Workshop 1 Title: Using Code-a-text to Analyse Psychotherapy Texts Authors



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E-mail: buse@uni-duesseldorf.de




ABSTRACT
The present poster investigates symptoms and interpersonal problems of patients from the psychosomatic consultation-liaison-service of the HHU-Duesseldorf. The data on the n=442 (283 female, 159 male) subjects were collected over a period of nearly two years.
Symptomatic distress was measured using the SCL-90-R, interpersonal problems were measured using the IIP (64 items version). Additional instruments were the Impairment-Score (BSS) and questionnaires on sociodemographic variables.
Our results show that among the consultation-liaison-patients anxiety and depressive symptoms are about as important as in a population of psychotherapeutic outpatients that was used for comparison. The latter group shows a different pattern of somatization symptoms as compared to the consultation-liaison-patients. With regard to interpersonal problems the psychotherapeutic outpatients show a markedly higher IIP-sum score, and these patients also score higher on each of the IIP-subscales.

Our findings are consistent with the assumption, that patients from a medical hospital show more somatization as compared to psychotherapeutic patients who perceive their problems more in an interpersonal realm.


Poster Session A
Title: Representations of The Therapeutic Relationship, Therapeutic Alliance, and Therapist Introject
Authors: Conrad Lecomte and Claire Lebourgeois
Address for Correspondence:
Conrad Lecomte

Full Professor

University of Montreal

Department of Psychology

C.P. 6128, succursale Centre-Ville

Montreal, QC H3C 3J7

Fax: 514-343-2184

Email: conrad.lecomte@umontreal.ca


Abstract
This study examined the influence of therapist introject on the therapist's representations of the therapeutic relationship and on therapeutic alliance during the formation phase of the alliance. Eighteen novices therapists participated in this study. Therapist Introject and therapist's representations of the relationship was measured by Intrex Questionnaire (Benjamin, 1988). Results showed that therapists with friendly introject perceived themselves more accepting than therapists who reported hostile introject. Findings also indicated that therapists with friendly introject associated therapeutic alliance with their accepting attitude and with their perception of the friendly attitude of their clients. These findings highlighted the interest to study the therapist's representations of the relationship.


Poster Session A
Title: Role Patterns In Group Supervision
Authors: Siv BoaIt Boethius and Marie-Louise 0gren
Address for Correspondence:
Siv BoaIt Boethius

Ericastiftelsen, Odengatan 9

114 24 Stockholm, Sweden

tel 08-402 17 60

fax 08-10 96 91

ABSTRACT
An analysis of 22 supervision groups in two training programs in psychotherapy was performed. The questions concerned role patterns and changes over time. SYMLOG ratings of Actual and Wish in the beginning, middle and end of each program was used. The results showed no significant differences between the two categories of supervisees, whereas the differences between the supervisors and the supervisees, independent of program level, were highly significant. The results indicate that it is just as difficult to find one's voice and role in a supervision group on advanced as on basic level. For the supervisors the result was interpreted in terms of their role in relation to the supervisees and the goal of the supervision.


Poster Session A
Title: Self and Observer Ratings on the Central Relationship Questionnaire: Issues of Self-observer Agreement and Assumed Similarity
Authors: Carol Foltz and Jacques Barber
Address for Correspondence:
Jacques Barber, Ph.D.

Center for Psychotherapy Research

University of Pennsylvania

3600 Market Street, Room 704

Philadelphia, PA 19104-2648, USA
ABSTRACT
The present study investigates self-observer agreement on a measure of central relationship patterns in order to determine whether the substantial degree of agreement found between self and observer reports of personality among couples generalizes to more subjective aspects of personality. A second goal of the study is to examine the degree of assumed similarity in observer ratings of central relationship patterns. Assumed similarity refers to observers' use of (or projection of) their own personality as a point of reference when rating the target person. Both partners of 97 young adult couples rated themselves and their partners on the Central Relationship Questionnaire (CRQ, Barber et al., 1998), a measure of individuals' Wishes or desires in their close relationships, their perceptions of others' responses to them (ROs), and their own responses to both of these (RSs). Results for specific CRQ subscales demonstrated that couples generally evidenced moderate agreement in characterizing the central relationship patterns of each target person in terms of ROs and RSs, while self-partner agreement for wishes was small. For the profile of Wishes, ROs, and RSs, couples evidenced significant self-partner agreement on all CRQ components. Regarding the second issue of assumed similarity, observers assumed a significant amount of similarity between themselves and their partners. The extent of this assumed similarity differed markedly from the actual similarity between partners, as reflected in weak correlations between the two partners' self ratings. Despite the significant degree of assumed similarity in observers' ratings, results of multiple regressions indicated that the observer's rating of the target person was a significant predictor of the target person's self description, over and above observers' own self-description (assumed similarity), although subsequent regression analyses controlling for multicollinearity showed that this result was not always significant. Finally, contrary to predictions, the degree of assumed similarity between self and partner was related to better psychological adjustment and relationship satisfaction, suggesting that assumed similarity is a normal perceptual bias at least in the present sample.

Poster Session A
Title: Self, Complexity, and Psychopathology
Authors: Miguel Goncalves and Joao Salgado
Address for Correspondence:
Miguel Goncalves

Department of Psychology

University of Minho

4700 Braga

Portugal
ABSTRACT
In this study we analyze the impact of the complexity of the self on the psychopathological complaints of college students. In a partial replication of the research made by Linville(1987) on self-complexity, we add two more variables of complexity - ambiguity tolerance and behavior imprevisibility. The results obtained by Linville (1987) suggested a buffering effect of self-complexity. Our results didn’t show this pattern for any of the complexity variables. The best predictor of the present dysfunctionality is the previous level of the dysfunctionality. The results of a principal components analysis suggest that the variables of complexity are independent from the variables of dysfunctionality. These results are discussed in regard of two different positions in psychology - one more tradition in which the complexity is associated with dysfunctionality and the constructionist one that suggests an association between complexity and adaption.

Poster Session A
Title: Self-Help Group Attendance Among Cocaine Dependent Patients Receiving Psychotherapy and/or Drug Counseling in the NIDA Cocaine Collaborative Treatment Study
Authors: Margaret Griffin, Roger Weiss, and Robert Gallop
Address for Correspondence:
Margaret Griffin

McLean Hospital

115 Mill Street

Belmont, MA 02478

USA
ABSTRACT
Clinicians frequently refer their drug dependent patients to self-help (sometimes called mutual-help) groups such as Alcoholics Anonymous or Narcotics Anonymous. Indeed, many formal drug dependence treatment programs are largely based on the 12-step philosophy characteristic of these groups. However, although some researchers have studied patterns of Alcoholics Anonymous attendance and participation among individuals with alcohol use disorders, virtually no research has been conducted examining self-help group attendance among drug dependent patients.
The National Institute on Drug Abuse Cocaine Collaborative Treatment Study compared (1) Individual Drug Counseling plus Group Drug Counseling (GDC); (2) Supportive-Expressive Therapy plus GDC; (3) Cognitive Therapy plus GDC; and (4) GDC alone, in 487 cocaine dependent outpatients treated at five different sites. As part of this study, we examined patterns of self-help group attendance and participation in this patient population.
Patients completed the Weekly Self-Help Questionnaire each week during active treatment, and at post-treatment follow-up assessments. This questionnaire examines frequency of attendance and level of participation in self-help groups. Predictors of attendance and participation will be reviewed, along with the relationship between self-help group attendance and type of psychotherapy/drug counseling received.

Poster Session A
Title: Socially Impaired vs. Socially Non-Impaired Patients: Differences in Symptoms and Interpersonal Problems
Authors: R. Karig, S. Buse, N. Hartkamp, and N. Schmitz
Address for Correspondence:

Roman Karig

Witzelstr. 1a

40225 Duesseldorf

Germany

E-mail: karig@uni-duesseldorf.de


ABSTRACT
It is a common belief, that social impairment leads to psychological problems and finally contributes to medical illness. From this perspective it can be expected, that patients with pronounced deficits of their social situation are more severely ill both psychosocially and somatically.
The present poster studies the relation of social impairment (loss of personal relations, unemployment, low socioeconomic status), which was measured using a specially constructed composite index, to symptoms and interpersonal problems of patients both from the psychosomatic consultation-liasion-service of the HHU-Duesseldorf and from the University's psychotherapeutic outpatient clinic.
Symptomatic distress was measured using the SCL-90-R, interpersonal problems were measured using the IIP (64 items version). Additional instruments were the Impairment-Score (BSS), which is an expert rating of psychological, somatic and interpersonal/psychosocial impairment, and questionnaires on sociodemographic variables.
The results of our comparisons of the least impaired vs. the most impaired subgroups support the notion of a differential influence of social impairment on somatic and psychological problems.

Poster Session A
Title: Supervision, Design of an Instrument That Permits to Reach a Comparable Register of the Supervision Work
Authors: Beatriz Dorfman Lerner, Clara López Moreno, Asociación Psicoanalítica Argentina, and Andrés J. Roussos, Universidad de Belgrano
Address for Correspondence
Andrés J. Roussos

Research Department, Universidad de Belgrano

Zabala 1837, F12, B7 (1426), Buenos Aires, Argentina

Tel: (5411) 788-5400 ext.2564

Fax: (5411) 788-5400 ext.2533
ABSTRACT
The aim of this paper is to present the design of an instrument that permits to reach a comparable register of the supervision work. This instrument intends to operationalize the patient's signs and symptoms as they are taken by the therapist in the therapeutic interview with the patient. This material is re-elaborated in the supervisory session. The principal themes of this questionnaire are, among others: fixation points (or psychosexual evolution); object relations; defense mechanics; primary and secondary process functioning (Freud); counter transference (Racker) and predominant conflictual areas (Bleger). The questionnaire consists of two parts. In the first, data referring to the patient's psychic structure are elaborated between supervisor and supervisee; in the second, it is the data referred to the therapist's counter transference (in the therapeutic session) and the supervisor's counter transference (in the supervisory session) which are considered.
This instrument is apt to evaluate the consistency of the diagnostic and prognostic evaluation made by the therapist in the first interview with the patient, to which aim the same questionnaire will be periodically administered along treatment. To assess its theoretical relevance together with understandability and usefulness, a filled up questionnaire has been already presented to 10 psychoanalytically oriented therapists, from whom it has been required to give a psychopathological profile of the patient. Also, it has been asked from these therapists to give their impression.
Poster Session A
Title: Supervisory Alliance, and Trainee and Supervisor Introject
Authors: Claire Lebourgeois and Conrad Lecomte
Address for Correspondence:
Conrad Lecomte

Full Professor

University of Montreal

Department of Psychology

C.P. 6128, succursale Centre-Ville

Montreal, QC H3C 3J7

Fax: 514-343-2184

Email: conrad.lecomte@umontreal.ca


ABSTRACT
Supervision and training continue to be a relatively unexplored domain of psychotherapy research in spite of the clear consensus in literature that clinical supervision is the most important ingredient in the training of therapists. Supervision may be defined as a learning alliance that empowers the trainee to acquire therapeutic and interpersonal competences. Most empirical efforts have focused on skill, theoretical orientation, supervisory processes and developmental models. Very few studies have examined the supervisory alliance. One interesting recent finding regarding working alliance is the influence of personal characteristics, in particular the introject, on the formation of alliance.
The influence of trainee introject on the supervisory alliance in a manualized training program was investigated with twenty graduate trainees in master and doctoral-level psychology programs. Groups were formed on the basis of introject as measured by the Intrex Introject Questionnaire (Benjamin, 1988). Differences between the alliance's perception of trainees with self-directed hostility (hostile introject) and trainees with self-directed friendliness (friendly introject) were examined. Results show that introject influences the perception of supervisory alliance. Implications for therapist training are discussed.

Poster Session A
Title: The Assessment of a Psychosocial Support Program for Families of Patients in the Initial Stages of Alzheimer's Disease: The Experience of the Neurology Dept at Salamanca University Hospital
Authors: M. Hemmings, J. Cacho, R. Garcia., J. Navarro
Address for Correspondence:
Martin Hemmings

C/Dorado Montero, 1-3 1º Izq

37006 Salamanca, Spain

Tel. (923) 22 10 35

Email:hemmeire@mail.iponet.es
ABSTRACT
Two programs of psychosocial support are currently underway at the Salamanca University Hospital with a view to easing the psychosocial burden on the families of: 1) Bone Marrow transplant patients, and 2) Patients in the initial stages of Alzheimer’s disease. The ongoing research being carried out into the psychosocial needs of these families, backed up by clinical observation shows that these needs fall into two general categories:
1) information

2) support/peer support


In both of the psychoeducational programs mentioned above an attempt to meet these needs is made using both an individual and a multi family group protocol. The following is the abstract of the current study of the effectiveness of the individual protocol
An investigation was carried out in order to find out the extent to which the program for psychosocial support for the families of Alzheimer's Disease patients meet the family's psychosocial needs and help them to manage the stresses and burdens which caring for a chronically ill family member supposes during the first 6 months. The General Health Questionnaire (Goldberg & Hillier1979) and the Family Burden Questionnaire (developed by the members of the project) were both administered to the patient's families at the beginning of the psychosocial intervention (diagnosis) and were then also administered 5 months later along with the Usefulness/satisfaction questionnaire (also developed by the members of the project). The results of which are currently under analysis.


Poster Session A
Title: The Effects of Abuse, Neglect and Parental Involvement on the Cognitive Functioning of At Risk Adolescents
Author: Melinda Blitzer and Philip M. Drucker
Address for Correspondence:
Melinda Blitzcr

The Derner Institute, Adelphi University

Garden City, New York NY 11530

USA
ABSTRACT


The aim of this study is to investigate the cognitive functioning of a sample of at risk adolescents living in a residential treatment facility most of whom experienced protracted maltreatment (i.e., physical and sexual abuse and neglect).

The participants in the study were 114 adolescents (63 boys, 51 girls), ranging in age from 12 to17 years old (M = 14.4) who were treated at the Woodbridge Child Diagnostic Center in New Jersey since 1994. The facility is a short-term (3 to 9 months) residential facility that evaluates and treats adolescents that are placed there by the Division of Youth and Family Services (DYFS). Cognitive functioning was measured by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC III) and the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC).

There was a high incidence of mothers that were chemically addicted (51%) compared to fathers (30.7%). Sixty-two percent of the fathers had minimal contact with their child (less than a quarter of the child's life) compared to 11.4% of the mothers. Almost half of the children (48.2%) were diagnosed with a conduct disorder. Seventy-one percent of the neglected children had chemically addicted mothers. Eighty-two percent of the children that experienced school problems and 55% of the children that had suicidal symptoms had been sexually abused.

There were observable gender differences, girls performed more poorly on all three WISC scores and the K-ABC, than boys when there was minimal contact by their mothers. WISC and K-ABC scores declined for both boys and girls when there was minimal contact with their fathers. Neglected children tend to display the lowest WISC and K-ABC scores and the greatest behavioral problems compared to children who experienced other types of maltreatment. However females that were sexually or physically abused scored lower than neglected females. Thus, it seems that the experience of neglect was more debilitating for males than females in this sample. Perhaps such gender differences merely highlight commonly found differences between how the sexes respond to traumatic experiences.

The study will present information on other pertinent variables related to cognitive functioning including the influence of parental addiction, the child's psychiatric diagnosis, behavioral problems in school (truancy) and criminal history.
Poster Session A
Title: The Identity of Psychotherapist
Authors: Pirjo Lehtovuori, Jari Salo and Olavi Lindfors
Address for Correspondence:
Pirjo Lehtovuori

Orapihlajatie 21-27 a 3

00320 Helsinki, Finland

fax: +358-9-5876987

pirjo.lehtovuori@psykter.pp.fi

ABSTRACT
In this study we explored the elements and development of the professional and personal identity of psychotherapists. The present study is a part of a large Finnish Helsinki psycho­therapy study, initiated in 1995. The participants were 50 Finnish psychotherapists, whose patients were studied in the context of Helsinki psychotherapy study. The theoreti­cal fra­mework of therapists included psychoanalytic, psychodynamic and systems theoretic pers­pec­tives. The assessment of participants was done in two phases: First, participants fil­led in the Development of Psychotherapist Common Core Questionnaire, which is a broad self-report instrument including both structured and open-format questions. Second, they were interviewed with a semi-structured procedure, which is based on Heinz Kohut’s and Erik H. Erikson’s theories and concepts. Themes and qualities assessed with these two procedu­res will be later studied in relation to various client and outcome variables, using both quali­tative and quantitative methods. In this work we present the initial results concer­ning the retrospective career development and current experience of development of thera­pists. Fur­thermore, the dimensions describing the personal characteristics of therapists will be re­ported and discussed.

Poster Session A
Title: The Importance of Safety Behaviours in Social Phobia.
Authors: Marina Cunha, José Pinto Gouveia, Maria do Céu Salvador
Address for Correspondence:
José Pinto Gouveia

Núcleo de Estudos e Intervenção Cognitivo-Comportamental

Faculdade de Psicologia e de Ciências da Educação da Universidade de Coimbra

Rua do Colégio Novo

3000 Coimbra, Portugal
ABSTRACT

The designation of safety seeking behaviours refers to a set of behaviours with which social phobics try to reduce social threat and prevent feared outcomes from occurring. The use of safety behaviours by social phobics has been pointed out as an important maintenance factor of social phobia (SP) (Salkovskis, 1991, Wells et al., 1995), once they prevent the disconfirmation of the expectation that some of their feared behaviours (shaking, blushing, pausing in speech and so on) will be negatively evaluated by others. In some cases, safety behaviours can even increase the probability of the occurrence of the feared behaviour. Although the identification and change of safety behaviours is an important component of cognitive therapy of SP, little attention has been given to the assessment of social phobics' safety strategies and instruments for this assessment do not exist.


In the present poster the authors present a self-report instrument for the assessment of safety behaviours in SP — The Social Phobic Safety Behaviours Scale. This scale has been developed within a social phobia assessment protocol and has been studied in a sample of the general Portuguese population and in a sample of Portuguese social phobics.
Poster Session A
Title: The Most Feared Social Situations in Social Phobia: The Social Interaction and Performance Anxiety and Avoidance Scale
Authors: José Pinto Gouveia, Marina Cunha, Maria do Céu Salvador
Address for Correspondence:
José Pinto Gouveia

Núcleo de Estudos e Intervenção Cognitivo-Comportamental

Faculdade de Psicologia e de Ciências da Educação da Universidade de Coimbra

Rua do Colégio Novo

3000 Coimbra, Portugal
ABSTRACT
Diagnostic criteria for social phobia (SP) have suffered important modifications through the two last versions of the DSM, resulting from both an increasing research and interest for this disorder. Along with the definition of more accurate criteria there has been a search for more valid and reliable instruments, in order to assess the multidimensional features of social phobia.
Nevertheless, among the most used self-report questionnaires in SP very few are able to assess the type of situations social phobics fear and avoid. Even these few, present important limitations such as a small number of assessed situations (Fear Questionnaire), a low discrimination validity with other anxiety disorders (SAD, FNE) or the impossibility of obtaining separated scores for performance anxiety and interaction anxiety (Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory). An exception is made for the Mattick & Clarke's Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and Social Phobia Scale, which assess anxiety in social interaction situations and in situations that include being observed by others. Unfortunately, these authors do not present data concerning the development of this scale.
In the present poster the authors present development and validation data for the Social Interaction and Performance Anxiety and Avoidance Scale which assesses experienced distress in and avoidance behaviours of performance and social interaction situations. This scale has been developed and studied in subjects from the general Portuguese population and in a sample of Portuguese social phobics. The results suggest its usefulness in the assessment of SP.
Poster Session A
Title: The Nature of Change in Psychodynamic Individual Child Psychotherapy
Author: Gunnar Carlberg
Address for Correspondence:
Gunnar Carlberg

The Erica Foundation

Odengatan 9

S-114 24 Stockholm, Sweden

Fax: +46 8 10 96 91

E-mail: mail@ericastiftelsen.a.se


ABSTRACT
The lack of research on processes in psychodynamic child psychotherapy is evident. One factor underlying this is a reluctance among clinicians to participate in research. A methodological approach in which moments and episodes in therapies are thoroughly explored has, however, been successful in engaging therapists in the research process.
Four consecutive studies were performed on sessions the therapists had identified as "turning point sessions". Data were collected from psychotherapies (n = 14) through interviews, process records and questionnaires. In addition examples of important changes in a larger group of therapies (n = 102) were collected through a questionnaire. The aim of the studies was to answer questions about the nature and content of change and factors underlying change processes.
It was concluded that different kinds of turning points can be described. The therapists’ experiences of turning points can be seen as a part of their way of creating meaning. Differences between the experiences of turning points in ongoing therapies versus terminated therapies emerged in the data.
The presentation will focus on these and additional findings concerning the nature of change in child psychotherapy.
Poster Session A
Title: The Portuguese Version of the Eating Disorders Inventory: Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties
Authors: Sónia Gonçalves, Paulo P.P. Machado, Carla Martins, & Isabel Soares
Address for Correspondence:
Paulo P.P. Machado

Universidade do Minho, Departamento de Psicologia

Campus de Gualtar

4700 Braga. Portugal

Tel#+351 53 604241

Fax#+351 53 678987

e mail: pmachado@iep.uminho.pt
ABSTRACT
The Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI; Garner, Olmsted, & Polivy, 1983) is a measure of the cognitive and behavioural characteristics of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. The instrument is one of the most widely used in clinical practice and research with eating disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of this instrument in a nonclinical Portuguese population. The results of the factor analysis reproduces the eight factors found by Garner et al. (1983) in Canada, and internal consistency is very satisfactory (alpha de Cronbach ranging between .69 to for the Perfectionism subscale up to .91 for the Drive for Thinness and Body Dissatisfaction subscale). The inventory also have demonstrated criterion validity by discriminating eating disorders subjects (anorexia and bulimia nervosa subjects) from normal subjects. The data generally supported the internal consistency and factor structure of the Portuguese version of the EDI and the utilisation of this instrument with the Portuguese population.
Poster Session A
Title: The Therapist Memories Questionnaire
Authors: Eugénia Fernandes and Óscar Gonçalves
Address for Correspondence:
Eugénia Fernandes

Departmento de Psicologia

Int. Educaçao e Psicologia

Campus de Gualtar- Universidade do Minho

Braga, Portugal

email:EugeniaF@iep.uminho.pt


ABSTRACT
This poster will present the validation study of our previous investigation about the impact of the client recalling process, on the therapist’s memories. In order to achieve this goal, we constructed a Therapist Memories Questionnaire based on the emerged typical patterns of the therapists’ memories. Ten therapists with Psychotherapeutic Cognitive Narrative orientation were invited to analyze their memories in session, by this questionnaire. In this poster, we will present: the procedures of construction, administration and analysis of the questionnaire results. We will discuss the results of this validation analysis on the context of therapeutic research.
Poster Session A
Title: Theory-Driven, Phase-Specific, Manual-Guided, Clinically Meaningful Aptitude-Treatment Interaction (ATI) Research Focusing on Client’s Non-Diagnostic Personality Variables
Authors: Georgios K. Lampropoulos & Paul M. Spengler
Address for Correspondence:
Georgios K. Lampropoulos

Department of Counseling Psychology, Ball State University,



Teachers College 622, Muncie, Indiana 47306, USA.

ABSTRACT
Empirical research findings in psychotherapy have shown equivalent outcomes between the cognitive-behavioral and the psychodynamic-interpersonal tradition. In relayed attempts to dispel the Dodo Bird Verdict (i.e., equivalence of psychotherapy outcomes), both personality-matched eclecticism and phases of change-matched eclecticism alone have experienced difficulties to demonstrate consistent ATI findings and provide a complete approach to treatment selection. This suggests the integration of these two eclectic approaches, ideally in the context of a meaningful theory. Using the Cognitive-Experiential Self-theory (CEST; Epstein, 1990, 1994, 1997) as a guiding theoretical frame, we are testing empirically-supported brief interventions derived from cognitive-behavioral vs. experiential schools searching for differential effects in psychotherapy.
Based on the hypothesis that there are both cognitive and emotional aspects of awareness and insight as well as different ways to achieve these change processes, we hypothesize personality variables, namely client predominant thinking styles (rational vs. experiential) to provide optimal matching effects for cognitive interventions (problem solving) and experiential interventions (2-chair dialogue) in the resolution of decisional conflicts. In the first part of this study (the exploration phase of the treatment), only the steps of problem solving that are related to the exploration, understanding and insight into the decisional conflict and its solutions are compared against the two-chair technique, according to the number six 1986 NIMH workshop recommendation for research in psychotherapy integration (Wolfe & Goldfried, 1988) that suggests: "Inasmuch as change processes may vary with phase of treatment, comparative research on psychotherapy process should focus on a comparable therapeutic phase." In the second part of the study (the action phase of the treatment), the rest, action-oriented processes of the problem-solving intervention are employed in all conditions (with special care to integrate the experiential and the problem solving processes into a smooth sequential combination in the related conditions). This design allows additional comparisons (i.e., an integrative experiential-behavioral intervention vs. problem solving).
A pilot study with one client in each of the four conditions is underway (two clients matched and two mismatched to the two empirically supported treatments). Client’s differences in rational and experiential thinking styles are measured by reliable self-report instruments such as The Rational-Experiential Inventory (Epstein, Pacini, Denes-Raj, & Heier, 1996) and the Perceived Modes of Processing Inventory (Burns & D'Zurilla, in press), while the interventions are administered according to manuals.

Poster Session A
Title: Training Undergraduate Students in Helping Skills
Authors: Clara E. Hill, Karen M. O'Brien, Misty R. Kolchakian, Julie L. Quimby, Ian S. Kellems, Jason S. Zack, and Debra L. Herbenick
Address for Correspondence:
Clara E. Hill, Ph.D.

Dept. of Psychology

University of Maryland

College Park, MD 20742

USA
ABSTRACT
Although many helping skills models have been developed over the years (e.g., Brammer & MacDonald, 1996; Carkhuff, 1969, 1983; Danish & Hauer, 1973; Egan, 1998; Ivey, 1971, 1994; Kagan et al., 1965) and courses in helping skills are taught in most universities, research on the effects of helping skills training has been largely abandoned in the past two decades. Furthermore, the majority of the existing research has been on graduate students (see review by Baker, Daniels, & Greeley, 1990) rather than undergraduate students. Training undergraduate students in helping skills early in their careers before they have a lot of clinical experience makes sense, but many questions remain regarding how to train undergraduate students in their first formative steps toward becoming helpers.
In this poster, we will present the results of a large project examining effects of training in helping skills. Specifically, 45 students in helping skills classes were compared with 50 students in introduction to counseling classes in terms of changes across the course of a semester in counseling self-efficacy, anxiety about seeing clients, and the frequency and quality of their helping skills. We also did interviews with students in the helping skills classes and then did qualitative analyses of their experiences in learning and implementing the helping skills. We will discuss the implications of the study for changes in the helping skills model and for future research.
Poster Session A
Title: Treatment Development in Psychodynamic-Interpersonal Psychotherapy (Hobson’s Conversational Model) for Chronic Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia: A Single Case Study
Authors: Sarah Davenport, Robert Hobson, Frank Margison
Address for Correspondence:
Frank Margison, Gaskell Psychotherapy Centre;

Manchester Royal Infirmary; Swinton Grove; Manchester, M13 0EU, UK

Email: frmargison@aol.com
ABSTRACT
Aims: To describe the development of PI (Conversational Model) therapy in chronic treatment-resistant schizophrenia through an intensive single case-study.
Background: PI therapy has been shown to be effective in somatisation, depression, and in reducing costs and symptoms in chronically ill non-psychotic out-patients. There is considerable evidence of effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural therapy for schizophrenia, but some patients have difficulty engaging sufficiently to use the treatment method. In Finland, the “needs-adapted” model has shown success in combining treatment modalities, but further work is needed in defining the effective components of the treatment packages, particularly the elements of the individual psychotherapeutic treatment. Hobson’s Conversational Model (PI therapy) was originally developed with a wide range of patients including those with schizophrenia, and the current case study is part of the development of a modified form of PI which might be particularly useful for use in severe illness where there are major difficulties in engaging the patient in even a minimal treatment alliance.
Case study: The poster presents details of the history and early treatment failure of a woman of 37 who has had schizophrenia for 21 years and has shown little response to previous treatment. The unit where the treatment took place is a high-dependency hostel ward for patients thought to be at significant risk to themselves or others. The treatment approach is multi-modal and includes medication, psycho-social interventions and a therapeutic milieu. In such a setting the additional benefit of a psychotherapeutic intervention is difficult to disentangle and so qualitative analysis of change is needed alongside serial data from instruments of known reliability and validity (which include the KGV, REHAB and Social Behaviour Schedule). The case study shows that it is possible to develop a therapeutic conversation with a patient with chronic psychosis using the principles of PI therapy. This allows greater self-reflection and then engagement in the treatment process. Changes in outcome measures are linked to changes in the therapy. It is argued that such an approach is particularly effective with patients at the “warded off” end of the assimilation spectrum. The treatment approach is a prototype of the use of role-responsive and intersubjective methods for use in patients who have been unresponsive to traditional treatment.

Poster Session A
Title: Treatment Utilization and Helpfulness Rated by Dual-Diagnosis Patients
Authors: Lisa M. Najavits, Amy E. Dierberger, Rebecca G. Winkel, Roger D. Weiss
Address for Correspondence:
Lisa Najavits, PhD

McLean Hospital

115 Mill Street

Belmont, MA 02478 USA

Lnajavits@hms.harvard.edu
ABSTRACT
Dual diagnosis patients are widely described as a “difficult” treatment population (e.g., in severity, treatment retention, and prognosis). In this study, we explored the mental health treatment history of 46 women with posttraumatic stress disorder and substance abuse using two measures: the Treatment Services Review (McLellan, 1989) and the Treatment Summary (Najavits et al., 1995), completed at entry into a randomized control psychotherapy outcome study. We evaluated two questions: (1) Utilization (what treatments had patients utilized during their lives?); and (2) Helpfulness (how helpful did patients find their treatments?). Results indicate three main findings. First, the most frequent treatments patients received were individual psychotherapy (84%), psychopharmacology (71%), and group therapy (54%). Second, the treatment patients found most helpful was couples and family therapy (M=1.33 on a scale from -2 to +2); least helpful was drug and alcohol counseling (M=.50). The results are discussed in light of issues such as the cost-effectiveness of treatment, systems issues that route patients toward particular types of treatments, and how to intervene when a patient perceives a treatment as unhelpful.

Panel Session 15 - Overall Summary
Title: Family and Marital Therapy Research: State-of-the-Field Review

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