Works Cited "3d. The Orthodoxy of John Calvin."



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“3d. The Orthodoxy of John Calvin.” Beyond Books. Apex Learning, 2007. Web. 9 Dec. 2009. .

“Artemisia Gentileschi.” Encyclopedia of World Biography Supplement. Vol. 22. Gale Group, 2002. Biography Resource Center. Web. 9 Dec. 2009. .

Bruegel, Jan. The Landing Square. N.d. Corel. ABC-CLIO World History Modern Eras. Web. 14 Nov. 2009. . Jan Bruegel was a Flemish painter during the Renaissance and Reformation. During this time, humanist painters liked to make their paintings as realistic as possible and they liked to paint beautiful landscapes, this painting is a beautiful example of both.

Da Vinci, Leonardo. Mona Lisa. 1503-1506. Artstor. Web. 13 Nov. 2009. . Popular Renaissance artist Leonardo da Vinci created the Mona Lisa. The Mona Lisa took three years to complete, it was started in 1503 and finished in 1506.

During the time that an artist created a work of art, they would be supported by a patron. A patron is a supporter of the arts who p.ays an artist while they create their work so they have money for everyday needs.

- - -. Pile Driver. N.d. ARTstor. Web. 29 Nov. 2009. . This picture shows the pile driver, the pile driver was invented by Leonard da Vinci. Leonardo da Vinci is mostly remembered as a great painter, but he was an inventor too. This Italian Painter from the town of Vinci, Italy was very talented in both his paintings and inventions.
The pile driver could be used to drive posts into the ground during the construction and is still used today when constructing a new building.
During the Renaissance, the arts reached a new height. Also, patrons emerged, they were supporters of the arts and paid artists like da Vinci while they created their works.

Di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni, Michelangelo. Madonna and Child. 1498-1501. arstor. Web. 30 Nov. 2009. . This picture shows Michelangelo’s sculpture of Madonna and Child. Michelangelo was born in the Republic of Florence and his father was a minor government official. While he created his works of art, he was supported by the Medici family.


While Michelangelo created his great works of art, the Medici family supported his financial needs, the Medici family was a family of patrons.

Donatello. Crucifix. 1444-1447. ARTstor. Web. 30 Nov. 2009. . This picture shows a sculpture made by Donatello. Donatello was a great artist from the town of Florence, Italy. Donatello traveled to Rome to further study art. His influence on art spread beyond the city of Rome.


Donatello was a great sculptor who’s source of income while he was creating his works of art was the money provided by patrons.

“Donatello.” World Eras. Vol. 1. 2001. European Renaissance and Reformation, 1350-1600. Biography Resource Center. Web. 30 Nov. 2009. .

English Parliament. King Henry VIII. Act of Supremacy. By Henry, VIII. N.p., 1534. ABC-CLIO Modern Eras. Web. 29 Nov. 2009. . This text is the Act of Supremacy. The Act of Supremacy was published in 1534, this act separated England from the Roman Catholic church. This split happened because of King Henry VIII’s own selfish actions.
The Act of Supremacy provided more power for the King as well as the divorce that he wanted, but it also weakened the church in England.

- - -. - - -. Act of Supremacy. By Henry, VIII. N.p., 1534. ABC-CLIO Modern Eras. Web. 29 Nov. 2009. . This text is the Act of Supremacy. The Act of Supremacy was published in 1534, this act separated England from the Roman Catholic church. This split happened because of King Henry VIII’s own selfish actions.


The Act of Supremacy provided more power for the King as well as the divorce that he wanted, but it also weakened the church in England.

Galileo. N.d. Library of Congress. ABC-CLIO Modern Eras. Web. 13 Nov. 2009. . Renaissance Scientist, Galileo Galilei was one of many people who decided they wanted to see something for themselves instead of trusting what they read from a book written by an ancient Greek or Roman. Galileo conducted an experiment from the top of the leaning tower of Pisa that proved that despite size, objects fall at virtually the same rate, and the study of physics was born. Later in life, Galileo became the Professor of Mathematics at the University of Pisa.

The discoveries of Galileo helped shape the world that we know now, without him, we would probably still believe what was written in ancient books and wouldn’t have to study of physics in school. Galileo’s experiment has had a lasting effect.

Galileo Gallei v. Roman Catholic Church. 1 Jan. 1633. ABC CLIO. ABC CLIO, 2000. Web. 29 Nov. 2009. . This text is the indictment of Galileo Gallei. Galileo was charged of heresy because he believed in things that conflicted with the beliefs of the church. After the trail, Galileo was sentenced to live the rest of his life under house arrest.
Galileo was sentenced to house arrest because he believed differently than the church did, this shows how much power the church still had.

Gutenberg Bible. 1454-1455. Cornell University Library, Rare and Manuscript Collections. ABC-CLIO World History Mordern Eras. Web. 14 Nov. 2009. . The first book produced by the Gutenberg printing press was the bible. This picture shows a page of the Gutenberg bible. The use of the printing press made copying a book easier and faster because it no longer had to be done by hand.
The invention of the printing pressed caused religious turmoil because both the church and humanists were able to spread their ideas quicker and people started to doubt the church.

Gutenberg Printing Press. 15th century. ABC-CLIO Moden Eras. Web. 13 Nov. 2009. . This picture shows the printing press.The printing press was invented in the 15th century by, Johann Gutenberg. The printing pressed used movable metal type to making copying a book easier. The first book that was copied with a printing press was the Bible in 1455.

The invention of the printing press caused religious turmoil because humanists could spread their ideas quicker. The printing press also played a roll in more people being able to read because more books were being produced.



Kepler’s Law. N.d. ABC-CLIO World History Modern Eras. Web. 16 Nov. 2009. . This picture shows Kepler’s Law. Kepler’s law described planetary montion, he used the Sun and planet Mercury as an example.
During the Renaissance ideas that the earth was not the center of the universe but the sun was were rejected. These ideas were rejected because they went against the beliefs and teachings of the church.

“Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni.” Science and Its Times. Vol. 3. 2001. 1450 - 1699. Biography Resource Center. Web. 30 Nov. 2009. .



Norton, Stephen D. “Galileo Gallei.” Science and Its Times. Ed. Neil Schlager and Josh Lauer. Vol. 3. 2001. 367-368. Gale Virtual Reference Library Documents. Web. 30 Nov. 2009. .

Protestant Reformation Collage. N.d. ABC-CLIO World History Modern Eras. Web. 16 Nov. 2009. . John Knox, Martin Luther, John Calvin, Ulrich Zwingi, these men were religious leaders during the Renaissance and Reformation. Martin Luther first challenged the church when the church first started to sell indulgences, Luther believed that you can’t buy your way out of purgatory, John Knox contributed to the Scottish Protestant Reformation, John Calvin created a strict form of Christanity known as Calvinism, and Ulrich Zwingi was the leader of the Protestant Reformation in Zurich.
All of these men caused religous turmoil in their countries, because of their religious reformations sometimes Kings and Queens of countries took action, sometimes during people at the stake.


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