Window on the Past Anne-Marie is



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PAGE 1
Window on the Past
1. Anne-Marie is

a. English-Canadian.

b. Saulteaux.

c. French-Canadian.

d. Måtis.
2. The bison hunt is led by the Captain of the Hunt and involves all members of the

a. North West Mounted Police.

b. Saulteaux community.

c. Måtis community.

d. all of these
3. When Anne-Marie first sees the bison, she

a. rides straight for Mr. Grant.

b. yells out to the hunters.

c. rides straight for the bison herd.

d. stays where she is.
4. The Måtis sell pemmican to the

a. Hudson's Bay Company.

b. North West Company.

c. Selkirk settlers.

d. American prospectors.
5. The leader of the newcomers has angered the Måtis by

a. taking over their farms.

b. forbidding them to sell pemmican.

c. driving away the bison.

d. insulting the Måtis leaders.
6. After the battle with the Måtis, the settlers immediately

a. made peace.

b. attacked again.

c. fled the area.

d. handed over control to the Måtis.
Timeline
1. Which of the following events occurred first?

a. The NWC is founded.

b. The Pemmican Proclamation is issued.

c. The HBC and NWC merge.

d. Thomas Scott is executed.
2. Which of the following events occurred first?

a. Selkirk's treaty with the Cree and Ojibwa nations is signed.

b. Manitoba enters Confederation.

c. The Selkirk settlement is founded.

d. The HBC and NWC merge.
3. Which of the following events occurred last?

a. The HBC and NWC merge.

b. Cuthbert Grant raids an HBC pemmican supply.

c. The Måtis community flourishes.

d. The NWC is founded.

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4. Which of the following events occurred last?

a. The Red River Rebellion takes place.

b. The Pemmican Proclamation is issued.

c. The HBC and NWC merge.

d. The NWC is founded.


5. Which of the following events are out of sequence?

a. The NWC is founded.

b. The HBC is founded.

c. The Selkirk settlement is founded.

d. The Pemmican Proclamation is issued.
6. Which of the following events are out of sequence?

a. Selkirk's treaty with the Cree and Ojibwa nations is signed.

b. The HBC and NWC merge.

c. Manitoba enters Confederation.

d. Thomas Scott is executed.
Multiple Choice Questions
1. The territory granted to the HBC in 1670 was known as

a. Charles's Land.

b. the North West Territory.

c. Rupert's Land.

d. the HBC Grant.
2. The territory granted to the HBC in 1670 was defined as all land where rivers flowed into

a. the Arctic Ocean.

b. Hudson Bay.

c. the Great Lakes.

d. the Pacific Ocean.
3. The type of pelt that the HBC used as a form of currency was

a. muskrat.

b. bison.

c. beaver.

d. otter.
4. In its first century, the HBC followed a trade policy known as

a. Bring Your Furs to Us.

b. It's Hard not to Think of the Bay.

c. Stay By the Bay.

d. Go Forth and Trade.
5. The HBC shipped furs back to England

a. via Montreal.

b. directly from Hudson Bay.

c. via American ports.

d. via Toronto.
6. Unlike the HBC, the NWC was based in Montreal and

a. did not trade in beaver.

b. had a very strict trade policy.

c. had its employees travel to Native villages to trade.

d. all of these
7. The NWC shipped furs to England

a. via Montreal.

b. directly from Hudson Bay.

c. via American ports.

d. via Toronto.

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8. The hivernants of the NWC differed from HBC Factors in that they

a. were responsible for trading furs.

b. lived in the Northwest.

c. were partners in their company.

d. were paid salaries.


9. The NWC employed explorers primarily to

a. search for the Northwest Passage.

b. undertake a geographical survey of the Northwest.

c. claim new territories for Britain.

d. search out new fur-trading areas.
10. The aggressive policies of the NWC led to it

a. bankrupting the HBC.

b. having more posts than the HBC.

c. having to sell out to the HBC.

d. taking over the HBC.
11. The NWC employees who paddled canoes were known as

a. courers de bois.

b. hivernants.

c. voyageurs.

d. factors.
12. Which of the following did not characterize canots du nord? They

a. had a crew of six.

b. carried about 4000 kilos of cargo.

c. were used only in the Northwest.

d. were about 7-metres long.
13. Which of the following did not characterize canots de maitre? They

a. had a crew of twelve.

b. could carry up to 4000 kilos of cargo.

c. were used only in the Northwest.

d. were about 11-metres long.
14. The Native people with whom the HBC traded first were the

a. Cree.


b. Ojibwa.

c. Assiniboin.

d. Blackfoot.
15. The fur trade disrupted Native ways of life because

a. middlemen often cheated Native traders.

b. fur-trade demands forced Native peoples to trap full-time.

c. the use of firearms depleted supplies of game.

d. it forced Native peoples to convert to Christianity.
16. Which of the following was most important to First Nations peoples?

a. work for work's sake

b. wealth accumulation

c. sustaining themselves and their families

d. taking control of the fur trade
17. Which of the following, introduced by Europeans, damaged Native ways of life?

a. smallpox

b. measles

c. alcohol

d. all of these

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18. The fur trade encouraged aboriginal groups to move into new areas because

a. new posts were built outside established areas.

b. game animals were frightened away by Europeans.

c. as fur supplies became depleted, trappers would move into another area.

d. all of these


19. A mind map does not

a. indicate sources of water and other natural resources.

b. show the location of prominent landscape features.

c. show the approximate travel times between places.

d. use an accurate scale for distances.
20. As supplies of furs declined,

a. competition between the NWC and the HBC lessened.

b. the HBC became Canada's first retailer of general goods.

c. competition between the NWC and HBC intensified

d. the HBC and NWC were forced to cooperate.
21. The Måtis emerged as a people because the

a. NWC encouraged its traders to marry Native women.

b. HBC encouraged its traders to marry Native women.

c. Roman Catholic Church encouraged intermarriage.

d. English king insisted that HBC traders must be married.
22. When a native woman married a fur trader, her family

a. disowned her.

b. was expelled from its Native group.

c. lost social status.

d. gained social status.
23. The NWC encouraged intermarriage between its fur traders and native women because

a. it felt that traders needed a stable family life.

b. such marriages strengthened ties with local native groups.

c. such practices annoyed the HBC.

d. it wished to undermine native cultures.
24. When a Native woman married a fur trader, she usually

a. was looked down upon by other Native women.

b. was condemned by both Native people and Europeans.

c. enjoyed a better standard of living.

d. would soon return to her Native family.
25. The HBC initially discouraged its employees from marrying Native women because it

a. did not want to support too many dependents.

b. had a spiritual commitment to celibacy.

c. viewed such marriages as immoral.

d. had no ministers to conduct such marriages
26. The term "Måtis" referred to persons of Native and French Canadian ancestry. Persons of Native and Scottish/British ancestry preferred the term

a. bois brulå.

b. hivernant.

c. country-born.

d. euro-american.
27. The Måtis were usually of which religious affiliation?

a. Anglican

b. Mennonite

c. shamanism

d. Roman Catholic

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28. As the Måtis began to farm, they laid out their farms in the

a. township pattern.

b. English freehold pattern.

c. seigneurial pattern.

d. Huron pattern.


29. The major item that the Måtis supplied to the NWC was

a. flour.

b. pemmican.

c. vegetables.

d. wagons and canoes.
30. The most important social event for the Måtis was the

a. bison hunt.

b. springtime arrival of European goods.

c. fur fair at Fort Douglas.

d. celebration of Christmas.
31. The bison hunt was

a. conducted only by men.

b. allowed to became a free-for-all.

c. organized like a military expedition

d. undertaken only in the spring.
32. For the Måtis, the bison hunt was

a. only a ritual and of little practical use.

b. a community activity with economic importance.

c. based solely on the needs of the fur trade.

d. all of these
33. Lord Selkirk established agricultural colonies in British North America because he wanted to

a. help poor tenant farmers in Scotland.

b. control the food supply of the HBC.

c. increase his profits in agriculture.

d. clear his English lands to raise sheep.
34. Lord Selkirk was able to obtain a grant of land from the HBC because he

a. had permission from King George III.

b. paid the HBC a large sum of money.

c. had secret information from the NWC.

d. was a director of the HBC.
35. Selkirk's land grant from the HBC covered a territory located in what is now

a. southern Ontario and Michigan.

b. southern British Columbia and Oregon.

c. southern Manitoba and North Dakota.

d. southern Alberta and Montana.
36. The settlers in the Red River Colony survived their first two years because the

a. harvests were good.

b. NWC and the Måtis assisted them.

c. food supplies they brought were plentiful.

d. Americans sold them food.
37. The governor of the Red River Colony, Miles Macdonell, feared that supplies would run out in 1814. As a result, he

a. forced the Måtis off the area's richest farmland.

b. purchased supplies from the NWC.

c. issued the Pemmican Proclamation.

d. revoked the Pemmican Proclamation.

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38. The Pemmican Proclamation was designed to

a. protect the Selkirk colonists' food supply.

b. force the Måtis to leave.

c. force the Selkirk settlers to return Måtis farms.

d. put an end to the bison hunt.


39. In response to the Pemmican Proclamation, the NWC

a. arrested Macdonell and harassed colonists.

b. killed Macdonell and many colonists.

c. hired mercenaries to help Macdonell.

d. both b) and c)
40. The colonists returned to the Red River in the late summer of 1815, and their leader, Colin Robertson,

a. arrested the local NWC traders.

b. reissued the Pemmican Proclamation.

c. made peace with the NWC and the Måtis.

d. had the colonists join in the bison hunt.
41. Robert Semple, the new governor of the Red River Colony,

a. followed Robertson's policies.

b. attacked and burned Fort Gibraltar.

c. took the colonists east to Fort William.

d. bought all supplies of pemmican.
42. Semple regarded the Måtis as

a. better farmers than the colonists.

b. noble peoples of the plains.

c. necessary allies, because they hunted bison.

d. inferior, because of their mixed ancestry.
43. The leader of the Måtis in the Red River in 1816 was

a. Colin Robertson.

b. Thomas Douglas.

c. Robert Semple.

d. Cuthbert Grant.
44. In 1816, Semple and a group of colonists confronted the Måtis at Seven Oaks. This resulted in

a. the Måtis being defeated.

b. a compromise being reached.

c. the Måtis killing Semple and twenty colonists.

d. the colonists retreating to Fort Gibraltar.
45. After the Battle of Seven Oaks, Lord Selkirk

a. abandoned his idea of a colony on the Red River.

b. made peace with the Måtis.

c. led a military expedition of Swiss mercenaries.

d. negotiated a treaty with the NWC.
46. In 1817, Lord Selkirk tried to gain legitimate control of the Red River Colony by signing a treaty with the

a. NWC.


b. Cree and Ojibwa.

c. Måtis.

d. British government.
47. In response to Lord Selkirk's actions in 1817, the NWC

a. filed lawsuits against Selkirk.

b. agreed to his demands.

c. took Selkirk captive.

d. sued the British government.

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48. By 1820, both the NWC and HBC were

a. diversifying their activities.

b. making large profits.

c. suffering financially.

d. expanding further west.


49. When the NWC and HBC merged in 1821, the NWC obtained

a. 45 shares in the new company.

b. 55 shares in the new company.

c. the right to name the new company the North West Company.

d. control over all trading posts in the Northwest.
50. The HBC retained control of the new merged company by

a. buying out NWC partners.

b. shipping furs via Fort William.

c. opening new trading posts.

d. shipping furs via Hudson Bay.
51. The HBC employed Native peoples not only as trappers but also as

a. guides.

b. translators.

c. map-makers.

d. all of these
52. In 1821, the new governor of the HBC's Northern Department was

a. Robert Semple.

b. David Thompson.

c. George Simpson.

d. Colin Robertson.
53. Shortly after being appointed in 1821, the new governor of the HBC's Northern Department

a. employed Cuthbert Grant as Warden of the Plains.

b. employed Cuthbert Grant as his deputy governor.

c. increased the price paid to the Måtis for pemmican.

d. gave the Måtis additional land grants.
54. George Simpson's management style included

a. giving more power to employees.

b. travelling throughout the Northwest.

c. allowing Factors to control operations.

d. running the HBC from a desk.
55. George Simpson brought his English wife to the Red River Colony in 1830 and she

a. tried to teach the Måtis English customs.

b. refused to socialize with the Måtis.

c. had his Måtis children sent to reservations.

d. all of these
56. George Simpson responded to his new life in the community with his English wife by

a. attempting to change his wife's social views.

b. helping her organize a school for Måtis orphans.

c. sending her back to England.

d. writing scathing entries in his Character Book.
57. George Simpson remained governor of the HBC until he

a. died, in 1860.

b. left Canada in 1832.

c. was replaced by a younger man, in 1851.

d. was knighted in 1841.

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58. By 1860, the majority of people in the Red River Settlement were

a. Canadians.

b. Scots.

c. of mixed descent.

d. Americans.


59. The basis of the economy of the Red River Settlement was

a. the bison hunt.

b. exporting agricultural produce.

c. supplying the HBC.

d. building Red River carts.
60. The Red River cart was noisy because its

a. two axles were not greased.

b. single axle was not greased.

c. purpose was to frighten bison.

d. wheels were made of metal.
61. The Red River Settlement was

a. socially isolated.

b. dependent on other communities.

c. usually free of gossip.

d. all of these
62. The group that created social tensions in the Red River Settlement in the 1860s was the

a. Scottish Selkirk settlers.

b. country-born.

c. Canadians.

d. Måtis.
63. The leader of the Canadian Party in the Red River Settlement was

a. John Schultz.

b. Thomas Scott.

c. Louis Riel.

d. Donald Smith.
64. In 1869, the government of Canada purchased Rupert's Land from the

a. NWC.


b. British Crown.

c. Måtis.

d. HBC.
65. John Schultz was opposed to which group in the Red River Settlement.

a. the Canadians

b. the Americans

c. the Måtis

d. the Protestants
66. In its negotiations with the Canadian government between 1867 and 1868, the HBC gave up

a. 2.8 million hectares of prairie farmland.

b. its trade monopoly.

c. the right to trade furs.

d. a large sum of money.
67. Canadian land surveyors caused problems in the Red River settlement because they

a. could not speak Scottish.

b. used the long-lot system of surveying.

c. did not recognize existing claims.

d. tried to purchase the land they were surveying.

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68. By profession, Louis Riel was a

a. doctor.

b. teacher.

c. accountant.

d. lawyer.


69. In the summer of 1869, Louis Riel ordered his followers to

a. observe and confront the surveyors.

b. arrest the Dominion surveyors.

c. attack members of the Canadian Party.

d. proclaim an independent Måtis nation.
70. Faced with uncertainty about the future of the Red River Settlement, Riel and his followers

a. declared independence.

b. left the area.

c. welcomed the new governor.

d. took over Fort Garry.
71. A provisional government is a

a. permanent government, with set elections.

b. rebellious government, determined only to oppose the real government.

c. means of preserving order until a permanent government can be created.

d. government which holds no real power.
72. Riel and the provisional government were determined to

a. become an independent nation.

b. create a province for the Måtis only.

c. join the United States.

d. create a province which would respect the rights of all persons.
73. In late 1869, Riel feared that the Canadian Party was about to

a. join the provisional government.

b. leave the Red River.

c. attack the provisional government.

d. break their alliance.
74. Thomas Scott was executed because he

a. insulted Louis Riel.

b. threatened Riel's life.

c. he was Protestant.

d. insulted the governor.
75. Rumours and propaganda that were spread in Ontario made Thomas Scott seem to be a

a. bigot.

b. traitor.

c. martyr

d. thief.
76. When the Manitoba Act was passed, it granted the Måtis

a. control of all public lands.

b. 200 000 hectares of land.

c. no rights of any kind.

d. official status as a people.
77. In order to preserve order after the Manitoba Act was passed, Macdonald

a. made Riel premier of Manitoba.

b. sent troops to keep order.

c. declared Shultz an outlaw.

d. made Cuthbert Grant premier of Manitoba.

PAGE 10
78. When Canadian troops arrived in Winnipeg in late August, 1870, they

a. found Riel had fled the area.

b. executed many of Riel's followers.

c. arrested Riel.

d. asked Riel to continue in office.


79. For his part in the execution of Thomas Scott, Riel was

a. executed for murder.

b. banished from Canada for life.

c. banished from Canada for five years.

d. granted complete amnesty.
Short Answer Questions
1. Other than having shorter routes, what geographical advantage did the Hudson's Bay Company have over the North West Company?
2. Compare and contrast the trading practices and policies of the Hudson's Bay Company with the North West Company. Provide two ways in which they were similar and at least five ways in which they were different.
3. Describe four effects that the fur trade had on Native peoples in the Northwest.
4. Evaluate the following statement: The Måtis were more European than native in their way of life.
5. Identify four reasons that explain why Selkirk's settlement became a source of conflict.
6. Assess the character and abilities of George Simpson. In your response, provide three positive traits and three negative.
7. Describe four causes of the conflicts in the Red River Settlement in the 1860s.
8. Compare and contrast the Måtis List of Rights and the Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Provide two ways in which they are similar and three ways in which they are different.
9. Describe five reasons that the Måtis could use to justify the execution of Thomas Scott.
Skills Questions

[Teacher: Provide copy of Figures 4-1 and Figure 4-2, Horizons, p. 131 and p. 133]
Use the copy of the maps provided to answer the questions below.
1. Which company had a legal claim to land? Draw on you reading of Horizons to answer this question.
2. Which company had shorter routes to their major shipping points?
3. Which company had more trading posts?
4. Based on the maps, compare and contrast the HBC and the NWC. Provide three ways in which they were similar and four ways in which they were different.

[Teacher: Provide copy of Figure 4-6, Horizons, p. 136]
Use the copy of maps provided to answer the questions below.
5. Which aboriginal group expanded the most?

PAGE 11
6. Which aboriginal group had a natural trading advantage? Provide reasons for your response.


7. In 1720, which two aboriginal groups overlapped?
8. In 1780, which three aboriginal groups overlapped?

[Teacher: Provide copy of Figure 4-7, Horizons, p. 137. INCLUDE INSERT MAP]
Use the copy of the maps provided to answer the questions below.
9. Referring to the Mind Map, how many days journey is it between 33 and 17? Between 24 and 30? Between 23 and 16?
10. Identify two ways in which the Mind Map is accurate. Refer to the modern map.
11. Identify three ways in which the Mind Map would now be considered inaccurate. Refer to the modern map.

[Teacher: Provide copy of Rules of the Bison Hung, Horizons, p. 141]
Use the Rules of the Bison Hunt to answer the questions below.
12. What were the three punishments for disobedience?
13. Why was destruction of property a punishment?
14. What was the effect of the punishment for theft?

[Teacher: Provide copy of Figure 4-21, Horizons, p. 153]
Use the copy of the calendar chart provided to answer the questions below.
15. Which seasonal activity was undertaken for the longest period?
16. In which two activity environments (the left-hand column) were there the least variety of activities?
17. In which three activity environments (the left-hand column) were there the widest variety of activities?
18. Basing your response on the calendar chart provided, answer the following question: Was the Måtis way of life more aboriginal or more European? Provide reasons for your response.

(c) 2000, Prentice Hall Ginn Canada. All rights reserved.

PAGE 1
ANSWER KEY FOR TEST - UNTITLED
Window on the Past
1. d

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 1


2. c

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 2


3. a

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 3


4. b

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 4


5. b

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 5


6. c

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 6


Timeline
1. a

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 1


2. c

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 2


3. a

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 3


4. a

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 4


5. a/b

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 5


6. c/d

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 6


Multiple Choice Questions
1. c

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 1


2. b

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 2


3. c

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 3


4. c

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 4


5. b

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 5


6. c

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 6

PAGE 2
7. a

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 7


8. c

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 8


9. d

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 9


10. c

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 10


11. c

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 11


12. b

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 12


13. c

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 13


14. a

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 14


15. b

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 15


16. c

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 16


17. d

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 17


18. c

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 18


19. d

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 19


20. c

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 20


21. a

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 21


22. d

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 22


23. b

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 23


24. c

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 24


25. a

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 25


26. c

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 26


27. d

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 27

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28. c

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 28


29. b

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 29


30. a

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 30


31. c

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 31


32. b

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 32


33. a

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 33


34. d

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 34


35. c

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 35


36. b

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 36


37. c

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 37


38. a

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 38


39. a

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 39


40. c

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 40


41. b

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 41


42. d

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 42


43. d

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 43


44. c

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 44


45. c

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 45


46. b

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 46


47. a

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 47


48. c

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 48

PAGE 4
49. b

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 49


50. d

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 50


51. d

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 51


52. c

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 52


53. a

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 53


54. b

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 54


55. b

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 55


56. d

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 56


57. a

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 57


58. c

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 58


59. c

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 59


60. b

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 60


61. a

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 61


62. c

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 62


63. a

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 63


64. d

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 64


65. c

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 65


66. b

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 66


67. c

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 67


68. d

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 68


69. a

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 69

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70. d

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 70


71. c

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 71


72. d

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 72


73. c

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 73


74. b

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 74


75. c

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 75


76. b

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 76


77. b

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 77


78. a

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 78


79. c

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 79


Short Answer Questions
1. Hudson's Bay Company routes followed rivers flowing directly into Hudson Bay. As a result, its traders had less need to portage or use other transportation than the North West Company's traders. The NWC used the Great Lakes as a water route, and this required their traders to have long periods of overland travel where the rivers did not flow west-east.

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 1


2. The Hudson's Bay Company and the North West Company were both fur-trading companies and both operated in the Northwest. This is where similarities end. The HBC was a more hierarchical, top-down operation than the NWC. It initially adopted a stay-by-the-Bay policyÄÄand Native traders had to come to its posts. The North West Company, on the other hand, had their traders travel to Native villages. The NWC had no trade standard, but the HBC had a very strict standard (the "made beaver" pelt). The HBC treated all its workers, including Factors, purely as salaried employees, whereas the NWC had "wintering partners," who shared in profits. The HBC used its large and sometimes hard-to-portage York Boats to carry cargo, whereas the NWT used canoes (canot du nord and canot de maitre). The HBC expanded its number of trading posts late in the 18th century, whereas the NWC focused on increasing its number of posts from its beginning. In terms of relations between traders and Native peoples, the HBC discouraged intermarriage, whereas the NWC encouraged intermarriage. Finally, the HBC shipped its furs to England via Hudson Bay, while the NWC shipped from Montreal, via Fort William.

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 2

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3. Some European goods, such as the cooking pot, improved the standard of living for Native peoples. Europeans also introduced deadly diseases (for which Native peoples had no natural immunity)ÄÄand this led to a disastrous decline in population. The NWC traded in alcohol, and this caused widespread suffering in Native communities, where alcohol had been unknown. As the fur trade developed, many Native groups became so involved that they abandoned traditional activities, such as hunting and gathering. Thus their subsistence way of life was uprooted. Along with fur traders came missionaries, who introduced Native peoples to Christianity.

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 3


4. Disagree: In their seasonal activities, the Måtis spent more time on traditional Native activities (such as the bison hunt, fishing, hunting, and so on) than they did on European activities. [Students could cite the data from Figure 4-21, Horizons, p. 153]. Agree: The Måtis were more European than Native in their way of life because they spoke French (as well as Algonkian or a dialect of the two); were usually Roman Catholic; used the seigneurial farm system; did not hunt on Sundays; and so on.

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 4


5. The Selkirk settlement was placed in the centre of an established Måtis settlement, without consulting the Måtis. This disrupted the status quo and angered the Måtis. When Miles Macdonnell later issued the Pemmican Proclamation, he ignored the fact that selling pemmican to the NWC was a major source of income for the Måtis. This led to the Måtis harassing colonists, whom they viewed as enemies. Communication between the settlers and the Måtis finally deteriorated to the point of armed battle.

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 5


6. George Simpson was a dynamic man and an effective administrator. He took a "hands on" approach to business at a time when this was uncommon. He was also very dictatorial (and was known as the "little emperor") and autocratic. Simpson reflected the prejudices of his timeÄÄhe sent away his Måtis wife and children when he returned with his English wife. As Simpson became more socially isolated, he became bitter and judgemental (for years he kept a journal, the "Character Book," in which he singled out faults in all his employees).

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 6


7. Canada purchased the area from the Hudson's Bay Company without consulting the Native peoples and the Måtis. Earlier, there had been many flare-ups between the Måtis and the Selkirk settlers, but since then there had been relative stability. With the rapid changes, however, tensions mounted. To make matters worse, many Protestant arrivals from Canada held extremely racist views of the Måtis. To add even more tensions, surveying crews sent out by the Canadian government ignored the customs of the Måtis, who had long been established in the area.

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 7


8. Both documents were designed to protect the rights of people, and both deal with issues that are of concern to all people. The Charter, however, is more abstract (it protects concepts) than the Måtis List of Rights (which addresses practical, specific items of concern). The Charter was created as part of a constitution, whereas the List was adopted as a set of resolutions. [The List did, however, form the basis for the Manitoba Act.]

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 8


9. Scott was abusive and difficult to deal with. He had a long history of violent anti-Måtis actions. He verbally threatened Riel's life, and his known behaviour made these threats believable. Scott had acted with insurgents (the Canadian Party was armed and prepared to attack the Måtis community). While imprisoned, Scott was unwilling (or unable) to alter his views or change his behaviour. And if he were to be released, he represented a very real, very violent threat to the Måtis community and to its leaders.

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 9


Skills Questions
1. The HBC; the British government granted the HBC to Rupert's Land in 1670.

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 1

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2. generally, the HBC

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 2


3. the NWC

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 3


4. Both the HBC and the NWC traded in furs, used water routes for transport, and maintained trading posts. The NWC had more posts and a more extensive trading network than the HBC. The NWC routes aligned west to the south, whereas the HBC routes aligned east and north. The NWC shipped furs via Montreal, while the HBC shipped furs via Hudson Bay.

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 4


5. Ojibwa

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 5


6. The Cree had a natural trading advantage because their territory extended to Hudson Bay. As a result, other Native groups had to travel through Cree territory in order to trade with the HBC.

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 6


7. Assiniboin/Cree

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 7


8. Assiniboin/Cree; Ojibwa/Cree; Chipewyan/Cree

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 8


9. 12 days; 19 days; 8 days

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 9


10. The "Northern limit of true prairie land" on the Mind Map seems to be the same as the "Limit of true prairie land" on the modern map insert; the location of the "Rocky Mountains"on the Mind Map coincides with the elevations on the modern map insert. As well, important landmarks and/or food resources are clearly identified.

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 10


11. The Mind Map is inaccurate because it provides no scale. The rivers and lakes are not accurately drawn, when compared to the modern map. As well, there is no indication of what kind of distance constitutes "a day's march"

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 11


12. On their first offence, offenders would have their saddle and bridle cut up. On their second offence, their coat would be cut up. On the third offence, they would be flogged.

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 12


13. These items were often essential for survival on the plains. The saddle was also a valuable item and expensive to replace.

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 13


14. In a close-knit community, trust is very important. Theft destroys trust, and public condemnation had the effect of ostracizing a person.

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 14


15. organizing and conducting the bison hunt (alternative: making household items)

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 15


16. In the Forest and On the Plains

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 16


17. Living at the Red River Settlement; Travelling and Trading; In the Parkland

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 17

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18. Only one activity environment, Living at the Red River Settlement, seems to be primarily EuropeanÄÄthat is, farming and the buying and selling of goods. Travelling and Trading has elements of both cultures. In all other activity environments, the activities are primarily aboriginal in character.

Chapter:4 QUESTION: 18



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