World History 1 Europeans Explore the East Drill: Tolerance & Ruthlessness Tolerance: encouraged religious, racial, gender, and ethnic understanding Ruthlessness: military and or violent conquest



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World History

3.1 Europeans Explore the East

Drill: Tolerance & Ruthlessness

Tolerance: encouraged religious, racial, gender, and ethnic understanding Ruthlessness: military and or violent conquest.
Objective: Students will be able to identify the factors that led to European exploration by researching and describing how Portugal established a sea route to Asia.
Notes

1419 Prince Henry starts a navigation school

1487 Bartolomeu Dias rounds the southern tip of Africa.

1492 Christopher Columbus reaches the Caribbean.

1494 Spain and Portugal sign the Treaty of Tordesillas.

1498 Vasco da Gama reaches the port of Calicut on the Indian Ocean.

1521 Ferdinand Magellan leads a Spanish expedition to the Philippines.

1565 Spain begins settlements in the Philippines

1619 The Dutch establish a trading center on Java.

1664 France sets ups up its own East India Company.
1. Technological advances

a. caravel with its triangular sails

b. allowed it to sail against the wind

c. astrolabe & magnetic compass

2. Outcomes of Columbus’ voyage

a. Increased tensions between Spain and Portugal

b. Opened up the Americas to European colonization

3. Important result/agreement between Spain & Portugal

a. Line of Demarcation that divided Portuguese and Spanish land claims

b. Countries opened the era of exploration and colonization in earnest.

4. Spanish Inspirations

a. “God,” that is, the belief that it was their duty to spread Christianity

b. “glory,” that is, the desire for fame

c. “gold,” that is, the desire for wealth for themselves and their nations’ treasuries

5. Spain set up trading posts in Asia

To end Portuguese domination of Asian trade and establish its own trade empire there

6. Dutch gain control of much of the Indian Ocean trade

a. They became a great naval power,

b. allied with England to break Portuguese control of trade then drove English out of region

World History

3.1 Europeans Explore the East

Europeans Explore the East

A.1. a

2. c

3. c

4. d

5. b

6. c

7. d

BCR. Inspirations:

a. “God,” that is, the belief that it was their duty to spread Christianity

b. “glory,” that is, the desire for fame

c. “gold,” that is, the desire for wealth for themselves and their nations’ treasuries
What made the explorations possible:

a. The Europeans invented and borrowed technology, including the caravel and the magnetic compass, that made it possible for their ships to sail against the wind and to follow a course without using land-marks.

b. The Portuguese government gave strong support to the study of navigation and to

overseas explorations.

c. Spain financed Columbus’s voyage, believing it could help the Spanish control a trade route with the East..
Vasco da Gama

Possible responses:

1. The hardships that they suffered from the difficulties of visiting foreign ports, the length of the voyage, and from disease.

2. The Portuguese not enjoy more success in their first voyage because they brought little that the Indians considered valuable.

3. The Muslims did not want the Portuguese to gain control of trade, which the Muslims now

controlled.

In today’s lesson we identify the factors that led to European exploration by researching Vasco da Gama and describing how Portugal established a sea route to Asia.
Homework: Caravel & Compass

Caravel – type of ship/sails that made it possible to sail against the wind

Compass made it possible to follow a course without using land-marks.
Name __________________________________________Date_________________

World History

3.1 Europeans Explore the East

A. Terms and Names Write the letter of the best answer.

______ 1. What European nation profited most from trade with the East in

the years directly following the Crusades?

a. Italy c. France

b. Spain d. England

______ 2. Which nation did Prince Henry help to take the lead in overseas

exploration?

a. Italy c. Portugal

b. Spain d. the Netherlands (Dutch)

______ 3. In the 1400s, the most important trade good from the East was

a. tea. c. spices.

b. silk. d. porcelain.

______ 4. Bartolomeu Dias captained the first European ship to sail

a. west across the Atlantic Ocean. b. along the West Coast of Africa.

c. across the Indian Ocean to India. d. around the southern tip of Africa.

______ 5. What did Vasco da Gama succeed in gaining for Portugal?

a. control of the Spice Islands b. a sea route between Portugal and India

c. a sea route between Portugal and China d. profitable trade with the Philippine Islands

______ 6. The Line of Demarcation established a boundary between

a. Portugal and Spain. b. claimed and unclaimed lands.

c. new lands Portugal could claim and those Spain could claim.

d. the part of the world that was under the pope’s control and the part that was not.

______ 7. By the 1700s, which nation’s East India Company dominated the

Indian Ocean trade?

a. France’s c. Portugal’s

b. England’s d. the Netherlands’


BCRs. Critical Thinking.

What inspired Europeans to begin exploring foreign lands in the 1400s?

A.

B.

C.



What made it possible for them to begin these explorations?

A.

B.



C.
HISTORYMAKERS Vasco da Gama Sailing into History

May the devil take you! What brought you here?”—spoken by Tunisian merchants who sighted Vasco da Gama in India (1498)

The tiny kingdom of Portugal had made a major seafaring breakthrough in 1488, when Bartolomeu Dias sailed to the Cape of Good Hope at the southern tip of Africa. However, it was not until the mid-1490s that King Manuel of Portugal decided to send another voyage south. He chose a little-known sailor named Vasco da Gama, and he took the first step in creating a Portuguese trading empire in Asia. Born around 1460, much of da Gama’s early life is unknown. It is believed that he was born to poor butnoble parents and that his father served as gov-ernor of Sines, the town where da Gama was born. He had two older brothers, who both later joined him on his trips. He remained an obscure figure until 1492. That year he captured some French ships in a Portuguese port during a period of hostil-ity between the two European powers.

In 1495, King Manuel was making preparations to send an expedition around Africa to reach the valuable spice markets of India. He had named da Gama’s father to head the voyage, but the old man died that year. As a result, Manuel chose da Gama.

In July 1497, da Gama departed with four ships. Rather than follow the West African coast, he swung far out into the Atlantic Ocean, hoping to avoid the areas of little wind called the doldrums. It was not until late November that the group passed the Cape of Good Hope. It took them another five months to work their way up the eastern coast of Africa, stopping at several ports along the way.

These ports were largely controlled by Muslim merchants. Though many of these merchants welcomed the Portuguese, some Muslim ships attacked the Portuguese explorers in Mombasa, located in modern Tanzania. In da Gama’s next stop in mod-ern Kenya, the ruler there gave the Portuguese an expert guide. He led them across the Indian Ocean to Calicut, the center of the Indian spice trade. They landed there on May 20, 1498, more than ten months after they had left Portugal. Da Gama was unable to meet the leader of Calicut for ten days, however. Furthermore, when the two men did meet, the conference went badly.

The Portuguese had brought few goods of value to India, and the ruler expected gold in return for the spices that da Gama desired. Relations soured, and the Indians and the Portuguese both took prisoners.

Later, the captured people were exchanged, but in August of 1498, da Gama and his crew left for home after hearing rumors of plots against them.

They only had a small cargo of spices, but they had shown that the route could work. The return voyage was more difficult than the journey there. Thirty men died of disease, includ-ing da Gama’s brother Paulo, who had commanded one of the ships. Da Gama finally reached Portugal on September 9, 1499, two years after having left. He was given a hero’s welcome. A second voyage to Asia, commanded by another man, produced poor relations with the Indians, and the king called on da Gama again. In 1502, he set out with a much larger fleet of 20 ships that were armed for hostilities. When he reached the Indian coast, da Gama captured a ship loaded with Muslims making a pilgrimage, then killed them and burned the ship. When the ruler of Calicut refused to cooperate with da Gama, da Gama had his sailors shell the city. After picking up a cargo of spices in more friendly cities, he returned to Portugal. Da Gama’s actions raised alarms among the Muslims. They formed an alliance with the rulers of Egypt and other Indian cities to resist the Portu-guese. From then on, the Portuguese built their trading empire by force, not by peaceful commerce.

Da Gama made one more trip to Asia. Named Viceroy of India by the king, he was supposed to restore order but died shortly after arriving there.


Questions

1. Recognizing Facts and Details What hard-ships did da Gama and his crew suffer during the first voyage?

2. Drawing Conclusions Why did the Portuguese not enjoy more success in their first voyage?

3. Making Inferences Why did the Muslims oppose the Portuguese arrival?




In your own words, summarize today lesson.


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