Women and art in early modern europe

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Nicola Courtright Spring 2012, ARHA 284/WAGS 206

My office: Fayerweather 206 M/W 2:00-3:20

Office Hours: T 3:30-4:30 & by appointment Classroom: Fayerweather 217


This course will examine the ways in which prevailing ideas about women and gender shaped visual imagery, and how these images, in turn, influenced ideas concerning women from the Renaissance to the Enlightenment. It will adopt a comparative perspective, both by identifying regional differences among European cultures and tracing changes over time. In addition to considering patronage of art by women and works by women artists, we will look at the depiction of women heroes such as Judith; the portrayal of women rulers, including Elizabeth I and Marie de' Medici; and the imagery of rape. Topics emerging from these categories of art include biological theories about women; humanist defenses of women; the relationship between the exercise of political power and sexuality; differing attitudes toward women in Catholic and Protestant art; and feminine ideals of beauty.

  • Gain an understanding about how historical attitudes about women and by women affect art made about and by women;

  • Develop an analytical ability to examine deeply points of view expressed in texts and art of a historical period other than our own and to distinguish them from another;

  • Find ways of learning collaboratively with classmates;

  • Develop and argue an original thesis in an extended research paper.

Attendance is extremely important, for the substance of this course is in material introduced in the classroom, not in a textbook. Your grade will depend in part upon your participation in class.
The following books may be purchased at the bookstore:
*Agnolo Firenzuola, On the Beauty of Women (Pennsylvania, 1992)

*Merry E. Wiesner, Women and Gender in Early Modern Europe (3rd ed., Cambridge,

None of these contains a real survey of the course material, so we are going to have to make one up as we go along. To this end, I have placed a variety of required readings (labeled Reading on the syllabus) on electronic reserve in Frost Library. They, along with visual imagery placed in juxtaposition with them on a daily basis, will form the basis of class discussion and essays. The section entitled Other Bibliography contains useful background reading, and provides sources for your research papers. Some of these books may be on reserve.
In the first half of the semester you will be developing critical skills through discussion and analysis of texts and art. (All assignments and course documents will be posted on our web portals under “My Amherst,” then “Women and Art in Early Modern Europe.”)
The assignments that will help you achieve this goal are:
*Responses and abstracts. Either brief visual analyses of works of art, responses to a prompt about issues in the readings, or an abstract of the readings will be due before class for posting on the CMS or Moodle. Your overall grade goes down if you do not post each one. We will discuss issues emerging from them in class.
*Short, graded papers. Two analyses relate a work of art to a particular issue emerging from the readings and discussion. I would like you show all first drafts to someone at the Writing Center. (3 typed pp., one due Week 3 and the other Week 7.) All papers must be typed and submitted on time online.

Week 3 --First graded analysis (due Friday Feb. 10)

Through observation of elements of form, write about a work of art in the Mead Art Museum representing a female saint or another woman in a religious context and consider how the artist conveys an idea about women and spirituality through the use of forms. (See “Considerations for a Formal Analysis.”) Be sure to:

  • Organize your paper so that it follows a continuous argument;

  • Use visual evidence to make your points;

  • Write at least 2 versions. I recommend you take the first to the Writing Center.

In the second half of the semester you will research and write a paper featuring an original idea (around 10 pp.) The week-by-week assignments will help you to identify an original idea, do research on your topic, and develop an argument through sequential writing assignments. You will still have regular responses to the readings.
Week 5: I’ll be gone Wed., Feb. 22.
Week 6 (Feb. 27-29)

Read Diane Owen Hughes, "Sumptuary Law and Social Relations in Renaissance Italy," or Christiane KlapischZuber, "The Griselda Complex: Dowry and Marriage Gifts in the Quattrocento," and analyze the way either writer sets up and makes an argument. In a few sentences, write:

1) What does the author do in the first paragraph and in the second paragraph? Where does she say what other scholars have done and what she is preparing to do?
2) What is some of the main evidence she uses to make her point?
3) What is her conclusion? Where does she place it?
Week 7 (March 5-7)

  1. Pick a work of art for your research paper and begin your research (see “First Set of Steps toward a Research Paper”). Hand in paper telling me which work of art you’ve chosen.

  1. Second graded analysis (due Friday, March 16)

Through observation of elements of form, write about a work of art in the Mead Art Museum representing a woman – portrait, domestic scene, or other – and consider how the artist conveys an idea about women and her place in society through the use of forms. (See “Considerations for a Formal Analysis.”) Be sure to:

  • Organize your paper so that it follows a continuous argument;

  • Use visual evidence to make your points;

  • Write at least 2 versions. I suggest that you take the first to the Writing Center.

SPRING BREAK – Get plenty of rest and go see some art!
Week 9 (March 26-28) Write and hand in:

1) a page summarizing the usefulness of 3 articles and/or books you’ve located for your research (“First Set of Steps…”); and

2) a page analyzing the best article on the subject of your research paper in the same manner you did for the article by Hughes or Klapisch-Zuber (see above, Week 6).
Week 9 (March 31-April 2)

--Collect a group of related works of art and write a paragraph on their similarities and differences (see “Second Set of Steps toward a Research Paper.”)

Week 10 (April 2-4)

-- Figure out a problem that your topic presents and hand in a paper stating what it is, and positing a hypothesis for a solution (see “Third Set of Steps toward a Research Paper.”)

--Hand in an annotated bibliography.
--Come see Prof. Courtright with illustrations and talk about your problem/hypothesis.
Week 11 (April 9-11)

--First version of research paper due Wed. April 18 (see “Fourth Set of Steps toward a Research Paper.”)

1) Write your rough draft.

2) Write a descriptive outline (see “Descriptive Outlines as a Tool for Revision.”)

3) Revise your draft.

Week 12 (April 21-23)

-- Meet with me to discuss your revised first version of your paper.

--Do more research and re-write (see “Fifth Set of Steps toward a Research Paper.”)

-- Go to Writing Center, re-write again.
Week 13. (April 28-30)

 Final version of research paper due Friday, May 4.

Week 1-2 (1-23-2/1)
Art as documentary evidence

Art history and feminism

Biology as destiny

Gender, sexuality

Primary sources


*Aristotle, De generatione animalium, Bk. 1. ch. 2. (716a-b), trans. D.M. Balme (NY: Oxford UP, 1992), 21-24, 127-34

Secondary material


*Scott, Joan W. “Women’s History” and “Gender: A Useful Category of Historical Analysis,”

chaps. 1-2 in her Gender and the Politics of History (rev. ed., NY: Columbia UP, 1999), 17-50; 223-235.

*Delphy, Christine. “Rethinking Sex and Gender,” Feminist Theory Reader: Local and Global

Perspectives, ed. Carole McCann and Seung-Kyung Kim (2nd ed., ), 58-68.

*Wiesner, M. Women and Gender in Early Modern Europe, “Introduction.”


*MacLean, Ian. The Renaissance Notion of Woman (Cambridge, 1980), Chap. 3, 2846.

*Greenblatt, Stephen. “Fiction and Friction,” in Reconstructing Individualism: Autonomy, Individuality,

and the Self in Western Thought, ed. Thomas C. Heller et al. (Stanford: Stanford UP, 1986), 30-52, 329-32
Other Bibliography

Ariès, Philippe, ed. A History of Sexuality, trans. Anthony Forster (Oxford: Blackwell, 1985)

Crawford, Katherine. European Sexualities, 1400-1800 (Cambridge: Cambridge U, 2007)

Davis, Natalie Zemon and Arlette Farge, eds. Renaissance and Enlightenment Paradoxes (A History of

Women in the West, vol. 3) (Cambridge: Harvard, 1997)

Gilman, Sander. Sexuality: an Illustrated History (New York, 1989).

Hartman, Joan E. and Adele Seeff, eds. Structures and Subjectivities: Attending to Early Modern Women

(Newark: U Delaware Press, 2007)

Laqueur, Thomas. Making Sex: Body and Gender from the Greeks to Freud (Cambridge, 1990)

Meade, Teresa A. and Merry Wiesner-Hanks, A Companion to Gender History (Malden, MA: Blackwell,


Muir, Edward and Guido Ruggiero, eds. Sex and Gender in Historical Perspective (Baltimore, 1990)

Simons, Patricia, Gender and Sexuality in Renaissance and Baroque Italy: A Working Bibliography (Sydney, 1988)

Rabb, T.K. and Jonathan Brown. "Introduction," in The Evidence of Art: Images and Meaning in History, ed. Robert I. Rotberg and T.K. Rabb (Cambridge, 1988), 16

Tuana, Nancy. The Less Noble Sex: Scientific, Religious, and Philosophical Conceptions of Woman's Nature (Indiana, 1993)

Turner, James G., ed. Sexuality and Gender in Early Modern Europe: Institutions, Texts, Images

Cambridge, 1993).

Week 2-3 (1/30-2/8)


Mary, mother and virgin

Early Christian saints: Mary Magdalene  Donatello, Caravaggio, Lanfranco

Nuns and mystical union with Christ -- Bernini, Lanfranco

Primary sources

*Genesis 1, 2

*Teresa of Avila, in Irving Lavin, Bernini and the Unity of the Visual Arts (Oxford, 1981), 107
Secondary material

*Bynum, Caroline Walker. “The Female Body and Religious Practice in the Later Middle Ages,”

in: Fragmentation and Redemption: Essay on Gender and the Human Body in Medieval Religion

(NY: Zone Books, 1991), 181-238, notes ??

*Miles, Margaret. Image as Insight (Boston: Beacon Press, 1985), Intro., 113

*Wiesner, Mary. Women and Gender in Early Modern Europe, Ch. 6

Other Bibliography

Bell, Rudolph M. and Donald Weinstein, Saints and Society: The Two Worlds of Western Christendom, 10001700 (Chicago, 1982)

[Bokenham, Osbern.] A Legend of Holy Women, trans. Sheila Delany (Notre Dame, 1992).

Brown, Peter. The Body and Society: Men, Women and Sexual Renunciation in Early Christianity (Columbia, 1988)

Bynum, Caroline Walker. Fragmentation and Redemption: Essay on Gender and the Human Body in Medieval Religion (NY: Zone Books, 1991)

Bynum, Caroline Walker. Holy Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval Women (Berkeley: U Cal Press, 1987)

Johnson, Penelope. Equal in Monastic Profession. Chicago, 1991.

Malvern, Marjorie. Venus in Sackcloth: The Magdalen's Origins and Metamorphoses (Carbondale and Edwardsville, IL, 1975)

Matter, E. Ann. "The Personal and the Paradigm: The Book of Maria Domitilla Galluzzi," in

The Crannied Wall: Women, Religion, and the Arts in Early Modern Europe, ed. Craig Monson (U. Michigan, 1992), 87103

McLaughlin, Megan. "Gender Paradox and the Otherness of God," Gender and History, 31 (1991), 14759

Miles, Margaret. Carnal Knowing: Female Nakedness and Religious Meaning in the Christian West

(Boston: Beacon Press, 1989)

Or Mooney, Catherine, ed. Gendered Voices: Medieval Saints and their Interpreters (Phil: U

Penn, 1999).

Russell, H. Diane. Eva/Ave: Woman in Renaissance and Baroque Prints (Washington: Nat. Gallery of Art, 1990)

Schulenberg, Jane Tibbetts. "Female Sanctity: Public and Private Roles, ca. 5001100," in Women and Power in the Middle Ages (Athens: U. Georgia, 1988), 10225

Valone, Carolyn. "Roman Matrons as Patrons: Various Views of the Cloister Wall," in The Crannied Wall: Women, Religion, and the Arts in Early Modern Europe, ed. Craig Monson (U. Michigan, 1992), 4972

Warner, Marina. Alone of All Her Sex: The Myth and Cult of the Virgin Mary (NY: Vintage, Random House, 1983)

Week 4 (2/13-2/15)
Sexual inversion


Female heroes

Primary sources


*Boccaccio, De mulieribus claris/Famous Women, trans. Virginia Brown (Cambridge: Harvard

UP, 1991), 3-7 (Dedication), 159-63 (Penelope), 167-81 (Dido), 193-5 (Sappho), 233-

43 (Artemisia), 361-73 (Cleopatra), 467-73 (Joanna, queen)


Secondary material


*Monter, William. "Protestant Wives, Catholic Saints, and the Devil's Handmaid: Women in the Age of Reformations," in Becoming Visible, ed. R. Bridenthal et al. (Boston: Houghton, 1987), 203219


*Garrard, Artemisia Gentileschi: The Image of the Female Hero in Italian Baroque Art (Princeton:

Princeton UP, 1989), Chap. 2: "Historical Feminism and Female Iconography," 141179

*Wiesner, Women and Gender, Ch. 7

Other Bibliography

Buettner, Brigitte. linkBoccaccio’s Des cleres et nobles femmes : Systems of Signification in an Illuminated

Manuscript (Seattle: U Wash P, 1996)

Burns, Norman T. and Christopher J. Reagan, eds., Concepts of the Hero in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance (Albany, 1975)

Cohn, Samuel K., Jr. Women in the Streets: Essays on Sex and Power in Renaissance Italy (Baltimore, 1996)

Hults, Linda. The Witch as Muse: Art, Gender and Power in Early Modern Europe (Phil: U

Penn P, 2005)  

Jordan, Constance. "Boccaccio's InFamous Women: Gender and Civic Virtue in the De Mulieribus Clarism, in Ambiguous Realities: Women in the Middle Ages and Renaissance, ed. Carole Levin and Jeanie Watson (Detroit: Wayne State U., 1987), 2547

Mullins, Edwin B. The Painted Witch: How Western Artists Have Viewed the Sexuality of Women (New York, 1985)

Smith, Susan L. The Power of Women: A Topos in Medieval Art and Literature (Philadelphia,


Week 5-6 (2/20-2/29)

Portraits and proportion

Renaissance vs. Baroque nude


Primary sources

*Agnolo Firenzuola, On the Beauty of Women (1548) (Philadelphia: U Penn Press, 1992)

*Sigmund Freud [handouts]
Secondary material

*Elizabeth Cropper, "The Beauty of Woman: Problems in the Rhetoric of Renaissance Portraiture," in Rewriting the Renaissance, ed. M.W. Ferguson et al. (Chicago, 1986), 175190

*Jones, Ann R. and Peter Stallybrass. Renaissance Clothing and the Material of Memory (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2000), ch. 2 “Composing the Subject: Making Portraits,” 34-58

*Sohm, Philip. “Gendered Style in Italian Art Criticism from Michelangelo to Malvasia.” Renaissance Quarterly 48 (1995), 759-808.

Other Bibliography

Clark, Kenneth. The Nude: A Study in Ideal Form (NY: Doubleday, 1956)

Duby, Georges, ed. Power and Beauty: Images of Women in Art (London, 1992)

Crawford, Katherine. The Sexual Culture of the French Renaissance (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge UP, 2010)

Rogers, Mary. "The Decorum of Women's Beauty: Trissino, Firenzuola, Luigini and the Representation of Women in SixteenthCentury Painting," Oxford Art Journal, 2 (1988): 4787

Rosenthal, Margaret F. The Honest Courtesan: Veronica Franco, Citizen and Writer in Sixteenth-Century Venice. Chicago, 1992

Saunders, Gill. The Nude: A New Perspective (London: Harper and Row, 1989)

Talvacchia, Bette. Taking Positions: On the Erotic in Renaissance Culture (Princeton: Princeton UP, 1999)

Wolfthal, Diane. In and Out the Marital Bed. Seeing Sex in Renaissance Europe (New Haven and

London: Yale University Press, 2010

Week 7-9 (3/5-3/28)
Status of women in early modern societies

Italian Renaissance portraits, single and conjugal

Court lady, court imagery in Italy

Primary material


*Christine de Pisan. linkA Medieval Woman’s Mirror of Honor: The Treasury of the City of Ladies,

trans. Charity Willard (Tenafly: Persea/Bard Press, 1989), Bk. 1, ch.18-22 (pp. 113-21),

Bk. 2, ch. 10-13 (pp. 170-83), Bk. 3, ch. 1-9 (pp. 185-214)


*Castiglione, The Book of the Courtier, Book 3, trans. Charles Singleton (Doubleday, 1959),


*Isabella d'Este, selected letters, from Julia Cartwright, Isabella d’Este (London, 1903)

[Courtright will distribute]
Secondary sources


*Wiesner, Women and Gender, Ch. 1-4

*Davis, Natalie Z. Society and Culture in Early Modern France (Stanford, 1975), “Women on

Top,” 124151

*Hughes, Diane Owen. "Sumptuary Law and Social Relations in Renaissance Italy," in Disputes and Settlements, ed. John Bossy (Cambridge, 1983), 6999

*KlapischZuber, Christiane. "The Griselda Complex: Dowry and Marriage Gifts in the Quattrocento," in her Women, Family, and Ritual in Renaissance Italy, trans. Lydia Cochrane (Chicago, 1985), 21347.


*Jordan, Constance. "Feminism and the Humanists: The Case for Sir Thomas Elyot's Defense of Good Women," in Rewriting the Renaissance, ed. M.W. Ferguson et al. (Chicago, 1986), 24258

*Solum, Stefanie. “Attributing Influence: the Problem of Female Patronage in Fifteenth-Century Florence,” The Art Bulletin, 90 (2008), 76-100.
Other Bibliography


Burckhardt, Jakob. The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy (Oxford, 1937)

Cereta, Laura. Collected Letters of the Renaissance Feminist, trans. and ed. by Diana Robin (Chicago, U

Chicago P, 1997)

Goffen, Rona. Titian's Women (New Haven: Yale, 1997)

Kelly, Joan. "Early Feminist Theory and the Querelle des Femmes, 14001789," in her Women, History, and Theory (Chicago, 1984), 65109

Kelly, Joan. "Did Women Have a Renaissance?," in Becoming Visible, ed. R. Bridenthal et al. (Boston: Houghton, 1987), 175201

Kelso, Ruth, Doctrine for the Lady of the Renaissance (Urbana: U. Ill., 1956)

Migiel, Marilyn and Juliana Schiesari, eds., Refiguring Women: Perspectives on Gender and the Italian Renaissance (Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1991)

Schurman, Anna Maria von. Whether a Christian Woman Should Be Educated and Other Writings from her Intellectual Circle, ed. Joyce L. Irwin (Chicago, 1998)

Simons, Patricia. "(Check)mating the Grand Masters: The Gendered Sexualized Politics of Chess in Renaissance Italy," Oxford Art Journal 16 (1993): 5974

Tinagli, Paola. Women in Italian Renaissance Art: Gender, Representation, Identity (Manchester

and NY, 1997)

Wiesner, Merry. "Women's Defense of Their Public Role," in Women in the Middle Ages and the

Renaissance, ed. M.B. Rose (Syracuse, 1986), 127

Alberti, Leon Battista. Della famiglia/The Family in Renaissance Florence, trans. R. Watkins

(Columbia: U. So. Carolina P, 1969)

Ariès, Philippe. Centuries of Childhood: A Social History of Family Life (NY: Vintage, 1962)

Ariès, P. and Georges Duby, eds. A History of Private Life, 5 vols. (Cambridge: Harvard, 1987)

Goody, Jack. The Development of the Family and Marriage in Europe (Cambr: Cambridge UP,


Ozment, Steven. When Fathers Ruled: Family Life in Reformation Europe (Cambridge: Harvard,


Barbaro, Francesco. "On Wifely Duties," in The Earthly Republic: Italian Humanists on Government and Society, ed. B. Kohl and R.G. Witt, (Philadelphia, U.Penn Press, 1978) 177228

Baskins, Cristelle. Cassone Painting, Humanism and Gender in Early Modern Italy (Cambridge:

Cambridge UP, 1998)

Benson, Pamela Joseph. The Invention of the Renaissance Woman (Penn State U., 1992)

Bestor, Jane Fair. “Marriage Transactions in Renaissance Italy and Mauss’s Essay on the Gift,” Past and Present 164 (Aug., 1999), 6-46

Christiansen, Keith. "Lorenzo Lotto and the Tradition of Epithalamic Paintings," Apollo, 124, 1986, 16673

Duby, Georges. Love and Marriage in the Middle Ages (Chicago, 1994)

Hughes, Diane Owen. “From Brideprice to Dowry in Mediterranean Europe,” Journal of Family History 3, 3 (1978), 262-96

King, Catherine, "Medieval and Renaissance Matrons, ItalianStyle," Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte 55 (1992): 37293

Sperling, Jutta. “Dowry Or Inheritance? Kinship, Property, and Women’s Agency In Lisbon, Venice, and Florence (1572),” Journal of Early Modern History 11,3 (2007):197-238 [online at www.brill.nl/jemh]

Musacchio, Jacqueline. The Art and Ritual of Childbirth in Renaissance Italy (Yale UP: 1999)


Allison M. Levy, ed. Widowhood and Visual Culture in Early Modern Europe (Aldershot:

Ashgate, 2003)


Campbell, Lorne. Renaissance Portraits: European PortraitPainting in the 14th, 15th, and 16th Centuries (Yale, 1990)

Hughes, Diane Owen. “Representing the Family: Portraits and Purposes in Early Modern Italy,” in Robert Rotberg and T.K. Rabb, eds., Art and History: Images and their Meaning (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1988), 7-38

Simons, Patricia. "Women in Frames: The Gaze, the Eye, the Profile in Renaissance Portraiture,"

in The Expanding Discourse, ed. N. Broude and M. Garrard (NY: Harper Collins, 1992), 3857.
Week 10 (4/2-4/4)
Dutch and Flemish family portraits

Dutch domestic imagery

Primary sources

*Geertruydt Roghman, A Woman Cleaning, engraving, Mead Art Museum [AC 1997.6]

Secondary material


*Peacock, Martha Moffitt. “Domesticity in the Public Sphere,” in: Saints, Sinners and Sisters, ed. Jane L. Carroll and Alison G. Stewart (Ashgate, 2003), 44-68

*Simon Schama, The Embarrassment of Riches (New York: Knopf, 1987), Chap. 6: "Hussies and Housewives"
Other Bibliography

Bedaux, Jan Baptist. The Reality of Symbols: Studies in the Iconology of Netherlandish Art, 14001800 (Hague: Gary Schwartz, 1990)

Franits, Wayne. Paragons of Virtue: Women and Domesticity in 17thCentury Dutch Art (Cambridge, 1993)

Peacock, Martha Moffitt. Harpies and Henpecked Husbands: Images of the Powerful Housewife in Netherlandish Art (Ann Arbor: U Michigan P, 1989)

Smith, David. Masks of Wedlock: SeventeenthCentury Dutch Marriage Portraiture (Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1982)

Week 11 (4/9-4/11)

Elizabeth I of England

Catherine de Médicis and Marie de Médicis of France

Primary sources


*Elizabeth, I, “On Marriage,” and “The Golden Speech,” in The Longman Anthology of British Literature, 2nd ed., vol. 1B, ed. Constance Jordan and Clare Carroll (New York: Longman, 2003), ??pp.

*Marie de Medici, to be handed out

Secondary material


*Levin, Carole. "John Foxe and the Responsibilities of Queenship," in Women in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, ed. M.B. Rose (Syracuse, 1986), 11329

*ffolliott, Sheila. "Catherine de' Medici as Artemisia: Figuring the Powerful Widow," in Rewriting the Renaissance, ed. Margaret W. Ferguson et al. (Chicago, 1986), 22734??, 370-76
Other Bibliography

Axton, Marie. The Queen's Two Bodies: Drama and the Elizabethan Succession. London, 1977.

Crawford, Katherine. Perilous Performances: Gender and Regency in Early Modern France

(Cambridge: Harvard U Press, 2004)

Hackett, Helen. Virgin Mother, Maiden Queen: Elizabeth I and the Cult of the Virgin Mary (New York, 1996)

Jordan, Constance. Renaissance Feminism: Literary Texts and Political Models, (Ithaca: Cornell

UP, 1990.

Levin, Carole. The Heart and Stomach of a King: Elizabeth I and the Politics of Sex and

Power (Philadelphia: U. Penn, 1994)

Levin, Carole. "Power, Politics, and Sexuality: Images of Elizabeth I," in The Politics of Gender in Early Modern Europe, ed. J.R. Brink et al. (Kirksville, Mo., 1989), 95110

Levin, C. and P.A. Sullivan, eds. Political Rhetoric, Power, and Renaissance Women (Albany: SUNY Press, 1995)

Marrow,D. The Art Patronage of Marie de'Medici (Ann Arbor: , 1982)

Millen, R.F. and R.E. Wolf, Heroic Deeds and Mystic Figures: A New Reading of Rubens' Life of Maria de'Medici (Princeton, 1989)

Saward, Susan. The Golden Age of Marie de'Medici (Ann Arbor, 1982)

Strong, Roy. The Cult of Elizabeth (Berkeley, 1986)

Strong, Roy. Gloriana: The Portraits of Queen Elizabeth I (New York, 1987)

Thuillier, Jacques and Jacques Foucart. Rubens' Life of Marie de' Medici (New York, 1967)

Weil, Rachel. "The Crown has Fallen to the Distaff: Gender and Politics in the Age of Catherine de Medici, 15601589," Critical Matrix, I (1985), 138

Yates, Frances. Astraea: The Imperial Theme in the Sixteenth Century (London, 1975)
Week 12 (4/16)
Titian, Rubens, Gentileschi

Primary sources


*Rape trial of Artemisia Gentileschi, in Mary Garrard, Artemisia Gentileschi (1989), 41087

Secondary material


*Carroll, Margaret. "The Erotics of Absolutism: Rubens and the Mystification of Violence,"

Representations, 25 (1989), 330 [online—e-journal]

* Cohen, Elizabeth S. “The Trials of Artemisia Gentileschi: A Rape as History,” Sixteenth-

Century Journal, XXXI (2000): 47-75
Other Bibliography

Tomaselli, S. and R. Porter. Rape, eds. (Oxford: Oxford UP, 1986)

Donaldson, Ian. The Rapes of Lucretia: A Myth and its Transformations (Oxford, 1982)

Jed, Stephanie. Chaste Thinking: The Rape of Lucretia and the Birth of Humanism (Bloomington, IN, 1989)

Higgins, Lynn A. and Brenda R. Silver, eds. Rape and Representation (Columbia U. Press,


Saslow, James. Ganymede in the Renaissance: Homosexuality in Art and Society (New Haven:

Yale UP, 1986)

Wolfthal, Diane. Images of Rape: The “Heroic” Tradition and its Alternatives (Cambridge:

Cambridge UP, 1999)

Week 12-13 (4/18-4/25)

Italian Rnss. and Bque.: Sophonisba Anguissola, Lavinia Fontana, Artemisia Gentileschi

Dutch 17th c.: Judith Leyster, Clara Peeters

Secondary material


*Jones, Ann R. and Peter Stallybrass. Renaissance Clothes and the Materials of Memory

(Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2000), Ch. 6, “The needle and the pen,” 134-71

*Nochlin, Linda. "Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?," in Women, Art and Power

and Other Essays (NY: Harper and Row, 1988), 14578

*Wiesner, Women and Gender, Ch. 5.

Other Bibliography

Decoteau, Pamela Hibbs, Clara Peeters 1594ca. 1640 and the Development of StillLife Painting in Northern Europe (Lingen, 1992)

Hamburger, Jeffrey. Nuns as Artists: The Visual Culture of a Medieval Convent (Berkeley:

California UP,1997)

Harris, Ann Sutherland and Linda Nochlin. Women Artists: 15501950 (L.A. County Museum of Art exh., 1976)

Judith Leyster: A Dutch Master and Her World, Frans Halsmuseum, Haarlem and Worcester Art Museum exh. (New Haven: Yale UP, 1993)

Parker, Rozsika and Griselda Pollock. Old Mistresses: Women, Art and Ideology (New York:

Pantheon, 1981)

Week 13-14 (4/23-5/2)

Rococo: Boucher, Fragonard

Enlightenment thought

Primary material

*Elisabeth Vigée-Lebrun, to be handed out.
Secondary material
*FoxGenovese, Elizabeth. "Women and the Enlightenment," in Becoming Visible, ed. R. Bridenthal et al. (Boston: Houghton, 1987), 25177
Other Bibliography

DeJean, Joan. Tender Geographies: Women and the Origins of the Novel in France.

(Columbia U. Press)

Dock, T.S. Women in the Encyclopédie (Madrid, 1983)

Duncan, Carol. "Happy Mothers and Other New Ideas in 18thCentury Art," in Feminism and Art History: Questioning the Litany, ed. Norma Broude and Mary Garrard (New York: Harper & Row), 20120

Fritz, Paul, and Richard Morton, eds., Woman in the 18th Century and Other Essays (Toronto and Sarasota, 1976)

Goodman, Dena. The Republic of Letters: A Cultural History of the French Enlightenment (Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1994)

Hunt, Margaret R. Women in Eighteenth-Century Europe (Harlow: Pearson Longman, 2010)

Hyde, Melissa. Making up the Rococo: François Boucher and his Critics (L.A.: Getty), 2006.

Hyde, Melissa, ed. Women, Art and the Politics of Identity in the 18th Century (Aldershot and Burlington: Ashgate, 2006).

Lichtenstein, Jacqueline. “Making Up Representation: The Risks of Femininity,” Representations 20 (1987), 77-87

Landes, Joan. Women and the Public Sphere in the Age of the French Revolution (Ithaca, 1988)

Lee, Vera. The Reign of Women in 18thCentury France (Harvard, 1975)

Perry, Gill, and Michael Rossington, eds. Femininity and Masculinity in Eighteenth-Century Art and Culture (Manchester, 1994)

Posner, Donald. "Mme. de Pompadour as a Patron of the Visual Arts," Art Bulletin, 72 (1990):


Sheriff, Mary. Fragonard: Art and Eroticism (Chicago, 1990)

Sheriff, Mary. The Exceptional Woman: Elisabeth Vigée-Lebrun and the Cultural Politics of Art

(Chicago: U Chicago, 1996)

Spencer, Samia I., ed. French Women and the Age of the Enlightenment (Bloomington, 1984)

Tomaselli, Sylvana. "The Enlightenment Debate about Women," History Workshop, 20 (1985):


Vigée-Lebrun, Elisabeth. Mémoires d’une portraitiste, 1755-1842 (Paris: Scala, 2003)

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