Women in Political and Public Life



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 For example, the Arab Charter on Human Rights 2008, The AICHR and the draft ASEAN Human Rights Declaration (AHRD) and the SAARC Convention on Combating and Prevention of Trafficking in Women and Children for Prostitution, as cited in Priya, S.K. ‘Asia Pacific Report’.

70 It states clearly in Article 3(3) that:” Men and women are equal in human dignity, in rights and in duties, within the framework of the positive discrimination established in favor of women by Islamic Shari’a and other divine laws, legislation and international instruments. Consequently, each State Party to the present Charter shall undertake all necessary measures to guarantee the effective equality between men and women.” Full text at: www1.umn.edu/humanrts/instree/arabcharter2.html, as cited in Priya, S.K. ‘Asia Pacific Report’.

71 In Article 3(1)

72 Article 11 states, “All persons are equal before the law and have a right to enjoy its protection without discrimination.”

73 Article 24 guarantees freedom of political activity and the right to gain access to public office to all citizens.

74 Article 33 states that violence within the family, especially to women and children, is prohibited.

75 One of the ten established committees of the Economic, Social and Cultural Council (ECOSOC) of the AU, as cited in Abdennebi-Abderrahim, Souad “African regional report” Report to the Working Group on discrimination against women in law and in practice (hereafter: ‘Abdennebi-Abderrahim, Souad ‘Africa Report’”)

76 Abdennebi-Abderrahim, Souad ‘Africa Report’.

77The main articles of the Maputo Protocol include the Elimination of discrimination against women; Right to dignity; Right to life, integrity and security of the person; Elimination of harmful practices (especially Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) and other traditional practices that are harmful to women); Marriage, separation, divorce and annulment of marriage; Access to justice and equal protection before the law; Right to Participation in the Political and Decision-Making; Process Right to Peace Protection of Women in Armed Conflicts; Right to Education and Training; Economic and Social Welfare Rights; Health and Reproductive Rights; Right to Food Security; Right to Adequate Housing; Right to Positive Cultural Context; Right to a Healthy and Sustainable Environment; Right to Sustainable Development ;Widows' Rights ; Right to Inheritance; Special Protection of Elderly Women; Special Protection of Women with Disabilities; Special Protection of Women in Distress; and Remedies. In Abdennebi-Abderrahim, Souad ‘Africa Report’.

78


79 Frances Raday, concept note definition

80 10/7/12 (Application No 58369/10 ECHR Decision), as cited in Wilson, Rebekah “Western region report”

81 Frances Raday, concept note definition

82 Irving, Helen, “Where Have All the Women Gone? Gender and the Literature on Constitutional Design” Sydney Law School, Legal Studies Research Paper, No 10/50 (May 2010)

83 Irving, Helen, “Where Have All the Women Gone? Gender and the Literature on Constitutional Design” Sydney Law School, Legal Studies Research Paper, No 10/50 (May 2010)

84 Irving, Helen, “Where Have All the Women Gone? Gender and the Literature on Constitutional Design” Sydney Law School, Legal Studies Research Paper, No 10/50 (May 2010)

85 Hirshl, Ran and Shackar, Ayelet, “Constitutional Transformation, Gender Equality and Conflict in Israel” in Beverly Baines and Ruth Rubio-Marin, eds. The Gender of Constitutional Jurisprudence, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

86 Waylen, Georgina, Engendering Transitions: Women’s Mobilization, Institutions, and Gender Outcomes, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press (2007), pg. 538

87 Baines, Beverly & Rubio-Marin, Ruth, “Introduction: Towards a Feminist Constitutional Agenda” in The Gender of Constitutional Jurisprudence, Beverly Baines and Ruth Rubio-Marin, eds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (2005), pg. 9

88 Baldez, Lisa, Epstein, Lee, and Martin, Andrew. “Does the US Constitution Need an Equal Rights Amendment?” Journal of Legal Studies, 35: 243-283 (2006).

89 This section of the report highlights constitution-making and reform more generally; while section 5 highlights the particular issues of constitution-making during times of political transition.

90 Morgan, Martha. “How constitution-making, interpretation, and implementation can contribute to protecting and promoting women’s rights” Remarks to the Working Group, October 3, 2012.

91 This corresponds with Irving’s conception of a ‘whole constitution approach’. Irving, Helen (2010)

92 UNIFEM, ‘Engendering Constitutions: Gender Equality Provisions in Selected Constitutions” November 2007

93 Morgan, Martha. “How constitution-making, interpretation, and implementation can contribute to protecting and promoting women’s rights” Remarks to the Working Group, October 3, 2012.

94 UNIFEM, ‘Engendering Constitutions: Gender Equality Provisions in Selected Constitutions” November 2007

95 UNIFEM, ‘Engendering Constitutions: Gender Equality Provisions in Selected Constitutions” November 2007

96 AWC “Women Gains in the Proposed Constitution of Kenya” April 2010.

97 UNIFEM, ‘Engendering Constitutions: Gender Equality Provisions in Selected Constitutions” November 2007

98 UNIFEM, ‘Engendering Constitutions: Gender Equality Provisions in Selected Constitutions” November 2007

99 UNIFEM, ‘Engendering Constitutions: Gender Equality Provisions in Selected Constitutions” November 2007

100 Morgan, Martha. “How constitution-making, interpretation, and implementation can contribute to protecting and promoting women’s rights” Remarks to the Working Group, October 3, 2012.

101 Lucas, Laura E. “Does gender specificity in constitutions matter?” Duke Journal of Comparative & International Law, Vol 20: 133.

102 Lucas, Laura E. “Does gender specificity in constitutions matter?” Duke Journal of Comparative & International Law, Vol 20: 133.

103 This paragraph is from Wilson, Rebekah ‘Western Region Report’.

104 Sixth periodic Report of Greece to the Committee (01/07/2005) (Page 15), as cited in Wilson, Rebekah ‘Western Region Report’

105 Greek submissions to the OHCHR: 9/01/12 (Page 1), as cited in Wilson, Rebekah ‘Western Region Report’

106 (articles 4(2) and 116(2))

107 Article 11, Belgium CEDAW country report: 22/06/2007 (Page 61), as cited in Wilson, Rebekah ‘Western Region Report’

108 See text of Constitution of Bolivia, 2009, http://pdba.georgetown.edu/Constitutions/Bolivia/bolivia09.html, as cited in Celorio, Rosa ‘LAC report’.

109 See text of Constitution of Ecuador, 2008, http://pdba.georgetown.edu/Constitutions/Ecuador/english08.html

110 See Articles 65, 116, 176, and 434 of Constitution of Ecuador (2008), as cited in Celorio, Rosa ‘LAC report’.

111 See Article 108 of Constitution of Ecuador (2008).

112 Solanda Goyes, Quelal, Specialist of Agora Democrática/International IDEA, Ecuador, Real Equality as a Normative Principle and Parity as a Right: The Case of Ecuador, in A Citizen’s Democracy: Visions and Debates from the Perspective of Women’s Rights in the Americas (2012), pp. 218-227.

113 This case study comes from Progress of the World’s Women, In Pursuit of Justice, 2012.

114See National Plan on Gender Equality, Peru, August 2012, available at: http://www.mimdes.gob.pe/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2272&Itemid=170, as cited in Celorio, Rosa ‘LAC report’.

115 UNDP, Enhancing Women’s Political Participation: A Policy Note for Europe and CIS, Bratislava 2009.

116 Frances Raday, concept note definition

117 Bond, Johanna E. “Constitutional Exclusion and Gender in Commonwealth Africa” Fordham International Law Journal, Vol 31, Issue 2. Article 1 (2007).

118 Tripp, Aili Marie, “Women and Constitution-Making in Africa” Presentation to the Working Group, (10/3/2012)

119 The Constitution of the Kingdom of Swaziland Act 2005

120 Tripp, Aili Marie, “Women and Constitution-Making in Africa” Presentation to the Working Group, (10/3/2012)

121 This case is from Progress of the World’s Women, In Pursuit of Justice, 2012.

122 Htun and Weldon 2012

123 This case study is noted in Progress of the World’s Women, In Pursuit of Justice, 2012.

124 This case study is noted in Progress of the World’s Women, In Pursuit of Justice, 2012. http://www.musawah.org/

125 Frances Raday, concept note definition

126 Tripp, Aili Marie, “Women and Constitution-Making in Africa” Presentation to the Working Group, (10/3/2012)

127 Tripp, Aili Marie, “Women and Constitution-Making in Africa” Presentation to the Working Group, (10/3/2012)

128 CEDAW, Concluding observations of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women,, 5 April 2011, (CEDAW/C/ISR/CO/5)

129 Freedman, Jane. “Protecting Women Asylum Seekers and Refugees: From International Norms to National Protection?” International Migration, Vol 48:1 (2009)

130 Freedman, Jane (2009)

131 Crawley, H. “Women and refugee status: beyond the public/private dichotomy in UK asylum policy” in D. Indra, ed. Engendering Forced Migration Oxford University (1999), pg 309

132 Freedman, Jane (2009)

133 Freedman, Jane (2009)

134 Freedman, Jane (2009)

135 Center for Gender & Refugee Studies, Case Law, http://cgrs.uchastings.edu/law/gender_guidelines.php

136 Frances Raday, concept note definition

137 Mobaraki A.E.H and Soderfeldt, B. “Gender inequity in Saudi Arabia and its role in public health” Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, Vol 16, No 1, (2010)

138 Sadiqi, Fatima and Ennaji, Moha, “The Feminization of Public Space: Women’s Activism, The Family Law, and Social Change in Morocco” Journal of Middle East Women’s Studies, Vol 2, No 2 (Spring 2006), pg 86-114.

139 Sadiqi, Fatima and Ennaji, Moha (2006)

140 Sadiqi, Fatima and Ennaji, Moha (2006)

141 Freedom in the World 2012, Iran as cited in Priya, S.K. ‘Asia Pacific Report’

142 SWAPOL, “Joint Universal Periodic Submission – Swaziland” Universal Periodic Review – Women and LGPTSs Cluster. http://lib.ohchr.org/HRBodies/UPR/Documents/session12/SZ/JS2-JointSubmission2-eng.pdf

143 Priya, S.K. ‘Asia Pacific Report’

144 As cited in Progress of the World’s Women, Access to Justice Report, 2012.

145 Priya, S.K. ‘Asia Pacific Report’ and UNDP 2010

146 Skalli, Loubna H. “Communicating Gender in the Public Sphere: Women and Information Technologies in the MENA” Journal of Middle East Women’s Studies, Vol 2, No 2 (Spring 2006), 35-59.

147 Amir-Ebrahami, Masserat, “Transgression in Narration: The Lives of Iranian Women in Cyberspace” Journal of Middle East Women’s Studies, Vol 4, No 3 (Fall 2008), pg, 89-118

148 Amir-Ebrahimi, Masserat (2008)

149 Skalli, Loubna H. (2006)

150 Skalli, Loubna H. (2006)

151 Celorio, Rosa ‘LAC report’

152 ECLAC, Opinion Survey, Political Parity of Gender in Latin America: Evolution, Impulses and Barriers from the Leaders of the Region, April 2011, pg 32, as cited in Celorio, Rosa ‘LAC report’.

153 Celorio, Rosa ‘LAC report’

154 Fuszara, Malgorzata “Eastern Europe report” Report to the Working Group on discrimination against women in law and in practice. (hereafter: “Fuszara, Malgorzata ‘Eastern Europe report’”)

155 Zaatari, Zeina, “The Culture of Motherhood: An Avenue for Women’s Civil Participation in South Lebanon”, The Journal of Middle East Women’s Studies, Vol 2, No 1 (Winter 2006), pg 33-64.

156 Gurumurthy, Anita, “How public and political participation may need to be recast in the network society context” IT for Change, December 2012.

157 Gurumurthy, Anita, “How public and political participation may need to be recast in the network society context” IT for Change, December 2012.

158 Stolle, Dietlind and Hooghe, Marc, “Shifting inequalities? Patterns of exclusion and inclusion in emerging forms of political participation” Discussion Papers No. SP | 2009-204.

159 Stolle, Dietlind and Hooghe, Marc, (2009)

160 Moolman, Presentation to the Working Group, 2013.

161 Stolle, Dietlind and Hooghe, Marc, (2009)

162 Stolle, Dietlind and Hooghe, Marc, (2009). This research is based on data from Western Europe and the US, over several decades, and for a number of participation acts. Results also focus in on the Dutch Election Studies.

163 Skalli, Loubna H. (2006)

164 Skalli, Loubna H. (2006)

165 Gurumurthy, Anita, “Promoting gender equality? Some development-related uses of ICTs by women” Development in Practice, Vol 16, No 6, (November 2006)

166 As stated in the Report of the Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression, Frank La Rue, (A/HRC/17/27) May 2011.

167 As stated in the Report of the Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression, Frank La Rue (A/66/290) August 2011.

168 This information comes from Jan Moolman, Presentation to the Working Group, January 15, 2013.

169 Moolman, Presentation to the Working Group, 2013.

170 Celorio, Rosa ‘LAC report’

171 Moolman, Presentation to the Working Group, 2013.

172 Priya, S.K. ‘Asia Pacific Report’

173 Gurumurthy, Anita (2012).

174 Celorio, Rosa ‘LAC report’.

175 Celorio, Rosa ‘LAC report’.

176 As referenced in Wilson, Rebekah ‘Western region report’.

177 Jansen, Jim, “The civic and community engagement of religiously active Americans” Pew Research, 2011.

178 ILO “The role of trade unions in promoting gender equality and protecting vulnerable women workers” ILO-ICFTU survey, November 2000.

179 Modern Ghana “Less women in trade unions – study reveals” 12 April 2011. http://www.modernghana.com/news/324453/1/less-women-in-trade-unions-8211-study-reveals.html

180 Kirton, Gill and Geraldine Healy “’Lift as you rise’: Union women’s leadership talk” human relations 65(8) 2012. Pp. 979-999

181 Kirton, Gill and Geraldine Healy, 2012.

182 Parker, Jane and Janice Foley “Progress on Women’s Equality within UK and Canadian Trade Unions: Do Women’s Structures Make a Difference?” Industrial Relations 65(2) 2010.

183 Frances Raday, concept note definition

184 Priya, S.K. ‘Asia Pacific Report’

185 CEDAW Concluding Comments, Bhutan (CEDAW/C/BTN/CO 7) 2009

186 UN Women in South Asia, New Delhi “More women vote in India’s state assembly election” 9 March 2012

187 Priya, S.K. ‘Asia Pacific Report’

188 IACHR, The Road to Substantive Democracy: Women’s Political Participation in the Americas (2011),

189 IACHR, The Road to Substantive Democracy: Women’s Political Participation in the Americas (2011),

190 Fuszara, Malgorzata ‘Eastern Europe report’

191 UNDP HDR 2010 report (as cited in Priya, S.K. ‘Asia Pacific Report’)

192 As stated by the Reports of the SR on the Situation of Human Rights Defenders (A/HRC/16/44)

193 Priya, S.K. ‘Asia Pacific Report’

194 Priya, S.K. ‘Asia Pacific Report’.

195 Frances Raday, concept note definition

196 Paxton, Pamela, Hughes, Melanie & Painter, Matthew, “Growth in women’s political representation: A longitudinal exploration of democracy, electoral system and gender quotas” European Journal of Political Research 49: 25-52 (2010)

197 Abdennebi-Abderrahim, Souad ‘Africa Report’.

198 Asia has also had a number of other noteworthy leaders including in Mongolia with the election of Sukhbaataryn Yanjmaa as the world’s first female acting president; in Benazir Bhutto in Pakistan as the first female Prime Minister of any Muslim majority country; and the two consecutive presidencies of women in New Zealand, with Jenny Shipley and Helen Clark.

199 There are a number of other women who have served as heads of state in LAC, including in Nicaragua, Guyana, Panama and Chile.

200 Abdennebi-Abderrahim, Souad ‘Africa Report’

201 Wilson, Rebekah ‘Western region report’.

202 This number was subsequently reduced due to the amount of skepticism that surrounded the adoption of the parity policy, which forced President Bachelet to replace women in several senior-level cabinet positions.

203 As cited in IDRC and UKAID, Summary of Discussions, “Women’s Political Empowerment: The State of Evidence and Future Research” September 11-12, 2012.

204 BID and PROLEAD, The Road to Power: Latin American Ministers, 1950-2007, pg 11. As cited in Celorio, Rosa ‘LAC report’.

205 UN Women and IPU, Women in Politics: 2012 (January 1, 2012)

206 Paragraph as discussed in Priya, S.K. ‘Asia Pacific Report’.

207 IDEA, “Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers” (2005) Revised report.

208 IPU “Women in Parliament in 2011: The Year in Perspective” (2011) report.

209 Abdennebi-Abderrahim, Souad ‘Africa Report’

210 Abdennebi-Abderrahim, Souad ‘Africa Report’

211 Abdennebi-Abderrahim, Souad ‘Africa Report’

212 Abdennebi-Abderrahim, Souad ‘Africa Report’

213 As cited in Priya, S.K. ‘Asia Pacific Report’.

214 Fuszara, Malgorzata ‘Eastern Europe report’

215 Fuszara, Malgorzata ‘Eastern Europe report’

216 UN Women and IPU, Women in Politics: 2012

217 UN Women and IPU, Women in Politics: 2012

218 IPU “Women in Parliament in 2011: The Year in Perspective” (2011) report.

219 IPU “Women in Parliament in 2011: The Year in Perspective” (2011) report.

220 IACHR, The Road to Substantive Democracy: Women’s Political Participation in the Americas (2011),

221 IPU “Women in Parliament in 2011: The Year in Perspective” (2011) report.

222 IDEA, “Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers” (2005) Revised report.

223 IDEA, “Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers” (2005) Revised report.

224 Thomas, Melanee and Bodet, Marc Andre, “Sacrificial lambs, women candidates and district competitiveness in Canada”,
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