at Home and Abroad
Bull Moose Party Democrats Repbulicans
Candidate: Teddy Roosevelt Woodrow Wilson William Taft
Program title: New Nationalism New Freedom N/A
- Consolidation of trusts and labor unions – Fragmentation of Business - Status Quo
controlled by Big Government (Jeffersonian idealism)
(Big gov’t controls Big Business) - unregulated, unmonoplistic economy
- women’s suffrage – - No social-welfare proposals
- social welfare, - competition, not regulation
- min. wage
- social insurance
1. Who was Herbert Croly? The Promise of American Life (1912)
2. Why was Wilson elected? Republican party split
3. What was the mandate evident in the election results? What issue was the winner?
4. Name several of the significant outcomes of the Election of 1912.
- Progressive Party not elected to state/federal offices and thus will die for lack of
- Socialists believed they were making inroads and might get the White House in
- Wilson tallied less popular votes (41%) than Bryant in any of his three electoral
bids, but still won. Shows fracturing of the Rep. party.
5. Characterize Wilson’s personality and background:
- Scholar, reformist as seen as governor of N.J. – Biblical, pious, Southern with its perspectives / great orator, cold/snobbish in person/ lacked common touch / uncompromising/ inflexible stubbornness.
** 6. What was the “Third Rail of Politics” that Wilson was adept at appealing to and
from whence he derived his power?
- Appeals to the people – the public – called Special sessions of Congress to
make grand pronouncements
Wilson and Economic Progressivism (1913-1916)
Attacking the “The Triple Wall of Privilege” – Banks – Trusts - Tariffs
7. For each of the areas below:
- State the background and obstacles in each area–
- The actions or bills that Wilson proposed to remedy them with an
- An evaluation of the success or limited nature of the outcome
Issue: Tariff rates too high – (Payne-Aldrich Tariff)
Solution: Underwood Tariff Bill
- substantially reduced the tariffs
- graduated income tax ($3,000)
Evaluation - income tax will outstrip revenues from tariffs by 1917
Issue: Pujo Committee – “money monster” – money controlled by a few banks
Louis Brandeis – Other People’s Money and How the Bankers Use it
- Banking Monopoly
Solution: Decentralized bank in government hands
(not a huge private bank with 15 branches)
Federal Reserve Act (1913) – 12 regional banks/ banker’s bank/
- Federal Reserve Board that could issue Fed. Reserve Notes
Eval.: Red letter – increased elasticity of currency and carried the US through
the First World War / Took control out of hands of Moneyed trusts
Issue: Trusts still dominating the courts and country/ Unions are being treated
as “combinations in restraint of trade” (Danbury Hatters Case where
Hatters Union was assessed triple damages)
Solution: Federal Trade Commission (1914) – Pres. appointed commission to
- unfair trade practices
- unlawful competition
- false advertising
- mislabeling of food
- adulteration and briberty
Clayton Anti-Trust Act (1914):
- lengthened outlawed practices to include price disc., interlocking
- exempted labor and agricultural organizations from trust leg.
- legalized strikes and peaceful picketing
Eval: FTC – Wilson will appoint Conservative business types early on
Clayton – Conservative Fed. judges won’t interpret labor provisions
- Overall, banner leg. as to precedents and controlling Big. Business
Wilson and “Labor (Social) Progressivism” (1916)
8. Explain each of the pieces of legislation below:
Federal Farm Loan Act – low interest rate loans to farmers
LaFollette Seaman’s act – decent treatment and living wage
Workingmen’s Compensation Act –gov’t assistance to fed. civil service employees
Child Labor Law – restriced child labor on interstate products
Adamson Act – 8-hour workday for interstate RxR co.s/ OT pay
* 9. What catalyst caused Wilson to advocate some social progressive programs of the
Bull Moosers in 1916?
- the 1916 election. World War I
** 10. What areas did Wilson not advocate?
- African – American equality / Women’s rights though he will pick up this banner
11. Watchful Waiting – (Idealism) Wilson originally wanted to create moral
regeneration in US foreign policy. He supported Bryan’s anti-imperialism and
wished to use American moral and economic force to change bad behavior
(economic non-recognition of bad regimes, etc.), not military intervention.
Discuss this in terms of his actions concerning Dollar diplomacy, Philippines and
in Mexico in the early months of the revolution (p. 687)
- Dollar – refused to back up US investments in the 6-power loan to China and thus
investors will back out in Manchuria
- Phil. – Jones Act – Makes Philippines a territory and will give Philippines
independence once stable gov’t established. (1946)
- Mexico – Non-recognition policy – will not recognize the Huerta regime
and will refuse to send in troops right away.
12. Continuation of “Big Stickism” (Realism) Wilson will switch from electoral
claims of pacifism and anti-imperialism when reality sets in later in 1914. Define
this switch by discussing his actions in Haiti, Dominican Republic, Virgin Islands
- Haiti and Dom. Rep. – will send in the marines
- Virgin Islands. – will purchase from Denmark to keep out of the hands of Huns
- Mexico – aids Carranza and Poncho Villa
- Vera Cruz – Am. Navy seizes.
- Sends in Pershing Expedition (1917) to put down Poncho Villa (killed 19
Americans in Columbus, N.M) but will not be able to capture him
13. What historical ties did Britain have to the US? What historical ties did
- Bri. – linguistic and economic ties
- Ger. – 11 million immigrants had blood ties to the Central powers
14. Why did the US public tend to favor the British (over) the Germans?
- British had historical ties, control of the transatlantic cables and control
of the oceans and thus trade with America / Bri. propaganda machine here
- Germany was locked out of trade and after the briefcase incident in 1915 (Dr.
Albert’s Briefcase) Germany made to look sinister
15. Wilsonian neutrality – “The US will have trade remain open with the entire
world” – so why would Germany be upset by this for they had equal access?
- Bri. Navy controlled the seas and munitions could not be carried aboard the
16. How did both sides violate U.S. neutral shipping rights? Which country’s actions
were deemed more sinister and why?
- Bri. forced Am. shipping into Bri. ports to stop potential trade with Germany
- Ger. – sunk neutral shipping without warning. –
- Ger. was deemed more barbaric for it was inhumane loss of life. British
violations were worked through with diplomatic notes.
17. German U-Boat attacks– Define the terms on the list below that
show the increasing volatility of Germany’s u-boat attacks and the resulting
German Action Wilson’s Response
unrestricted submarine warfare – N/A – Keeps US ships on
Ger. will sink merchant ships in and around the high seas
the Bri. islands with warning
Lusitania (May 1915) – “strict accountability” –
1,198 killed, 128 Americans/ did have war Germany will be held in
materials on board strict accountability for all
the ships and lives lost (Bryan resigns)
sinking of the Arabic and Sussex Sussex Ultimatum –
Bri. liner sunk – 2 Am. killed Any more ships sunk will
Sussex – Fr. liner break diplomatic ties –
prelude to war
18. Party ? Candidate Platform
Democrat Wilson Kept us out of War
Hughes wins – Roosevelt will lead charge
Republicans Charles Evans Hughes anti-Dem. tariff
- assailed Wilson’s wishy-washiness with
Mexico and Germany
- assaults on trusts caused instability
19. Why did Wilson win?
- Mid-westerners liked his progressive stances and anti-war positions (much Ger. influence)
- Hopes by laborers to stay out of the war yet reap economic benefits nonetheless.