Why Was Marcus Garvey a Controversial Figure?
Directions: Use the textbook section “The Rise of Garveyism” (799-800) to answer the following:
1. Who was Marcus Garvey?
2. According to the textbook, what were the strengths of his movement?
3. According to the textbook, what happened to Garvey and the UNIA?
Directions: Use the following timeline and the video clip (linked on the website) to complete the following:
Marcus Garvey and the United Negro Improvement Association- Timeline
*Note: this timeline focuses on Garvey and the UNIA during the years he was based in NYC. Garvey continued to be active after 1927, and the UNIA continued to exist after his death in 1940.
1914 Garvey founds UNIA in Jamaica.
1916 Garvey leaves Jamaica for New York City.
1917 Thirteen members join to form the New York branch of the UNIA.
1918 Garvey starts Negro World newspaper.
1919 Garvey starts Black Star Line shipping company.
FBI instructs New York and Chicago offices to begin monitoring Garvey.
Black Star Line signs contract to purchase its first ship, which will be re-named “Frederick Douglass.”
1920 The U.N.I.A. holds its first International Convention of the Negro Peoples of the
World at Madison Square Garden and schedules a massive parade in Harlem.
UNIA adopts and signs a Declaration of Rights of the Negro Peoples of the World, adopts a "nation" flag with the colors of the Red, Black, and Green, and elects officials for its government. Garvey himself is elected Provisional President of Africa.
1921 A 16-man UNIA delegation leaves for Liberia.
1922 Garvey is arrested for mail fraud (he allegedly sent out brochures advertising a Black Star Line ship that he had not yet purchased).
The Black Star Line is dissolved due to financial failure.
Garvey meets with the Grand Wizard of the Ku Klux Klan, resulting in a "Garvey Must Go" campaign headed by black leaders.
1923 Second UNIA delegation heads to Liberia.
Garvey arrested and sentenced to 5 years in prison for mail fraud.
1927 President Calvin Coolidge commutes Garvey’s sentence.
Garvey deported to Jamaica.
1940 Garvey dies.
4. What does the timeline add to the textbook account of “The Rise of Garveyism”?
Complete POV statements for the attached documents:
5. Using what you have learned about Marcus Garvey, answer the following:
At the core of this answer, revisit original 3 questions:
Who was Marcus Garvey?
What were the strengths of his movement?
What happened to Garvey and the UNIA?
Document B: Letter to U.S. Attorney-General (ORIGINAL)
The letter to the Attorney General:
2305 Seventh Ave, New York City, Jan.
Harry M. Daugherty, United States Attorney-General,
Department of Justice,
Washington, D. C.
(1) As the chief law enforcement officer of the nation, we wish to call your attention to a heretofore unconsidered menace to harmonious race relationships. There are in our midst certain Negro criminals and potential murderers, both foreign and American born, who are moved and actuated by intense hatred against the white race. These undesirables continually to proclaim that all white people are enemies to the Negro. They have become so fanatical that they have threatened and attempted the death of their opponents, actually assassinating in one instance.
(2) The movement known as the Universal Negro Improvement Association has done much to stimulate the violent temper of this dangerous element. Its president and moving spirit is one Marcus Garvey, an unscrupulous demagogue, who has ceaselessly and assiduously sought to spread among Negroes distrust and hatred of all white people.
(3) The official organ of the U. N. I. A., The Negro World, of which Marcus Garvey is managing editor, sedulously and continually seeks to arouse ill-feeling between the races. Evidence has also been presented of an apparent alliance of Garvey with the Ku Klux Klan.
(4) An erroneous conception held by many is that Negroes try to cloak and hide criminals. The truth is that the great majority of Negroes are bitterly opposed to all criminals, and especially to those of their own race, because they know that such criminals will cause increased discrimination against themselves.
(5) The U. N. I. A. is composed chiefly of the most primitive ignorant element of West Indian and American Negroes. The so-called respectable element of the movement are largely ministers without churches, physicians without patients, lawyers without clients and publishers without readers, who are usually in search of "easy money." In short, this organization is composed in the main of Negro sharks and ignorant Negro fanatics.
(6) This organization and its fundamental laws encourage violence. In its Constitution there is an article prohibiting office holding by a convicted criminal, EXCEPT SUCH CRIME IS COMMITTED IN THE INTEREST OF THE U.N.I.A. Marcus Garvey is intolerant of free speech when it is exercised in criticism of him and his movement, his followers seeking to prevent such by threats and violence. Striking proof of the truth of this assertion is found in the following cases:
(7) In 1920 Garvey's supporters rushed into a tent where a religious meeting was being conducted by Rev. A. Clayton Powell in New York City and sought to do bodily violence to Dr. Charles S. Morris, the speaker of the evening -- who they had heard was to make an address against Garveyism -- and were prevented only by action of the police. Shortly afterward members of the Baltimore branch of the U. N. I. A. attempted bodily injury to W. Ashbie Hawkins, one of the most distinguished colored attorneys in America, when he criticized Garvey in a speech. During the same period an anti-Garvey meeting held by Cyril Briggs, then editor of a monthly magazine -- The Crusader -- in Rush Memorial Church, New York City, on a Sunday evening, was broken up by Garveyites turning out the lights.
(8) Several weeks ago the Garvey division in Philadelphia caused such a disturbance in the Salem Baptist Church, where Attorney J. Austin Norris, a graduate of Yale University, and the Rev. J. W. Eason were speaking against Garvey, that the police disbanded the meeting to prevent a riot of bloodshed. Reports state the street in front of the church was blocked by Garveyites, who insulted and knocked down pedestrians who were on their way to the meeting.
(9) In Los Angeles, Cal., Mr. Noah D. Thompson, a distinguished colored citizen of that city, employed in the editorial department of the Los Angeles Daily Express, reporting adversely on the Garvey movement as a result of his visit to the annual convention, was attacked by members of Garvey's Los Angeles division, who, it is alleged, had been incited to violence by Garvey himself, and only through the help of a large number of police officers was Thompson saved from bodily harm.
(10) A few months ago, when some persons in the Cleveland, Ohio. Division of the U. N. I. A. asked Dr. LeRoy Bundy, Garvey's chief assistant, for an accounting of funds a veritable riot took place, led, according to the Pittsburgh America, by Bundy himself.
(11) In Pittsburgh, Pa., on October 23 last, after seeking to disturb a meeting conducted by Chandler Owen, editor of the Messenger Magazine, Garveyites who had lurked around the corner in a body rushed on the street car after the meeting, seeking to assault him, but were prevented by the intervention of the police.
(12) When William Pickens, who had co-operated in the expose of Garvey frauds, was to deliver an address in Toronto, Canada, Garveyites met him on the steps of the church, with hands threateningly in their hip pockets, trying to intimidate him, lest he should further expose the movement.
(13) In Chicago, after seeking to break up an anti-Garvey meeting, a Garvey supporter shot a policeman who sought to prevent him from attacking the speaker as he left the building.
(14) In New York last August during a series of meetings conducted by the Friends of Negro Freedom to expose Garvey's schemes and methods, the speakers were threatened with death. Scores of Garveyites came into the meetings with the avowed intention of breaking them up. This they were prevented from doing by the stern determination on the part of the leaders, the activities of the New York police and the great mass of West Indians and Americans, who clearly showed that they would not permit any cowardly ruffians to break up their meetings.
(15) In fact, Marcus Garvey has created an organization which in its fundamental law condemns and invites to crime. This is evidenced by section 3 of Article V of the Constitution of the U.N.I.A., under the caption, "Court Reception at Home." It reads: "No one shall be received by the Potentate and his Consort who has been convicted of felony, EXCEPT SUCH CRIME OR FELONY WAS COMMITTED IN THE INTEREST OF THE UNIVERSAL NEGRO IMPROVEMENT ASSOCIATION AND THE AFRICAN COMMUNITIES LEAGUE."
(16) Further proof of this is found in the public utterances of William Sherrill one of the chief officials in the organization and Garvey's envoy to the League of Nations Assembly at Geneva. Speaking at the Goldfield Theatre in Baltimore, Md., on August 18, 1922, he is quoted as saying: "BLACK FOLK AS WELL AS WHITE WHO TAMPER WITH THE U.N.I.A. ARE GOING TO DIE."
(17) What appears to be an attempt to carry out this threat is seen in the assault and slashing with a razor of one S. T. Saxon by Garveyites in Cincinnati, Ohio, when he spoke against the movement there last October.
(18) On January 1, this year, just after having made an address in New Orleans, the Rev. J. W. Eason, former "American Leader" of the Garvey movement, who had fallen out with Garvey and was to be the chief witness against him in the Federal Government's case, was waylaid and assassinated, it is reported in the press, by the Garveyites. Rev. Eason identified two of the men as Frederick Dyer, 42, a longshoreman, and William Shakespeare, 29, a painter. Both of them are prominent members of the U. N. I. A. in New Orleans, one wearing a badge as chief of police and the other as chief of the Fire Department of the "African Republic." Dr. Eason's dying words identifying the men whom he knew from long acquaintance in the movement, were:
(19) "1 had been speaking at Bethany and was on my way home when three men rushed out at me from an alley. I saw their faces and (pointing at Dyer and Shakespeare) I am positive that these two men here are two of the three."
(20) The vicious inclination of these Garvey members is seen, in their comments in an interview:
(21) (The N. Y. Amsterdam News reports): "Both Dyer, and Shakespeare have denied the attack, but declared they were glad of it, as they said Eason richly deserved what he got. 'Eason,' said one of them, 'was a sorehead. The association made him what he was. When he was expelled because of misconduct he went up and down the country preaching again Marcus Garvey, who is doing great good for our race. Someone who evidently thought it was time to stop his lies took a crack at him. I don't blame the one that did it. Eason richly deserved what he got.'"
(22) Eason says he knew the men who shot him were directed to do so. In so much, however, as the assassination of Mr. Eason removes a Federal witness, we suggest that the Federal Government probe into the facts and ascertain whether Eason was assassinated as the result of an interstate conspiracy emanating from New York. It is significant that the U.N.I.A. has advertised in its organ, The Negro World, the raising of a defense fund for those indicted for the murder, seeming in accordance with its constitution.
(23) Not only has this movement created friction between Negroes and whites, but it has also increased the hostility between American and West Indian Negroes.
(24) Further, Garvey has built up an organization which has victimized hordes of ignorant and unsuspecting Negroes, the nature of which is clearly stated by Judge Jacob Panken of the New York Municipal Court, before whom Garvey's civil suit for fraud was tried: Judge Panken says: "It seems to me that you have been preying upon the gullibility of your own people, having kept no proper accounts of the money received for investments, being an organization of high finance in which the officers received outrageously high salaries and were permitted to have exorbitant expense accounts for pleasure jaunts throughout the country. I advise those dupes who have contributed to these organizations to go into court and ask for the appointment of a receiver."
(25) For the above reasons we advocate that the Attorney-General use his full influence completely to disband and extirpate this vicious movement, and that he vigorously and speedily push the government's case against Marcus Garvey for using the mails to defraud. This should be done in the interest of justice; even as a matter of practical expediency.
(26) The government should note that the Garvey followers are for the most part voteless -- being either largely unnaturalized or refraining from voting because Garvey teaches that they are citizens of an African republic. He has greatly exaggerated the actual membership of his organization, which is conservatively estimated to be much less than 20,000 in all countries, including the United States and Africa, the West Indies, Central and South America. (The analysis of Garvey's membership has been made by W.A. Domingo, a highly intelligent West Indian from Jamaica, Garvey's home, in the "The Crusader" magazine, New York City; also by Dr. We. E. Du Bois, a well-known social statistician, in the "The Century Magazine," February, 1922, New York City). On the other hand, hosts of citizen voters, native born and naturalized, both white and colored, earnestly desire the vigorous prosecution of this case.
(27) Again the notorious Ku Klux Klan, an organization of white racial and religious bigots, has aroused much adverse sentiment -- many people demanding its dissolution as the Reconstruction Klan was dissolved. The Garvey organization, known as the U.N.I.A., is just as objectionable and even more dangerous, inasmuch as it naturally attracts an even lower type of cranks, crooks, and racial bigots, among whom suggestibility to violent crime is much greater.
(28) Moreover, since its basic law -- the very constitution of the U.N.I.A. -- the organization condones and encourages crime, its future meetings should be carefully watched by officers of the law and infractions promptly and severely punished.
(29) We desire the Department of Justice to understand that those who draft this documents, as well as the tens of thousands who will indorse it in all parts of the country, are by no means impressed by the widely circulated reports which allege certain colored politicians have been trying to use their influence to get the indictment against Garvey quashed. The signers of this appeal represent no particular political, religious or nationalistic faction. They have no personal ends or partisan interests to serve. Nor are they moved by any personal bias against Marcus Garvey. They sound this tocsin only because they foresee the gathering storm of race prejudice and sense the imminent menace of this insidious movement, which cancerlike, is gnawing at the very vitals of peace and safety -- of civic harmony and interracial concord.
The signers of this letter are:
HARRY H. PACE, 2289 Seventh avenue, New York City.
ROBERT S. ABBOTT, 3435 Indiana avenue, Chicago, IL.
JOHN E. NAIL, 145 West 135th Street, New York City.
DR. JULIA P. COLEMAN, 118 West 130th Street, New York City.
WILLIAM PICKENS, 70 Fifth avenue, New York City.
CHANDLER OWEN, 2305 Seventh Avenue, New York City
ROBERT W. BAGNALL, 70 Fifth avenue, New York City
GEORGE W. HARRIS, 135 West 135th Street, New City.
Harry H. Pace is president of the Pace Phonograph Corporation.
Robert S. Abbott is editor and publisher of the "Chicago Defender."
John E. Nail is president of Nail and Parker, Inc., Real Estate
Julia P. Coleman is president of the Hair-Vim Chemical Co. Inc.
William Pickens is field secretary of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.
Chandler Owen is co-editor of "The Messenger" and co-executive secretary of the Friends of Negro Freedom.
Robert W. Bagnall is director of branches of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.
George W. Harris is a member of the Board of Alderman of New York City and editor of the New York News.
Address reply to Chandler Owen, secretary of committee, 2305 Seventh Avenue, New York City.
Source: Amy Jacques-Garvey, ed. Philosophy & Opinions of Marcus Garvey. (New York: Athenaeum, 1969).
Document C: Memo from J. Edgar Hoover (ORIGINAL)
J. Edgar Hoover to Special Agent Ridgely
Washington, D.C., October 11, 1919
MEMORANDUM FOR MR. RIDGELY.
I am transmitting herewith a communication which has come to my attention from the Panama Canal, Washington office, relative to the activities of Marcus Garvey. Garvey is a West-Indian negro and in addition to his activities in endeavoring to establish the Black Star Line Steamship Corporation he has also been particularly active among the radical elements in New York City in agitating the negro movement. Unfortunately, however, he has not as yet violated any federal law whereby he could be proceeded against on the grounds of being an undesirable alien, from the point of view of deportation. It occurs to me, however, from the attached clipping that there might be some proceeding against him for fraud in connection with his Black Star Line propaganda and for this reason I am transmitting the communication to you for your appropriate attention.
The following is a brief statement of Marcus Gravey and his activities:
Subject a native of the West Indies and one of the most prominent negro agitators in New York;
He is a founder of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League;
He is the promulgator of the Black Star Line and is the managing editor of the Negro World;
He is an exceptionally fine orator, creating much excitement among the negroes through his steamship proposition;
In his paper the "Negro World" the Soviet Russian Rule is upheld and there is open advocation of Bolshevism.
J. E. Hoover
[Typewritten reference] JEH-GPO
DNA, RG 60, file 198940. TMS, recipient's copy.
Source: Robert A. Hill, ed. The Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association Papers, Volume II, 27 August 1919 - 31 August 1920. (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1983).
Document D: Marcus Garvey’s Autobiography (ORIGINAL)
My downfall was planned by my enemies. They laid all kinds of traps for me. They scattered their spies among the employees of the Black Star Line and the Universal Negro Improvement Association. Our office records were stolen. Employees started to be openly dishonest; we could get no convictions against them; even if on complaint they were held by a Magistrate, they were dismissed by the Grand Jury. The ships' officers started to pile up thousands of dollars of debts against the company without the knowledge of the officers of the corporation. Our ships were damaged at sea, and there was a general riot of wreck and ruin. Officials of the Universal Negro Improvement Association also began to steal and be openly dishonest. I had to dismiss them. They joined my enemies, and thus I had an endless fight on my hands to save the ideals of the association and carry out our program for the race. My negro enemies, finding that they alone could not destroy me, resorted to misrepresenting me to the leaders of the white race, several of whom, without proper investigation, also opposed me.
With robberies from within and from without, the Black Star Line was forced to suspend active business in December, 1921. While I was on a business trip to the West Indies in the Spring of 1921, the Black Star Line received the blow from which it was unable to recover. A sum of $25,000 was paid by one of the officers of the corporation to a man to purchase a ship, but the ship was never obtained and the money was never returned. The company was defrauded of a further sum of $11,000. Through such actions on the part of dishonest men in the shipping business, the Black Star Line received its first setback. This resulted in my being indicted for using the United States mails to defraud investors in the company. I was subsequently convicted and sentenced to five years in a Federal penitentiary. My trial is a matter of history. I know I was not given a square deal, because my indictment was the result of a "frame-up" among my political and business enemies. I had to conduct my own case in court because of the peculiar position in which I found myself. I had millions of friends and a large number of enemies. I wanted a colored attorney to handle my case, but there was none I could trust. I feel that I have been denied justice because of prejudice. Yet I have an abundance of faith in the courts of America, and I hope yet to obtain justice on my appeal.
Association's 6,000,000 Membership
The temporary ruin of the Black Star Line in no way affected the larger work of the Universal Negro Improvement Association, which now has 900 branches with an approximate membership of 6,000,000. This organization has succeeded in organizing the negroes all over the world and we now look forward to a renaissance that will create a new people and bring about the restoration of Ethiopia's ancient glory.
Being black, I have committed an unpardonable offense against the very light colored negroes in America and the West Indies by making myself famous as a negro leader of millions. In their view, no black man must rise above them, but I still forge ahead determined to give to the world the truth about the new negro who is determined to make and hold for himself a place in the affairs of men. The Universal Negro Improvement Association has been misrepresented by my enemies. They have tried to make it appear that we are hostile to other races. This is absolutely false. We love all humanity. We are working for the peace of the world which we believe can only come about when all races are given their due.
We feel that there is absolutely no reason why there should be any differences between the black and white races, if each stop to adjust and steady itself. We believe in the purity of both races. We do not believe the black man should be encouraged in the idea that his highest purpose in life is to marry a white woman, but we do believe that the white man should be taught to respect the black woman in the same way as he wants the black man to respect the white woman. It is a vicious and dangerous doctrine of social equality to urge, as certain colored leaders do, that black and white should get together, for that would destroy the racial purity of both.
Source: Excerpt from Marcus Garvey’s autobiography, written in September 1923.