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Frazier: Essentials of Human Diseases and Conditions, 5th Edition



14

Student Workbook Answer Key


WORD DEFINITIONS

1. Aberration—any departure from the usual course or normal condition

2. Affect—feeling

3. Cognitive—based on knowledge

4. Delusion—untrue belief

5. Detoxification—removal of a poison or its effects from a patient

6. Deficit—shortage, missing

7. Delusion—fixed, false beliefs

8. Febrile—characterized by elevated body temperature above 100 °F

9. Genitourinary—referring to the genital and urinary system

10. Intermittent—occurring at intervals

11. Intramuscular—pertaining to the interior of a muscle

12. Lethargy—state of sluggishness or sleepiness

13. MRI—magnetic resonance imaging

14. Musculoskeletal—pertaining to the muscles and skeleton

15. Narcissistic—filled with pathologic self-love or grandiose self-admiration

16. Neurochemical—nerve chemical

17. Neurotic—pertaining to the nerves

18. Neurotransmitters—chemicals released by the terminal end fibers of an axon

19. Paranoid—distrustful, suspicious, defensive

20. Postulated—formed hypothesis

21. Precipitate—occurring hastily or unexpectedly

22. Psychological pain—any mental or non-
physical suffering that can sometimes lead to impaired or pathologic coping skills in people’s behavior


23. Psychotic—out of touch with realism, including through delusions, hallucinations,

disorganized speech, or grossly disorganized behavior

24. Spontaneously—occurring naturally and without apparent cause

GLOSSARY TERMS

1. Amnesia—loss of memory; inability to recall past experiences

2. Amyloid—waxy, starchlike protein that tends to build up in tissues and organs in certain pathologic conditions

3. Anxiolytic—substance that diminishes anxiety

4. Aphonia—inability to produce normal speech sounds or loss of voice

5. Catatonic posturing—state of not being able to move, with the assumption of a rigid, often bizarre posture

6. Continuous positive airway pressure—form of respiratory therapy in which ventilation is assisted by a flow of oxygen delivered at a constant pressure throughout the respiratory cycle

7. Hallucination—false perception of reality, whether visual, auditory, olfactory, or sensory

8. Hyperesthesia—increased sensitivity to pain

9. Mutism—condition of being unable to speak

10. Paresthesia—abnormal, usually increased, sensations

11. Positron-emission tomography (PET)—noninvasive radiographic study of the blood flow in specific organs and body tissues

12. Prodromal—refers to the initial stage of a disease before the onset of actual symptoms

13. Pseudoneurologic—refers to a neurologic symptom that is without clinical basis

14. Psychosis—a severe mental disorder where the individual loses touch with reality. The individual may experience verbal or visual hallucinations, irrational thoughts, delusions, regressive behavior, and degeneration of personality.

15. Ventricular shift—lateral movement of one of the ventricles of the brain to one side caused by pressure on the other side

SHORT ANSWER

1. Posttraumatic stress disorder

2. Alzheimer disease

3. Stress is considered a contributing factor causing exacerbation of mental disorders. Other factors are hereditary or congenital, accidental, traumatic, psychosocial, socioeconomic, or related to drug toxicity. Chemical imbalances in the brain and its neurotransmitters also are postulated to be causative factors. The specific causes of mental illness remain unclear in many cases.

4. Subaverage general intellectual functioning accompanied by significant limitations in adaptive functioning

5. There is no cure for mental retardation; once brain cells are dead, they cannot be restored.

6. Anxiety disorders

7. Perceiving, thinking, remembering

8. Bipolar disorder

9. Lithium

10. When the child first begins the formal education process

11. Anxiety

12. Autism, Pervasive Developmental Disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), Rett’s Syndrome, Childhood Disintegrative Disorder and Asperger’s syndrome.

13. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Predominantly Inattentive Type, Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type, Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Combined Type

14. Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a behavior disorder in which children demonstrate behaviors that are oppositional toward adults.

15. Haloperidol lactate (Haldol)

16. Social isolation, cognitive impairment, language deficits, repetitive naturalistic motions

17. Eye blinking, facial grimacing, coughing, neck jerking

18. A hallucination is a distortion of perception. They can be auditory, visual, olfactory, or sensory in nature.

19. Compromised blood flow to the brain resulting from atherosclerosis, thrombi, or trauma. In addition, toxins, metabolic conditions, organic disorders, infections, tumors, or Alzheimer’s disease may be responsible for the deterioration

20. Depressants, Dissociative Anesthetics, Opioids and Morphine Derivatives, Stimulants

21. Bipolar disorder is a major affective disorder with abnormally intense mood swings from a hyperactive, or manic, state to a depressive syndrome.

22. Major depressive disorder is a mood disorder characterized by one or more major depressive episodes.

23. Denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance

24. The four disorders are generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, phobic disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

25. Conversion disorder (formerly termed hysteria)

26. Psychologic factors, general medical conditions, both psychologic and general medical conditions

27. Suspicions of having a serious disease

28. Munchausen’s syndrome

29. Yes

30. Polysomnography

31. Longer than 1 month

32. Parasomnias

33. 0.08

34. Hematophobia

35. Pathophobia

36. Pathologic self-love, grandiose self-admiration, rage or humiliation if criticized, lack of empathy and tendency to exploit others, preoccupation with fantasies of unlimited success

37. The American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV)

38. Treatment aims to increase the blood supply to the brain. Antiplatelet drugs are prescribed hopefully to prevent stroke or its recurrence, especially with patients who are hypertensive or have had a myocardial infarction. Drug therapy may help increase the blood flow. When the carotid arteries are compromised, surgical intervention in the form of carotid endarterectomy may limit the progress of the condition. Brain cell death is irreversible.

39. Similar to the prognosis for vascular dementia, improvement is guarded and depends on the extent of the cerebral insult. Many of these patients are trainable with rehabilitation and can function in the community. When the damage is severe, the patient may need to be institutionalized for care and safety.

40. Learning disorders sometimes referred to as learning differences or learning disabilities, are conditions that cause children to learn in a manner that is not normal. The person with a learning disorder exhibits difficulty in acquiring a skill in a specific area of learning, such as reading, writing, and mathematics. This lower level of achievement occurs despite the child’s normal (sometimes above normal) intelligence and adequate schooling.

FILL IN THE BLANKS

1. contributing factor

2. linked, inability, cope, modern

3. real, intense, influence

4. psychotropic drugs, antidepressants, stimulants, acute, electroconvulsive

5. counseling, children

6. axis, different

7. developmental disability

8. examinations, preschool routine

9. numerous causes

10. children, differently, not

11. difficulty, skill, reading, writing, mathematics

12. genetic, prevention

13. medical, hopeless

14. adolescence

15. social, fear

16. pleasure, pain

SUGGESTED RESPONSES FOR PATIENT SCREENING

1. POSSIBLE STUTTERING

Although the situation is not an emergency, the parent who calls for an appointment for a child who is stuttering should be worked into the next available regular appointment. The anxiety for the family will be high, and they should be seen as soon as it is convenient.

2. POSSIBLE ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE

When a family member notices obvious signs of mental confusion and calls for an appointment, the appointment should be scheduled as soon possible for a thorough assessment. Anxiety levels will be high; an appointment in the next available time slot should be suggested.

3. POSSIBLE MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER

Individuals expressing symptoms of depression, often reported by family members, require immediate assessment. Suicide risk requires immediate assessment followed by intervention.

4. POSSIBLE POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER (PTSD)

The patient experiencing PTSD suffers acute emotional pain and anxiety and requires prompt medical attention.

5. POSSIBLE INSOMNIA

Although not an emergency, chronic insomnia becomes an important issue in an individual’s life. When that patient recognizes that a medical issue needs to be addressed and calls for an appointment, understanding and validating the issue requires that an appointment to be scheduled at the earliest available convenient time.

PATIENT TEACHING

1. STUTTERING

Review the printed information with the parents. Encourage the parents to be supportive and noncritical of the child. Additionally, the parents should be encouraged to seek out support groups in the community.

2. DEMENTIA

The printed information includes recommendations for consistency in patient activities and therapy. Emphasize to the caregivers that it is important to encourage the patient to do what he or she can for themselves. Rehabilitation and therapy may lead to improvement in the condition. Families require encouragement to recognize that there is no cure. Some individuals who have experienced dementia as a result of head trauma may be educable or trainable. Routines and consistency are important for the individual to function at the highest level of capability. Advise the family that improvement is not likely, and that they should prepare themselves and the patient for that possibility.

3. BIPOLAR DISORDER

Encourage the patient to take medications and to keep appointments with their therapist. Blood studies may be necessary depending on the medications prescribed and taken. Reinforce these instructions and ask the patient to express back to you his or her understanding of your instructions.

4. HYPOCHONDRIASIS

After the physician leaves the room, take a seat, establishing eye contact with the patient. Encourage the patient to learn to live with the symptoms. A supportive attitude in the health care provider builds patient confidence. Reinforce that regular appointments should be scheduled and that the patient should make an effort to keep these appointments.

5. INSOMNIA

Reviewing the printed information with the patient will reinforce the necessity of establishing normal sleep patterns and the importance of avoiding caffeine, nicotine, and other stimulants in the late afternoon and evening hours. Discourage the patient from getting into the habit of watching television or reading in bed. Help them explore what environmental changes can be made to provide a better sleep environment.

ESSAY QUESTION

Explain the physical manifestations of tic disorders. Can the person with this type of disorder control the tics?

Tic disorders cause various types of recurrent motor movement or vocalization that is not rhythmic. The motor tics can be simple such as blinking, facial grimacing, coughing, and neck jerking. Complex motor tics include facial gestures, jumping, touching, and stamping.

Simple vocal tics include throat clearing, sniffing, snorting, and grunting. Complex vocal tics include the repetition of words out of context, saying socially unacceptable words, and the repetition of one’s own words or the last sound heard.

The person with tic disorders cannot always control when they happen, but can suppress them for some time. Tics usually diminish during sleep.

PHARMACOLOGY QUESTIONS

  1. d

  2. a

  3. d

  4. d

  5. d

  6. a

  7. d

CERTIFICATION EXAMINATION REVIEW

1. c

2. b

3. c

4. a

5. a

6. b

7. b

8. c

9. c

10. b

11. b

12. b



Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2004, 2000, 1996 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.


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