly.

  9. People began to question the authority of the Catholic Church.


E. Voyages of Columbus

  1. when? 1490s

  2. First permanent contact between old world and new world.

  3. Led to the Age of Exploration and the “Triangle Trade” between Europe, Africa and the Americas.

  4. Spanish term for conqueror: Conquistador

  5. Effect of European diseases: millions of Native Americans died

  6. Slave trade caused great human suffering and disrupted life in Western Africa.

  7. Led to mercantilism where “mother country” acquired raw materials and new markets.


F. PROTESTANT REFORMATION:

  1. Began in what country? Germany

  2. By Whom? Martin Luther

Why? Luther felt the Church had become corrupt and too powerful

  1. What is a certificate called, that is sold for the forgiveness of sins? indulgence.

  2. 95 Theses? Luther’s list of complaints about the Catholic Church

  3. Catholic Church became weaker therefore monarchs became stronger. This led to the rise of absolute monarchs such as Louis XIV.

  4. Unity in the Catholic church breaks up, leading to absolutism








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