Women in Political and Public Life



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Electoral Studies, (2013), 1-14.

225 Alejandra Massolo, Women’s Political Participation in Local Government, Electoral Systems, and Quota Laws in Latin America, UN-INSTRAW, p. 1, as cited in Celorio, Rosa ‘LAC report’.

226 ECLAC, Women’s Political Participation and Gender Parity in Decision-Making at All Levels in the Caribbean, as cited in Celorio, Rosa ‘LAC report’.

227 IACHR, The Road to Substantive Democracy: Women’s Political Participation in the Americas (2011), para 85, as cited in Celorio, Rosa ‘LAC report’.

228 The World’s Women 2010, Trends and Statistics, DESA 200 (pg 119-120)

229 Priya, S.K. ‘Asia Pacific Report’

230 Priya, S.K. ‘Asia Pacific Report’

231 IPU “Gender-Sensitive Parliaments: A Global Review of Good Practice” Report No 65 (2011).

232 Fuszara, Malgorzata ‘Eastern Europe report’

233 Fuszara, Malgorzata ‘Eastern Europe report’

234 Fuszara, Malgorzata ‘Eastern Europe report’

235 IPU “Gender-Sensitive Parliaments: A Global Review of Good Practice” Report No 65 (2011)

236 IPU “Gender-Sensitive Parliaments: A Global Review of Good Practice” Report No 65 (2011)

237 Castillejo, Claire. FRIDE Report 2009.

238 Gurumurthy, Anita, “Promoting gender equality? Some development-related uses of ICTs by women” Development in Practice, Vol 16, No 6, (November 2006)

239 As cited in Progress of the World’s Women, Access to Justice Report 2012.

240 Fuszara, Malgorzata ‘Eastern Europe report’

241 Fuszara, Malgorzata ‘Eastern Europe report’

242 ECLAC, Observatory on Gender Equality in Latin America and the Caribbean, Database on Women in Highest Courts in Latin America and the Caribbean, 2010, as cited in Celorio, Rosa ‘LAC report’.

243 Wilson, Rebekah ‘Western Region Report’.

244 Wilson, Rebekah ‘Western Region Report’.

245 As cited in Progress of the World’s Women, In Pursuit of Justice, 2012.

246 The Asia Foundation, “Religious Courts: Improving Women’s Access to Justice in Indonesia”

247 UNDP and NDI “Empowering women for stronger political parties” (October 2011)

248 UNDP and NDI (2011)

249 UNDP and NDI (2011)

250 Tripp, Aili Marie, “Quotas and the Political Representation of Women” Presentation to the Working Group on Discrimination against Women in Law and in Practice, October 3, 2012.

251 Tripp, Aili Marie, “Quotas and the Political Representation of Women” Presentation to the Working Group on Discrimination against Women in Law and in Practice, October 3, 2012.

252 Tripp, Aili Marie, “Quotas and the Political Representation of Women” Presentation to the Working Group on Discrimination against Women in Law and in Practice, October 3, 2012.

253 Tripp, Aili Marie, “Quotas and the Political Representation of Women” Presentation to the Working Group on Discrimination against Women in Law and in Practice, October 3, 2012. as determined by Paxton, Hughes, and Painter (2010)

254 Hamelin, Amy. “Presentation to the UN Working Group on Discrimination against Women in Law and Practice: National Democratic Institute” July 25, 2012.

255 UNDP, Enhancing Women’s Political Participation: A Policy Note for Europe and CIS, Bratislava 2009.

256 Beaman, Lori, et al. “Women as Agents of Change: Evidence from the Grassroots” Presentation to the Working Group on Discrimination against Women, July 25, 2012.

257 Beaman, Lori et al “Powerful Women: Does Exposure Reduce Bias?” The Quarterly Journal fo Economics (November 2009)

258 Beaman, Lori et al “Political Reservation and Substantive Representation: Evidence from Indian Village Councils” Report.

259 Beaman, Lori et al (2012)

260 Frechette, F, Maniquet, F, and Morelli, M. “Incumbent Interests and Gender Quotas” American Journal of Political Science, (2008).

261 As cited in Beaman, Lori et al. “Political Reservation and Substantive Representation: Evidence from Indian Village Councils” Report.

262 Hamelin, Amy (2012)

263 Abdennebi-Abderrahim, Souad ‘Africa Report’

264 Tripp, Aili Marie, “Quotas and the Political Representation of Women” Presentation to the Working Group on Discrimination against Women in Law and in Practice, October 3, 2012.

265 IDEA, “Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers” (2005) Revised report.

266 IDEA, “Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers” (2005) Revised report.

267 Hamelin, Amy (2012)

268 Hamelin, Amy (2012)

269 Chhibber, Pradeep, “Why are Women Politically Active?: The Household, Public Space and Political Participation in India” Online report. http://polisci.berkeley.edu/people/faculty/ChhibberP/india-gender.pdf

270 UNDP Empowering Women for Stronger Political Parties, pg 109

271 Wilson, Rebekah ‘Western Region Report’, as noted by Belgium response to the working group, April 2012

272 Wilson, Rebekah ‘Western Region Report’.

273 IDEA, ’30 Years of Democracy: Riding the Wave? Women’s Political Participation in Latin America’ (2008), p 29. As cited in Celorio, Rosa ‘LAC report’.

274 Celorio, Rosa ‘LAC report’

275 Celorio, Rosa ‘LAC report’.

276 Abdennebi-Abderrahim, Souad ‘Africa Report’ – see ‘Increasing Women’s Political Participation in Liberia: Challenges and Potential Lessons from India, Rwanda, and South Africa’ by Samuel Cole

277 Fuszara, Malgorzata ‘Eastern Europe report’

278 Amnesty International, “Good practices in the elimination of discrimination against women in political and public life” Letter to Jane Connors, 1 March 2012. (pg 5)

279 Priya, S.K. ‘Asia Pacific Report’

280 Priya, S.K. ‘Asia Pacific Report’

281 Priya, S.K. ‘Asia Pacific Report’

282 Priya, S.K. ‘Asia Pacific Report’

283 Fox, Richard and Jennifer Lawless, “Gender Perceptions and Political Candidacies: A Central Barrier to Women’s Equality in Electoral Politics” American Journal of Political Science, Vol 55, No 1 (January 2011), pg. 59-73

284 Fox, Richard and Jennifer Lawless (2011)

285 Banaszak, Lee Ann and S. Laurel Weldon “Informal Institutions, Protest, and Change in Gendered Federal Systems” Politics & Gender 7(2) 2011.

286Priya, S.K. ‘Asia Pacific Report’, cited Waring 2010.

287 Hamelin, Amy (2012)

288 IDEA, From Words to Action: Best Practices for Women’s Participation in Latin American Political Parties, Sweden, 2008.

289 Priya, S.K. ‘Asia Pacific Report’

290 IPU “Gender-Sensitive Parliaments: A Global Review of Good Practice” Report No 65 (2011)

291 IPU “Gender-Sensitive Parliaments: A Global Review of Good Practice” Report No 65 (2011)

292 IDEA, From Words to Action: Best Practices for Women’s Participation in Latin American Political Parties, Sweden, 2008.

293 Wilson, Rebekah ‘Western Region Report’, from Equality in Politics: A Survey of Women and Men in Parliaments, IPU, 2008. Pg 75

294 Wilson, Rebekah ‘Western Region Report’

295 Wilson, Rebekah ‘Western Region Report’

296 Wilson, Rebekah ‘Western Region Report’

297 Markham, Susan. “Strengthening Women’s Roles in Parliaments” Parliamentary Affairs, (2012) 1-11.

298 Cammisa, A. and Reingold B. “Women in State Legislature and State Legislative Research: Beyond Sameness and Difference” State Politics and Policy Quarterly 4 (2004), pp. 181-210.

299 Rosenthal, C.S. “Gender Styles in Legislative Committees” Women & Politics, 21 (2001), pp. 21-46

300 Chinkin, Christine, “Peace Agreements as a Means for Promoting Gender Equality and Ensuring the Participation of Women” United Nations, Division for the Advancement of Women (2003).

301 Hamelin, Amy (2012)

302 Hamelin, Amy (2012)

303 Tommasoli, Massimo, “Global overview of women’s political participation and implementation of the quota system” Presentation to the Working Group on Discrimination against Women in Law and Practice, 25 July 2012.

304 IPU “Gender-Sensitive Parliaments: A Global Review of Good Practice” Report No 65 (2011)

305 IPU “Gender-Sensitive Parliaments: A Global Review of Good Practice” Report No 65 (2011). It should be noted that while the Senate approved both of these bills, neither was passed by the Chamber of Deputies.

306 IACHR, “The Road to Substantive Democracy: Women’s Political Participation in the Americas” 18 April 2011

307 IPU “Gender-Sensitive Parliaments: A Global Review of Good Practice” Report No 65 (2011)

308 Markham, Susan (2012), from IPU 2008

309 Wilson, Rebekah ‘Western Region Report’, as citing: Sweden CEDAW 6th and 7th periodic reports, 2008

310 According to the CEDAW Committee, January 2008 statement.

311 OSCE/ODIHR, Handbook for NHRIs on Women’s Rights and Gender Equality, Warsaw, 2012.

312 OSCE/ODIHR, Handbook for NHRIs on Women’s Rights and Gender Equality, Warsaw, 2012.

313 OSCE/ODIHR, Handbook for NHRIs on Women’s Rights and Gender Equality, Warsaw, 2012.

314 OSCE/ODIHR, Handbook for NHRIs on Women’s Rights and Gender Equality, Warsaw, 2012.

315 OSCE/ODIHR, Handbook for NHRIs on Women’s Rights and Gender Equality, Warsaw, 2012.

316 OSCE/ODIHR, Handbook for NHRIs on Women’s Rights and Gender Equality, Warsaw, 2012.

317 Wilson, Rebekah ‘Western Region Report’

318 Waylen, Georgina, “Enhancing the Substantive Representation of Women: Lessons from Transitions to Democracy” Parliamentary Affairs, Vol 61, No 3, (2008) pg. 518-534.

319 Amnesty International, “Good practices in the elimination of discrimination against women in political and public life” Letter to Jane Connors, 1 March 2012.

320 Amnesty International, “Good practices in the elimination of discrimination against women in political and public life” Letter to Jane Connors, 1 March 2012.

321 Castillejo, Clare, “Building a State that Works for Women: Integrating Gender into Post-Conflict State Building” FRIDE, Working paper 2011.

322 Castillejo, Clare, “Building a State that Works for Women: Integrating Gender into Post-Conflict State Building” FRIDE, Working paper 2011.

323 DPKO “Ten-year Impact Study on Implementation of UN Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000) on Women, Peace and Security in Peacekeeping” Final Report to the UN (2010)

324 DPKO (2010)

325 Fuszara, Malgorzata ‘Eastern Europe report’, citing Lissyutkina 1993; Voronina 1994

326 Fuszara, Malgorzata ‘Eastern Europe report’, citing Posadskaya 1993, pg 4.

327 Priya, S.K. ‘Asia Pacific Report’

328 Priya, S.K. ‘Asia Pacific Report’, in APWLD 2012

329 UNDP, Enhancing Women’s Political Participation: A Policy Note for Europe and CIS, Bratislava 2009.

330 UNDP, Enhancing Women’s Political Participation: A Policy Note for Europe and CIS, Bratislava 2009.

331 UNDP, Enhancing Women’s Political Participation: A Policy Note for Europe and CIS, Bratislava 2009.

332 Bell, Christine, Presentation to the Working Group, Geneva, January 15 2013.

333 Bell, Christine and O’Rourke, Catherine, “Peace Agreements of Pieces of Paper: UN Security Council Resolution 1325 and Peace Negotiations and Agreements” Transitional Justice Institute Research paper No 11-01. (2010)

334 Bell, Christine, Presentation to the Working Group, January 15, 2013.

335 Castillejo, Clare, “Building a State that Works for Women: Integrating Gender into Post-Conflict State Building” FRIDE, Working paper 2011.

336 Nasneen, Sohela and Mahmud, Simeen, “Gendered Politics of Securing Inclusive Development” ESID Working Paper, No 13. September 2012.

337 Nasneen, Sohela and Mahmud, Simeen, “Gendered Politics of Securing Inclusive Development” ESID Working Paper, No 13. September 2012.

338 Bell and O’Rourke (2010)

339 Bell and O’Rourke (2010)

340 Bell and O’Rourke (2010)

341 Tripp, Aili Marie, “Women and Constitution-Making in Africa” Presentation to the Working Group, (10/3/2012)

342 Tripp, Aili Marie, “Women and Constitution-Making in Africa” Presentation to the Working Group, (10/3/2012)

343 Tripp, Aili Marie, “Women and Constitution-Making in Africa” Presentation to the Working Group, (10/3/2012)

344 UN 2010, in Priya, S.K. ‘Asia Pacific Report’

345 Scribner, Druscilla and Lambert, Priscilla. “Constitutionalizing Gender Difference: Implications for Women’s Rights Advocacy in the Southern Cone” Working Paper, http://www.law.wisc.edu/gls/documents/druscilla_sribner_paper.pdf

346 Scribner, Druscilla and Priscilla Lambert, “Constitutionalizing Difference: A Case Study Analysis of Gender Provisions in Botswana and South Africa” Politics & Gender 6 (2010), 37-61.

347 Morgan, Martha. “How constitution-making, interpretation, and implementation can contribute to protecting and promoting women’s rights” Remarks to the Working Group, October 3, 2012.

348 UN Women submission, in Priya, S.K. ‘Asia Pacific Report’

349 Fulton, Sarah “Remedy & Reparation” Presentation to the Working Group in Discrimination Against Women in Law and in Practice, July 2012.

350 Fulton, Sarah (2012)

351 As stated in the Basic Principles and Guidelines on the Right to Remedy and Reparation, 2005.

352 Fulton, Sarah (2012)

353 Fulton, Sarah (2012)

354 Association of Parents of Disappeared Persons, “Half Widow, Half Wife? Responding to Gendered Violence in Kashmir” July 2011 Report.

355 Maisel, Margaret “Have truth and reconciliation commissions helped remediate human rights violations against women? A feminist analysis of the past and formula for the future” Cardozo Journal of International and Comparative Law, Vol 20: 143.

356 Maisel, Margaret “Have truth and reconciliation commissions helped remediate human rights violations against women? A feminist analysis of the past and formula for the future” Cardozo Journal of International and Comparative Law, Vol 20: 143.
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