Senior Lecturer in Psychotherapy, Kent Institute of Medicine and Health Sciences
University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7PD UK.
Telephone 01227 823691 Fax 01227 823224
ABSTRACT Code-A-Text was developed to help investigators analyse psychotherapy discourses, whether for training or research. It can be applied to any form of document i.e. transcriptions, process notes sound or video recordings. Its real power becomes apparent when working with sound and transcriptions together. The workshop will cover the new Code-A-Text interface which offers the investigator four methods of coding texts [based upon content analysis (including standardised dictionaries), scales, interpretative methods and vocal analyse (volume, pitch and speech rate)].
The system was designed to be interactive, allowing the user the opportunity to ask “questions” of a text or group of texts and receive quick responses from the programme which are immediately intelligible. Thus, the investigator might request that “the programme identify all the sections within a group of texts in which the patient rejected the therapeutic alliance (a scale code) and the therapist responded within a give number of interventions (segment code) with an interpretation (scale code) making sexual references (content code based on words in text)”. The programme would display all the sections of the texts which fitted this criteria and play the relevant recordings if available. At the other extreme a sound file might be searched for all sections where there is a rapid change in vocal quality e.g. volume increases and pitch profiles change. Other outputs are more analytical displaying associations between codes and presenting graphical displays of sequences of codes.
This workshop will introduce the participants to Code-A-Text taking them step by step through the process of developing and analysing a project. The stages covered will be
· Recording, transcribing and linking text and sound.
· Creating archives for content analysis and using standardised dictionaries
· Creating a Coding Frame for scales analysis. Using assimilation as a method.
· Segmenting, annotating and coding text.
· Automatic creation of complex codes.
· Identifying relationships and displaying graphs and outputting data to statistical programmes.
Workshop2 Title: How to Find FRAMES
Participants: Hartvig Dahl, Mark Sammons and Paul Siegel
Address for Correspondence: Hartvig Dahl
SLrNY Health Science Center
450 Clarkson Avenue/Bx 88
Brooklyn, NY 11203
ABSTRACT Hoelzer & Dahl (1996) wrote:
A psychotherapeutic "talking cure" relies essentially on a patient's storytelling. Thus, the principle of free association as the "basic rule" of psychoanalysis is to sample stories that are characteristic or typical of a person's emotional experiences. FRAMES as defined and described by Dahl and Teller (1994) are Fundamental Repetitive And Maladaptive Emotion Structures that capture the plots of these stories. These plots reoccur again and again with different people in different situations under different circumstances. And it is the repetition of these plots in and out of the therapeutic situation that makes possible inferences about what clinicians call a patient's basic psychodynamics. Their maladaptive character lies mainly in their invariance. Their tendency to recur over and over makes for a typically inflexible, neurotic patient.
We claim that FRAMES fulfill Strupp et al's (1988) principle of using PTO (Problem-Treatment-Outcome) congruent measures in psychotherapy research and demonstrate its importance. Our goal is to introduce participants to the three crucial steps in finding FRAMES in the transcripts of psychoanalytic and psychodynamic therapeutic sessions: (1) Classify the expressions of emotions, (2) make Object Maps, and (3) find Prototype FRAMES and their Instantiations (repetitions) in each selected session. Participants should E-mail their names and addresses to email@example.com so that Dahl can mail them: (1) summaries of the underlying theory of emotions, (2) an example of a transcript of a psychoanalytic session with the emotions all classified according to the theory, (3) the Hoelzer & Dahl paper on How to Find FRAMES, which includes a description of how to make Object Maps, and (4) a reprint of the story of the discovery of FRAMES (Dahl 1998). Reading these before the Workshop will make it much easier for participants to profit from this beginning instruction. Each participant will be given a transcript of a session and again instructed on how to classify the emotions. The graduate students, Mark Sammons and Paul Siegel, both expert FRAMES finders, will assist in monitoring these classifications, answer questions, and offer other help. They will also help oversee the map construction and supervise the finding of sample FRAMES. Participants will be expected to ask questions--and perhaps most importantly--will be offered the chance to communicate with Dahl in the future for ongoing help by E-mail.
Workshop 3 Title: Research on Child Group Psychotherapy: What Do We Know And What Do We Need to Learn?
Author: Zipora Shechtman
Address for Correspondence: Zipora Shechtman
ABSTRACT The purpose of this workshop is to highlight the importance of research in child group counseling and psychotherapy. Research on child group psychotherapy lags largely behind adult group psychotherapy. As a result our knowledge on children’s groups is either applied from research on adult groups or drawn from clinical experience. The limited research available is mostly outcome research. Yet, many process questions are still open for inquiry regarding the therapeutic factors, leader’s role, difficult patients and situation, among others. These issues bear important implications for training and supervision of therapists in children groups. Pioneering research in child group processes will be illustrated and goals for future investigation discussed.
Panel Session 1 - Overall Summary Title: Group Therapy Research: State-of-the-Field Review
Participants: Mark Aveline, Gary Burlingame, Bernhard Strauss, Denise Wilfley
Address for Correspondence: Roy MacKenzie
201 - 1600 Howe Street
Vancouver, BC V6Z 2L9
Fax: (604) 669-7783
ABSTRACT The state of the field of group therapy research will be considered. During the first hour, panelists will address key questions posed by the moderator. During the final half hour, members of the audience will be invited to respond with questions and comments. The format is intended to stimulate an examination of issues related to the past performance, current status, and future direction of group therapy research.
Panel Session 2 - Overall Summary Title: An Examination of Therapist Use of Silence
Participants: Barbara J. Thompson, Clara E. Hill, Nicholas Ladany, Karen O'Brien
Discussant: Horst Kaechele
Address for Correspondence: Nicholas Ladany, Ph.D.
111 Research Dr.
Counseling Psychology Program
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, 18015, USA
ABSTRACT The purpose of this panel session is to present an overview of a qualitative study that examined therapist intentional use of silence. The first presentation will report on the theoretical and empirical literature on therapist use of silence and our resulting research questions. The presenter will also include an overview of the qualitative methodology we employed, that is, consensual qualitative research (Hill, Thompson, & Williams, 1997). She will demonstrate how interpretations of the data were made across cases, and how the methodology controls for researcher bias, as well as accounts for the validity and reliability of the data.
The second presentation will report on the results of the thematic qualitative analysis as it pertains to therapist reasons and contraindications for using silence in therapy. The reasons identified in our analyses for using silence included (a) to convey empathy or respect, (b) to encourage or challenge client's to reflect on their experiences, (c) to assess how clients react to silence, (d) to slow the pace of therapy, (e) for clients to take responsibility for therapy, (f) to create productive anxiety, (g) because the therapist doesn't know what to say, and (h) because the therapist was preoccupied. We will also review a number of indications for, and contraindications against, using silence in therapy that were identified relating to client variables, session variables, and the therapeutic alliance.
The third presentation will report on the results of the thematic qualitative analysis as it pertains to personal and training variables influencing therapist use of silence. Specifically, this presentation will address therapists' personal variables such as the way silence was used in their family of origin, the use of silence in their current relationships, therapist personality, and therapist's own therapy experiences. Furthermore, therapist training related to using silence and their changes in their use of silence with experience will be discussed.
A discussant who has expertise in the fields of qualitative research and psychotherapy research will respond to the aforementioned presentations.
Paper in Panel - Panel Session 2 Title: Applying Consensual Qualitative Research to Understanding Therapist Use of Silence
Author: Barbara J. Thompson
Address for Correspondence: Barbara J. Thompson, Ph.D.
609 Allegheny Ave.
Towson, Maryland 21204, USA
ABSTRACT Although addressed somewhat in the theoretical psychotherapy literature (e.g., Basch, 1980; Greenson, 1967), therapist use of silence has been examined empirically in a limited fashion (Hill et al., 1988). Alternatively, silence as a therapeutic intervention is likely used by most psychotherapists. In order to understand the multiple factors associated with therapist use of silence, an in-depth qualitative investigation seemed relevant. Qualitative research seemed ideally suited for many of the questions that we had about therapist use of silence for several reasons: (a) it allowed us to examine the inner experiences of participants, (b) it allowed us to looks at sequences of events that are not orderly and predictable, and (c) it allowed us to explore domains about which we do not have enough information to make hypotheses. Based on a review of the literature, we created a series of research questions aimed at exploring and understanding the multiple factors related to therapist use of silence (e.g., the reasons therapists use silence). This paper will report on the theoretical and empirical literature on therapist use of silence resulting in the research questions.
This presentation will also describe the specific qualitative methodology used to study therapist use of silence, that is, consensual qualitative research (Hill, Thompson, & Williams, 1997). The discussion pertaining to consensual qualitative research will describe how we used consensual qualitative research to examine therapist use of silence of 12 experienced therapists. Essentially, following the methodology guidelines, we collected all the data using a standard semi-structured interview, coded data initially into rationally-derived domains (i.e., categories) which were modified based on the emerging data, used a primary team of three judges and a method of consensus to arrive at all decisions about domains and core ideas, used an auditor to check the work of the primary team, and compared data across cases to determine consistency of findings within the sample. Additional details and examples pertaining to the methodology will be discussed along with how the modifications provided standard data across cases, reduced the amount of bias, and increased the validity and reliability of the data.
Paper in Panel - Panel Session 2 Title: Silence in Therapy: Reasons and Contraindications
Author: Clara E. Hill
Address for Correspondence: Clara E. Hill, Ph.D.