Why It Matters
The United States was made up of people who had emigrated from many places in the world. Many Americans remained on the move as the United States extended its political borders and grew economically.
The Impact Today
The United States grew in size and wealth, setting the stage for the nation's rise to great economic and political power.
The American Republic to 1877 Video The chapter 12 video, "Whose Destiny?," chronicles the influence of Manifest Destiny on the history of Texas.
1809 • Elizabeth Ann Seton founds Sisters of Charity
1820 • Missouri Compromise
1821 • Mexico declares independence from Spain
1824 • Russia surrenders land south of Alaska
1828 • Russia declares war on Ottoman Empire
1830 • France occupies Algeria
1836 • Battle of the Alamo
1839 • Opium War between Britain and China
1844 • The Dominican Republic secedes from Haiti
1845 • U.S. annexes Texas
1846 • The planet Neptune is discovered
1846 • Congress declares war on Mexico
1848 • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo signed
1850 • California becomes a state
War News from Mexico by Richard Caton Woodville Many of Woodville's paintings show scenes of everyday life.
Organizing Information Study Foldable Make this foldable to organize information from the chapter to help you learn more about how Manifest Destiny led to western expansion.
Step 1 Collect three sheets of paper and place them on top of one another about 1 inch apart.
---Keep the edges straight.
Step 2 Fold up the bottom edges of the paper to form 6 tabs.
---This makes all tabs the same size.
Step 3 When all the tabs are the same size, fold the paper to hold the tabs in place and staple the sheets together. Turn the paper and label each tab as shown.
---Staple together along the fold.
Reading and Writing As you read, use your foldable to write under each appropriate tab what you learn about Manifest Destiny and how it affected the borders of the United States.
Chapter Overview Visit tarvol1.glencoe.com and click on Chapter 12—Chapter Overviews to preview chapter information.
The Oregon Country
Guide to Reading
Manifest Destiny is the idea that the United States was meant to extend its borders from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean.
joint occupation, mountain man, rendezvous, emigrant, Manifest Destiny
Sequencing Information As you read Section 1, re-create the diagram below and in the boxes list key events that occurred.
Read to Learn
• why large numbers of settlers headed for the Oregon Country.
• how the idea of Manifest Destiny contributed to the nation's growth.
Economic Factors Many fur traders and pioneers moved to Oregon for economic opportunities.
Preview of Events
1819 Adams-Onis Treaty is signed
1836 Marcus Whitman builds mission in Oregon
1840s "Oregon fever" sweeps through Mississippi Valley
1846 U.S. and Britain set the Oregon Boundary at 49°N
AN American Story
On an April morning in 1851, 13-year-old Martha Gay said good-bye to her friends, her home, and the familiar world of Springfield, Missouri. She and her family were beginning a long, hazardous journey. The townsfolk watched as the Gays left in four big wagons pulled by teams of oxen. "Farewell sermons were preached and prayers offered for our safety," Martha wrote years later. "All places of business and the school were closed ... and everybody came to say good-bye to us." This same scene occurred many times in the I840s and 1850s as thousands of families set out for the Oregon Country.
Rivalry in the Northwest
The Oregon Country was the huge area that lay between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains north of California. It included all of what is now Oregon, Washington, and Idaho plus parts of Montana and Wyoming. The region also contained about half of what is now the Canadian province of British Columbia.
In the early 1800s, four nations laid claim to the vast, rugged land known as the Oregon Country. The United States based its claim on Robert Gray's discovery of the Columbia River in 1792 and on the Lewis and Clark expedition. Great Britain based its claim on British explorations of the Columbia River. Spain, which had also explored the Pacific coast in the late 1700s, controlled California to the south. Russia had settlements that stretched south from Alaska into Oregon.
Many Americans wanted control of the Oregon Country to gain access to the Pacific Ocean. Secretary of State John Quincy Adams played a key role in promoting this goal. In 1819 he negotiated the Adams-Onis Treaty with Spain. In the treaty the Spanish agreed to set the limits of their territory at what is now California's northern border and gave up any claim to Oregon. In 1824 Russia also surrendered its claim to the land south of Alaska. Only Britain remained to challenge American control of Oregon.
In 1818 Adams had worked out an agreement with Britain for joint occupation of the area. This meant that people from both the United States and Great Britain could settle there. When Adams became president in 1825, he proposed that the two nations divide Oregon along the 49°N line of latitude. Britain refused, insisting on a larger share of the territory. Unable to resolve their dispute, the two countries agreed to extend the joint occupation. In the following years, thousands of Americans streamed into Oregon, and they pushed the issue toward resolution.
The first Americans to reach the Oregon Country were not farmers but fur traders. They had come to trap beaver, whose skins were in great demand in the eastern United States and in Europe. The British established several trading posts in the region, as did merchant John Jacob Astor of New York. In 1808 Astor organized the American Fur
Company. The American Fur Company soon became the most powerful of the fur companies in America. It allowed him to build up trade with the East Coast, the Pacific Northwest, and China. At first the merchants traded for furs that the Native Americans supplied. Gradually American adventurers joined the trade. These people, who spent most of their time in the Rocky Mountains, came to be known as mountain men.
The tough, independent mountain men made their living by trapping beaver. Many had Native American wives and adopted Native American ways. They lived in buffalo-skin lodges and dressed in fringed buckskin pants, moccasins, and beads.
Some mountain men worked for fur-trading companies; others sold their furs to the highest bidder. Throughout the spring and early summer they ranged across the mountains, setting traps and then collecting the beaver pelts. In late summer they gathered for a rendezvous (RAHN•dih•voo), or meeting.
For the mountain men, the annual rendezvous was the high point of the year. They met with the trading companies to exchange their "hairy
"To explore unknown regions . . . was [the mountain men's] chief delight."
—Clerk in a fur trade company
banknotes"—beaver skins—for traps, guns, coffee, and other goods. They met old friends and exchanged news. They relaxed by competing in races and various other contests—including swapping stories about who had been on the most exciting adventures.
As they roamed searching for beaver, the mountain men explored the mountains, valleys, and trails of the West. Jim Beckwourth, an African American from Virginia, explored Wyoming's Green River. Robert Stuart and Jedediah Smith both found the South Pass, a broad break through the Rockies. South Pass later became the main route that settlers took to Oregon.
To survive in the wilderness, a mountain man had to be skillful and resourceful. Trapper Joe Meek told how, when faced with starvation, he once held his hands "in an anthill until they were covered with ants, then greedily licked them off." The mountain men took pride in joking about the dangers they faced.
In time the mountain men killed off most of the beaver and could no longer trap. Some went to settle on farms in Oregon. With their knowledge of the western lands, though, some mountain men found new work. Jim Bridger, Kit Carson, and others acted as guides to lead the parties of settlers now streaming west.
Reading Check Identifying What North American territories did Russia control in the early 1800s?
Fact Fiction Folklore
Is Alaska the largest state? If you calculate by area, Alaska is far and away the largest state, with more than 570,000 square miles. It is approximately 2,000 miles from east to west. If placed on top of the mainland area of the United States, it would stretch from Atlanta to Los Angeles. Population is another matter. Alaska's population of 626,932 makes it the third least populous state. There is about 1.0 person per square mile in Alaska, compared to more than 79 people per square mile for the rest of the United States.
Americans began traveling to the Oregon Country to settle in the 1830s. Reports of the fertile land persuaded many to make the journey. Economic troubles at home made new opportunities in the West look attractive.
The Whitman Mission
Among the first settlers of the Oregon Country were missionaries who wanted to bring Christianity to the Native Americans. Dr. Marcus Whitman and his wife, Narcissa, went to Oregon in 1836 and built a mission among the Cayuse people near the present site of Walla Walla, Washington.
New settlers unknowingly brought measles to the mission. An epidemic killed many of the Native American children. Blaming the Whit-mans for the sickness, the Cayuse attacked the mission in November 1847 and killed them and 11 others. Despite this, the flood of settlers continued into Oregon.
The Oregon Trail
In the early 1840s, "Oregon fever" swept through the Mississippi Valley. The depression caused by the Panic of 1837 had hit the region hard. People formed societies to gather information about Oregon and to plan to make the long trip. The "great migration" had begun. Tens of thousands of people made the trip. These pioneers were called emigrants because they left the United States to go to Oregon.
Before the difficult 2,000-mile journey, these pioneers stuffed their canvas-covered wagons, called prairie schooners, with supplies. From a distance these wagons looked like schooners (ships) at sea. Gathering in Independence or other towns in Missouri, they followed the Oregon Trail across the Great Plains, along the Platte River, and through the South Pass of the Rocky Mountains. On the other side, they took the trail north and west along the Snake and Columbia Rivers into the Oregon Country.
Reading Check Explaining How did most pioneers get to Oregon?
The Oregon Trail
The Importance of the Trail The Oregon Trail was much more than just a trail to Oregon. It served as the most practical route to the western United States. The pioneers traveled in large groups, often of related families. Some went all the way to Oregon in search of farmland. Many others split off for California in search of gold.
The Journey The trip west lasted five or six months. The pioneers had to start in the spring and complete the trip before winter snows blocked the mountain passes. The trail crossed difficult terrain. The pioneers walked across seemingly endless plains, forded swift rivers, and labored up high mountains.
Problems Along the Way Although the pioneers feared attacks by Native Americans, such attacks did not often occur. More often Native Americans assisted the pioneers, serving as guides and trading necessary food and supplies. About 1 in 10 of the pioneers dies on the trail, perishing from disease, overwork, hunger, or accidents.
When did the use of trails stop? With the building of a transcontinental railroad in 1869, the days of using the Oregon Trail as a corridor to the West were over.
"We are creeping along slowly, one wagon after another, the same old gait, the same thing over, out of one mud hole into another all day."
—Amelia Stewart Knight, 1853
"After Laramie we entered the great American desert, which was hard on the teams. Sickness became common...."
—Catherine Sager Pringle, 1844
The Division of Oregon
Most American pioneers headed for the fertile Willamette Valley south of the Columbia River. Between 1840 and 1845, the number of American settlers in the area increased from 500 to 5,000, while the British population remained at about 700. The question of ownership of Oregon arose again.
Expansion of Freedom
Since colonial times many Americans had believed their nation had a special role to fulfill. For years people thought the nation's mission should be to serve as a model of freedom and democracy. In the 1800s that vision changed. Many believed that the United States's mission was to spread freedom by occupying the entire continent. In 1819 John Quincy Adams expressed what many
Americans were thinking when he said expansion to the Pacific was as inevitable "as that the Mississippi should flow to the sea."
In the 1840s New York newspaper editor John O'Sullivan put the idea of a national mission in more specific words. O'Sullivan declared it was
Fact Fiction Folklore
Who was the first "dark horse" president? A dark horse is a little-known contender who unexpectedly wins. In 1844 the Democrats passed over Martin Van Buren, John C. Calhoun, and other party leaders. Instead, they nominated James K. Polk, the governor of Tennessee. The Whigs were confident that their candidate, the celebrated Henry Clay, would win the election easily. Contrary to all expectations, Polk won the election, becoming at age 49 the youngest president in American history up to that time.
America's "Manifest Destiny to overspread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us." O'Sullivan meant that the United States was clearly destined—set apart for a special purpose—to extend its boundaries all the way to the Pacific.
"Fifty-four Forty or Fight"
The settlers in Oregon insisted that the United States should have sole ownership of the area. More and more Americans agreed. As a result Oregon became a significant issue in the 1844 presidential election.
James K. Polk received the Democratic Party's nomination for president, partly because he supported American claims for sole ownership of Oregon. Democrats campaigned using the slogan "Fifty-four Forty or Fight." The slogan referred to the line of latitude that Democrats believed should be the nation's northern border in Oregon.
Henry Clay of the Whig Party, Polk's principal opponent, did not take a strong position on the Oregon issue. Polk won the election because the antislavery Liberty Party took so many votes from Clay in New York that Polk won the state. Polk won 170 electoral votes to 105 for Clay.
Reaching a Settlement
Filled with the spirit of Manifest Destiny, President Polk was determined to make Oregon part of the United States. Britain would not accept a border at "Fifty-four Forty," however. To do so would have meant giving up its claim entirely. Instead, in June 1846, the two countries compromised, setting the boundary between the American and British portions of Oregon at latitude 49°N.
During the 1830s Americans sought to fulfill their Manifest Destiny by looking much closer to home than Oregon. At that time much attention was also focused on Texas.
Reading Check Explaining In what way did some people think of Manifest Destiny as a purpose?
SECTION 1 ASSESSMENT
Checking for Understanding
1. Key Terms Use each of these terms in a complete sentence that will help explain its meaning: joint occupation, mountain man, rendezvous, emigrant, Manifest Destiny.
2. Reviewing Facts Name the four countries that claimed parts of the Oregon Country.
3. Economic Factors How did the fur trade in Oregon aid Americans who began settling there?
4. Making Generalizations How did the idea of Manifest Destiny help Americans justify their desire to extend the United States to the Pacific Ocean?
5. Determining Cause and Effect Re-create the diagram below. In the box, describe how the fur trade led to interest in Oregon.
6. Picturing History Study the painting on page 359. Do you think it provides a realistic portrayal of the journey west?
Informative Writing Imagine you and your family are traveling to the Oregon Country in the 1840s. A friend will be making the same trip soon. Write a letter telling your friend what to expect on the journey.
Understanding Latitude and Longitude
Why Learn This Skill?
Your new friend invites you to her house. In giving directions, she says, "I live on Summit Street at the southwest corner of Indiana Avenue." She has pinpointed her exact location. We use a similar system of lines of latitude and longitude to pinpoint locations on maps and globes.
Learning the Skill
The imaginary horizontal lines that circle the globe from east to west are called lines of latitude. Because the distance between the lines of latitude is always the same, they are also called parallels. The imaginary vertical lines that intersect the parallels are lines of longitude, also called meridians.
Lines of longitude run from the North Pole to the South Pole. They are numbered in degrees east or west of a starting line called the Prime Meridian, which is at 0° longitude. On the opposite side of the earth from the Prime Meridian is the International Date Line, or 180° longitude.
The point at which parallels and meridians intersect is the grid address, or coordinates, of an exact location. The coordinates for Salt Lake City, for example, are 41°N and 112°W.
Practicing the Skill
Analyze the information on the map on this page, then answer the following questions.
1. What are the approximate coordinates of Fort Victoria?
2. At what line of latitude was the Oregon Country divided between the United States and Britain?
3. What geographic feature lies at about 42°N and 115°W?
Applying the Skill
Understanding Latitude and Longitude Turn to the atlas map of the United States on pages RA2 and RA3. Find your city or the city closest to it. Identify the coordinates as closely as possible. Now list the coordinates of five other cities and ask a classmate to find the cities based on your coordinates.
Glencoe's Skillbuilder Interactive Workbook CD-ROM, Level 1, provides instruction and practice in key social studies skills.
Independence for Texas
Guide to Reading
Texans won their independence from Mexico and asked to be admitted to the United States.
Tejano, empresario, decree, annex
Sequencing Information As you read Section 2, re-create the diagram below and, in the boxes, list key events that occurred in Texas.
Read to Learn
• why problems arose between the Mexican government and the American settlers in Texas.
• how Texas achieved independence and later became a state.
Geography and History Mexico's offers of huge tracts of fertile land brought American settlers to Texas.
Preview of Events
1821 Moses Austin receives land grant in Texas
1833 Santa Anna becomes president of Mexico
March 1836 The Alamo falls to Mexican troops
September 1836 Sam Houston is elected president of Texas
AN American Story
Davy Crockett was a backwoodsman from Tennessee. His skill as a hunter and storyteller helped get him elected to three terms in Congress. But when he started his first political campaign, Crockett was doubtful about his chances of winning. "The thought of having to make a speech made my knees feel mighty weak and set my heart to fluttering." Fortunately for Crockett, the other candidates spoke all day and tired out the audience. "When they were all done," Crockett boasted, "I got up and told some laughable story, and quit.... I went home, and didn't go back again till after the election was over." In the end, Crockett won the election by a wide margin.
A Clash of Cultures
Davy Crockett of Tennessee won notice for his frontier skills, his sense of humor, and the shrewd common sense he often displayed in politics. When he lost his seat in Congress in 1835, he did not return to Tennessee. Instead he went southwest to Texas.
Crockett thought he could make a new start there. He also wanted to help the Texans win their independence from Mexico. Little did he know his deeds in Texas would bring him greater fame than his adventures on the frontier or his years in Congress.
Conflict over Texas began in 1803, when the United States bought the Louisiana Territory from France. Americans claimed that the land in present-day Texas was part of the purchase. Spain protested. In 1819, in the Adams-Onis Treaty, the United States agreed to drop any further claim to the region.
At the time, few people lived in Texas. Most residents—about 3,000—were Tejanos (teh•HAH•nohs), or Mexicans who claimed Texas as their home. Native Americans, including Comanches, Apaches, and Kiowas, also lived in the area.
Because the Spanish wanted to promote the growth of Texas, they offered vast tracts of land to people who agreed to bring families to settle on the land. The people who obtained these grants from the government and recruited the settlers were called empresarios.
Moses Austin, a businessman who had developed a mining operation in Missouri, applied for and received the first land grant in 1821. Before he could establish his colony, however, Moses contracted pneumonia and died. After Mexico declared independence from Spain, Austin's son, Stephen F. Austin, asked the Mexican government to confirm his father's land grant. Once he received confirmation, he began to organize the colony.
Stephen E Austin recruited 300 American families to settle the fertile land along the Brazos River and the Colorado River of Texas. The first settlers came to be called the Old Three Hundred. Many received 960 acres, with additional acres for each child. Others received larger ranches. Austin's success made him a leader among the American settlers in Texas.
From 1823 to 1825, Mexico passed three colonization laws. All these laws offered new settlers large tracts of land at extremely low prices and
People in History
Stephen F. Austin 1793-1836
Stephen F. Austin earned the name "Father of Texas" because of his leadership in populating the Mexican territory of Texas. After attending college he worked as a businessperson. Austin organized the first land grant colony in Texas in 1821. Austin offered large tracts of land to settlers, and his colony grew quickly.
Austin often played the role of spokesperson with the Mexican government, sometimes on behalf of colonists who were not part of his settlement. He served as their advocate, even when he disagreed with their opinions. For example, he negotiated for permission to continue slavery in the province of Texas after it was banned by Mexican law. He also served nearly a year in prison for promoting independence for the Texans.
After Texas won its war for independence, Austin ran for the office of president. He was defeated but was appointed secretary of state. He died just a few months later. The state of Texas honored Stephen F. Austin by naming its capital city—Austin—after its founding father.
The Defenders Had Not Stayed at the Alamo?
William Travis and almost 200 other defenders were determined to hold the Alamo. Travis wrote several messages to the people of Texas and the United States asking them for assistance. Travis's appeal was unsuccessful. Texas military forces were not yet well organized and were badly scattered. Travis's letter of February 24, 1836, is one of the finest statements of courage in American history.
The defenders—mostly volunteers—were free to leave whenever they chose. But they decided to defend the Alamo for a cause in which they believed.
Santa Anna hoped the fall of the Alamo would convince other Texans that it was useless to resist his armies. Instead, the heroism of those in the Alamo inspired other Texans to carry on the struggle. "Remember the Alamo!" became the battle cry of Houston's army.
Travis's Appeal for Aid at the Alamo, February 24, 1836
To the People of Texas and All Americans in the World--
Fellow Citizens and Compatriots:
I am besieged by a thousand or more of the Mexicans under Santa Anna. I have sustained a continual Bombardment & cannonade for 24 hours & have not lost a man. The enemy has demanded a surrender at discretion, otherwise the garrison are to be put to the sword if the fort is taken. I have answered the demand with a cannon shot, and our flag still waves proudly from the walls. I shall never surrender or retreat.
Then, I call on you in the name of Liberty, of patriotism, & of everything dear to the American character, to come to our aid with all dispatch. The enemy is receiving reinforcements daily & will no doubt increase to three or four thousand in four or five days. If this call is neglected I am determined to sustain myself as long as possible & die like a soldier who never forgets what is due to his honor & that of his country.
Victory or Death
William Barret Travis
Lt. Col. Comdt.
reduced or no taxes for several years. In return the colonists agreed to learn Spanish, become Mexican citizens, convert to Catholicism—the religion of Mexico—and obey Mexican law.
Mexican leaders hoped to attract settlers from all over, including other parts of Mexico. Most Texas settlers, however, came from the United States.
By 1830 Americans in Texas far outnumbered Mexicans. Further, these American colonists had not adopted Mexican ways. In the meantime the United States had twice offered to buy Texas from Mexico.
The Mexican government viewed the growing American influence in Texas with alarm. In 1830 the Mexican government issued a decree, or official order, that stopped all immigration from the United States. At the same time, the decree encouraged the immigration of Mexican and European families with generous land grants. Trade between Texas and the United States was discouraged by placing a tax on goods imported from the United States.
These new policies angered the Texans. The prosperity of many citizens depended on trade with the United States. Many had friends and relatives who wanted to come to Texas. In addition, those colonists who held slaves were uneasy about the Mexican government's plans to end slavery.
Attempt at Reconciliation
Some of the American settlers called for independence. Others hoped to stay within Mexico but on better terms. In 1833 General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna became president of
What might have happened?
1. Do you think the stand at the Alamo helped the cause of Texas independence even though it was a defeat for the Texans? Explain.
2. Did history take a different course because of the decision to defend the Alamo? Explain.
Mexico. Stephen F. Austin traveled to Mexico City with the Texans' demands, which were to remove the ban on American settlers and to make Texas a separate state.
Santa Anna agreed to the first request but refused the second. Austin sent a letter back to Texas, suggesting that plans for independence get underway. The Mexican government intercepted the letter and arrested Austin. While Austin was in jail, Santa Anna named himself dictator and overthrew Mexico's constitution of 1824. Without a constitution to protect their rights, Texans felt betrayed. Santa Anna reorganized the government, placing greater central control over Texas. This loss of local power dismayed many people.
Reading Check Explaining What role did empresarios play in colonization?
The Struggle for Independence
During 1835 unrest grew among Texans and occasionally resulted in open conflict. Santa Anna sent an army into Texas to punish the Texans for criticizing him. In October some Mexican troops tried to seize a cannon held by Texans at the town of Gonzales. During the battle the Texans decorated the front of the cannon with a white flag that bore the words "Come and Take It." After a brief struggle, Texans drove back the Mexican troops. Texans consider this to be the first fight of the Texan Revolution.
The Texans called on volunteers to join their fight. They offered free land to anyone who would help. Davy Crockett and many others—including a number of African Americans and Tejanos—answered that call.
In December 1835, the Texans scored an important victory. They liberated San Antonio from the control of a larger Mexican force. The Texas army at San Antonio included more than 100 Tejanos. Many of them served in a scouting company commanded by Captain Juan Seguin. Born in San Antonio, Seguin was an outspoken champion of the Texans' demand for independence.
Despite these victories, the Texans encountered problems. With the Mexican withdrawal, some Texans left San Antonio, thinking the war was won. Various groups argued over who was in charge and what course of action to follow. In early 1836, when Texas should have been making preparations to face Santa Anna, nothing was being done.
The Battle of the Alamo
Santa Anna marched north, furious at the loss of San Antonio. When his army reached San Antonio in late February 1836, it found a small Texan force barricaded inside a nearby mission called the Alamo.
Although the Texans had cannons, they lacked gunpowder. Worse, they had only about 180 soldiers to face Santa Anna's army of several thousand. The Texans did have brave leaders, though, including Davy Crockett, who had arrived with a band of sharpshooters from Tennessee, and a tough Texan named Jim Bowie. The commander, William B. Travis, was only 26
“We must now act or abandon all hope!"
—Sam Houston, before the Battle of San Jacinto
years old, but he was determined to hold his position. Travis managed to send messages out through Mexican lines. He wrote several messages to the people of Texas and the United States, asking them for assistance. In his last message, Travis described the fighting that had already taken place and repeated his request for assistance. He warned that
“the power of Santa Anna is to be met here, or in the colonies; we had better meet them here than to suffer a war of devastation to rage in our settlements.”
Travis concluded with the statement that he and his troops were determined to hold the Alamo.
For 12 long days, the defenders of the Alamo kept Santa Anna's army at bay with rifle fire. The Mexicans launched two assaults but had to break them off. During the siege, 32 volunteers from Gonzales slipped through the Mexican lines to join the Alamo's defenders.
On March 6, 1836, Mexican cannon fire smashed the Alamo's walls, and the Mexicans launched an all-out attack. The Alamo defenders killed many Mexican soldiers as they crossed open land and tried to mount the Alamo's walls. The Mexicans were too numerous to hold back, however, and they finally entered the fortress, killing William Travis, Davy Crockett, Jim Bowie, and all the other defenders. Only a few women and children and some servants survived to tell of the battle.
In the words of Santa Anna's aide, "The Texans fought more like devils than like men." The defenders of the Alamo had killed hundreds of Mexican soldiers. But more important, they had bought Texans some much needed time.
Texas Declares Its Independence
During the siege of the Alamo, Texan leaders were meeting at Washington-on-the-Brazos, where they were drawing up a new constitution. There, on March 2, 1836—four days before the fall of the Alamo—American settlers and Tejanos firmly declared independence from Mexico and established the Republic of Texas.
The Texas Declaration of Independence was similar to the Declaration of the United States, which had been written 60 years earlier. The Texas Declaration stated that the government of Santa Anna had violated the liberties guaranteed under the Mexican Constitution. The declaration charged that Texans had been deprived of freedom of religion, the right to trial by jury, the right to bear arms, and the right to petition. It noted that the Texans' protests against these policies were met with force. The Mexican government had sent a large army to drive Texans from their homes. Because of these grievances, the declaration proclaimed the following:
“The people of Texas, in solemn convention assembled, appealing to a candid world for the necessities of our condition, do hereby resolve and declare that our political connection with the Mexican nation has forever ended; and that the people of Texas do now constitute a free, sovereign, and independent republic....”
Student Web Activity Visit tarvol1 .glencoe.com and click on Chapter 12—Student Web Activities for an activity on the fight for Texas independence.
With Mexican troops in Texas, it was not possible to hold a general election to ratify the constitution and vote for leaders of the new republic. Texas leaders set up a temporary government. They selected officers to serve until regular elections could be held.
David G. Burnet, an early pioneer in Texas, was chosen president and Lorenzo de Zavala, vice president. De Zavala had worked to establish a democratic government in Mexico. He moved to Texas when it became clear that Santa Anna would not make reforms.
The government of the new republic named Sam Houston as commander in chief of the Texas forces. Houston had come to Texas in 1832. Raised among the Cherokee people, he became a soldier, fighting with Andrew Jackson against the Creek people. A politician as well, Houston had served in Congress and as governor of Tennessee.
Houston wanted to prevent other forts from being overrun by the Mexicans. He ordered the troops at Goliad to abandon their position. As they retreated, however, they came face to face with Mexican troops led by General Urrea. After a fierce fight, several hundred Texans surrendered. On Santa Anna's orders, the Texans were executed a few days later. This action outraged Texans, who called it the "Goliad Massacre."
The Battle of San Jacinto
Houston moved his small army eastward about 100 miles, watching the movements of Santa Anna and waiting for a chance to strike. Six weeks after the Alamo, he found the opportunity.
After adding some new troops, Houston gathered an army of about 900 at San Jacinto (sAN juh•SIHN•toh), near the site of present-day Houston. Santa Anna was camped nearby with an army of more than 1,300. On April 21 the Texans launched a surprise attack on the Mexican camp, shouting, "Remember the Alamo! Remember Goliad!" They killed more than 600 soldiers and captured about 700 more—including Santa Anna. On May 14, 1836, Santa Anna signed a treaty that recognized the independence of Texas.
Reading Check Identifying Who was commander in chief of the Texas forces?
The Lone Star Republic
Texans elected Sam Houston as their president in September 1836. Mirabeau Lamar, who had built a fort at Velasco and had fought bravely at the Battle of San Jacinto, served as vice president. Houston sent a delegation to Washington, D.C., asking the United States to annex—take control of—Texas. The nation's president Andrew Jackson refused, however, because the addition of another slave state would upset the balance of slave and free states in Congress. For the moment Texas would remain an independent country.
---Refer to NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC Texas War for Independence, 1835-1836
In 1836 General Santa Anna led Mexico's main forces across the Rio Grande into Texas.
1. Location. At which battles did Texans win victories?
2. Analyzing Information. What battle immediately followed the Alamo?
Fact Fiction Folklore
Texas Republic, 1839 For its first six years, this Lone Star flag symbolized the independent nation of the Republic of Texas. Texans kept the Lone Star banner as their official state flag after joining the Union in 1845.
The Question of Annexation
Despite rapid population growth, the new republic faced political and financial difficulties. The Mexican government refused to honor Santa Anna's recognition of independence, and fighting continued between Texas and Mexico. In addition Texas had an enormous debt and no money to repay it.
Many Texans still hoped to join the United States. Southerners favored the annexation of Texas, but Northerners objected that Texas would add another slave state to the Union. President Martin Van Buren, like Jackson, did not want to inflame the slavery issue or risk war with Mexico. He put off the question of annexing Texas.
John Tyler, who became the nation's president in 1841, was the first vice president to become president upon the death of a chief executive. He succeeded William Henry Harrison, who died in April, just one month after taking office. Tyler supported adding Texas to the Union and persuaded Texas to reapply for annexation. However, the Senate was divided over slavery and failed to ratify the annexation treaty.
Texas Becomes a State
The situation changed with the 1844 presidential campaign. The feeling of Manifest Destiny was growing throughout the country. The South favored annexation of Texas. The North demanded that the United States gain control of the Oregon country from Britain. The Democratic candidate, James K. Polk, supported both actions. The Whig candidate, Henry Clay, initially opposed adding Texas to the Union. When he finally came out for annexation, it lost him votes in the North—and the election.
After Polk's victory, supporters of annexation pressed the issue in Congress. They proposed and passed a resolution to annex Texas. On December 29, 1845, Texas officially became a state of the United States.
Reading Check Identifying Who was president of the Texas Republic?
SECTION 2 ASSESSMENT
Checking for Understanding
1. Key Terms Write a short history about events in Texas using the following terms: Tejano, empresario, decree, annex.
2. Reviewing Facts Name the four things that American settlers agreed to do in exchange for receiving land in Texas.
3. Geography and History Why did Northerners and Southerners disagree on the annexation of Texas?
4. Analyzing Information How did the fall of the Alamo help the cause of Texas independence, even though it was a defeat for the Texans?
5. Categorizing Information Re-create the diagram below. In the boxes, describe two causes of the war between Mexico and Americans in Texas.
6. Sequencing Study the map on page 367. Place these battles in order, starting with the earliest: Gonzales, San Jacinto, the Alamo, Goliad.
Descriptive Writing Look at the painting of the Battle of the Alamo on page 365. Write one paragraph that describes what is happening in the picture.
War with Mexico
Guide to Reading
American settlement in the Southwest led to conflict with Mexico.
rancho, ranchero, Californios, cede
Taking Notes As you read the section, describe the actions and achievements of each of the individuals in the table.
Read to Learn
• why Americans began to settle in the Southwest.
• how the United States acquired New Mexico and California.
Culture and Traditions New Mexico, California, and Texas were Spanish lands with Spanish cultures and traditions.
Preview of Events
1821 Mexico gains independence
1833 Mexico abolishes missions
1845 The United States annexes Texas
1846 Congress declares war on Mexico
AN American Story
Long lines of covered wagons stretched as far as the eye could see. "All's set!" a driver called out. "All's set!" everyone shouted in reply.
"Then the 'Heps!' of drivers—the cracking of whips—the trampling of feet—the occasional creak of wheels—the rumbling of wagons—form a new scene of [intense] confusion," reported Josiah Gregg. Gregg was one of the traders who traveled west on the Santa Fe Trail in the 1830s to sell cloth, knives, and other goods in New Mexico.
The New Mexico Territory
In the early 1800s, New Mexico was the name of a vast region sandwiched between the Texas and California territories. It included all of present-day New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, and Utah and parts of Colorado and Wyoming.
Native American peoples had lived in the area for thousands of years. Spanish conquistadors began exploring there in the late 1500s and made it part of Spain's colony of Mexico. In 1610 the Spanish founded the settlement of Santa Fe. Missionaries followed soon after.
When Mexico won its independence in 1821, it inherited the New Mexico province from Spain. The Mexicans, however, had little control over the distant province. The inhabitants of New Mexico mostly governed themselves.
The Spanish had tried to keep Americans away from Santa Fe, fearing that Americans would want to take over the area. The Mexican government changed this policy, welcoming American traders into New Mexico. It hoped that the trade would boost the economy of the province.
The Santa Fe Trail
William Becknell, the first American trader to reach Santa Fe, arrived in 1821 with a pack of mules loaded with goods. Becknell sold the merchandise he brought for many times what he would have received for it in St. Louis.
Becknell's route came to be known as the Santa Fe Trail. The trail left the Missouri River near Independence, Missouri, and crossed the prairies to the Arkansas River. It followed the river west toward the Rocky Mountains before turning south into New Mexico Territory. Because the trail was mostly flat, on later trips Becknell used wagons to carry his merchandise.
Other traders followed Becknell, and the Santa Fe Trail became a busy trade route for hundreds of wagons. Americans brought cloth and firearms, which they exchanged in Santa Fe for silver, furs, and mules. The trail remained in use until the arrival of the railroad in 1880.
As trade with New Mexico increased, Americans began settling in the region. In the United States, the idea of Manifest Destiny captured the popular imagination, and many people saw New Mexico as territory worth acquiring. At thesame time, they eyed another prize—the Mexican territory of California, which would provide access to the Pacific.
Reading Check Describing Where did the Santa Fe Trail end?
California's Spanish Culture
Spanish explorers and missionaries from Mexico had been the first Europeans to settle in California. In the 1760s Captain Gaspar de Portold and Father Junipero Serra began building a string of missions that eventually extended from San Diego to Sonoma.
The mission system was a key part of Spain's plan to colonize California. The Spanish used the missions to convert Native Americans to Christianity. By 1820, California had 21 missions, with about 20,000 Native Americans living in them.
In 1820 American mountain man Jedediah Smith visited the San Gabriel Mission east of present-day Los Angeles. Smith reported that the Native Americans farmed thousands of acres and worked at weaving and other crafts. He described the missions as "large farming and grazing establishments." Another American in Smith's party called the Native Americans "slaves in every sense of the word."
History Through Art
Vaqueros in a Horse Corral by James Walker Mexican American cowhands, or vaqueros, work on a ranch in the Southwest. Why did the number of ranchos grow in the 1820s and 1830s?
California After 1821
After Mexico gained its independence from Spain in 1821, California became a state in the new Mexican nation. At the time only a few hundred Spanish settlers lived in California, but emigrants began arriving from Mexico. The wealthier settlers lived on ranches devoted to raising cattle and horses.
In 1833 the Mexican government passed a law abolishing the missions. The government gave some of the lands to Native Americans and sold the remainder. Mexican settlers bought these lands and built huge properties called ranchos.
The Mexican settlers persuaded Native Americans to work their lands and tend their cattle in return for food and shelter. The California ranchos were similar to the plantations of the South, and the rancheros—ranch owners—treated Native American workers almost like slaves.
Manifest Destiny and California
Americans had been visiting California for years. Most arrived on trading or whaling ships, although a few hardy travelers like Jedediah Smith came overland from the East. Soon more began to arrive.
At first the Mexican authorities welcomed Americans in California. The newcomers included agents for American shipping companies, fur traders from Oregon, and merchants from New Mexico. In the 1840s families began to arrive in California to settle. They made the long journey from Missouri on the Oregon Trail and then turned south after crossing the Rocky Mountains. Still, by 1845 the American population of California numbered only about 700. Most Americans lived in the Sacramento River valley.
Some American travelers wrote glowing reports of California. John C. Fremont, an army officer who made several trips through California in the 1840s, wrote of the region's mild climate, scenic beauty, and abundance of natural resources.
Americans began to talk about adding California to the nation. Shippers and manufacturers hoped to build ports on the Pacific coast for trade with China and Japan. Many Americans saw the advantage of extending United States territory to the Pacific. That way the nation would be safely bordered by the sea instead of by a foreign power. In 1845 Secretary of War William Marcy wrote that
“ if the people [of California] should desire to unite their destiny with ours, they would be received as brethren [brothers].”
President James Polk twice offered to buy California and New Mexico from Mexico, but Mexico refused. Soon, the United States would take over both regions by force.
Reading Check Examining What was the purpose of the California missions?
War With Mexico
President James K. Polk was determined to get the California and New Mexico territories from Mexico. Their possession would guarantee that the United States had clear passage to the Pacific Ocean—an important consideration because the British still occupied part of Oregon. Polk's main reason, though, involved fulfilling the nation's Manifest Destiny. Like many Americans, Polk saw California and New Mexico as rightfully belonging to the United States.
John C. Fremont's strong belief in westward expansion advanced the cause of Manifest Destiny.
---Refer to NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC The War with Mexico map, 1846-1848 on page 372 in your text book.
War between the United States and Mexico broke out in 1846 near the Rio Grande.
1. Location .Which battle occurred farthest north?
2. Making Inferences. What information on the map can you use to infer which side won the war?
After Mexico refused to sell California and New Mexico, President Polk plotted to pull the Mexican provinces into the Union through war. He wanted, however, to provoke Mexico into taking military action first. This way Polk could justify the war to Congress and the American people.
Relations between Mexico and the United States had been strained for some years. When the United States annexed Texas in 1845, the situation worsened. Mexico, which had never recognized the independence of Texas, charged that the annexation was illegal.
Another dispute concerned the Texas-Mexico border. The United States insisted that the Rio Grande formed the border. Mexico claimed that the border lay along the Nueces (nu•AY•suhs) River, 150 miles farther north. Because of this dispute, Mexico had stopped payments to American citizens for losses suffered during Mexico's war for independence.
Polk sent an agent, John Slidell, to Mexico to propose a deal. Slidell was authorized to offer $30 million for California and New Mexico in return for Mexico's acceptance of the Rio Grande as the Texas boundary. In addition, the United States would take over payment of Mexico's debts to American citizens.
The Mexican government refused to discuss the offer and announced its intention to reclaim Texas for Mexico. In response Polk ordered General Zachary Taylor to march his soldiers across the disputed borderland between the Nueces River and the Rio Grande. Taylor followed the order and built a fort there on his arrival. On April 24, Mexican soldiers attacked a small force of Taylor's soldiers. Taylor sent the report the president wanted to hear: "Hostilities may now be considered as commenced."
Polk called an emergency meeting of his cabinet, and the cabinet agreed that the attack was grounds for war with Mexico. On May 11, 1846, the president told Congress that Mexico had "invaded our territory and shed American blood upon the American soil." Congress passed a declaration of war against Mexico.
American Attitudes Toward the War
The American people were divided over the war with Mexico. Polk's party, the Democrats, generally supported the war. Many Whigs opposed it, calling Polk's actions aggressive and unjust. Northerners accused Democrats of waging the war to spread slavery.
Illinois congressman Abraham Lincoln demanded to know the exact spot where the first attack against American troops had occurred. Lincoln, like many who opposed the war, claimed that the spot was clearly in Mexico and that Polk therefore had no grounds for blaming the war on Mexico.
Frederick Douglass, an African American leader in the antislavery movement, called the war "disgraceful" and "cruel." Douglass shared the belief that if the United States expanded into the West, the Southern states would carry slavery into the new territories.
Newspapers generally supported the war, and volunteers quickly signed up for military service. As time went on, however, antiwar feeling grew, particularly in the North.
Polk's War Plan
President Polk had a three-part plan for the war with Mexico. First, American troops would drive Mexican forces out of the disputed border region in Texas and make the border secure. Second, the United States would seize New Mexico and California. Finally, American forces would take Mexico City, the capital of Mexico.
Zachary Taylor accomplished the first goal. His army captured the town of Matamoros in May 1846 and Monterrey in September 1846. The Americans pushed forward and entered the bishop's palace. The Mexican flag was lowered, and a mighty cheer erupted from American forces remaining on the plain below. In February 1847, Taylor defeated the Mexicans again at Buena Vista. The Texas border was secure.
While Taylor made progress in northern Mexico, American forces also advanced farther west. General Stephen Watts Kearny led his troops to New Mexico and California. In the summer of 1846, Kearny led about 1,500 cavalry soldiers along the Santa Fe Trail from Fort Leavenworth to
New Mexico. The Mexican governor fled, allowing the Americans to capture New Mexico's capital, Santa Fe, on August 18, 1846, without firing a shot. Kearny and his army then headed across the deserts of New Mexico and Arizona to California.
California and the Bear Flag Republic
In June 1846, a small group of Americans had seized the town of Sonoma north of San Francisco and proclaimed the independent Republic of California. They called the new country the Bear Flag Republic because their flag showed a bear and a star on a white background. John C. Fremont and mountain man Kit Carson, who were already out West on a military expedition in California, joined the Americans in Sonoma.
Though unaware of the outbreak of war with Mexico, Fremont declared that he would conquer California. Fremont's actions outraged many Californios, the Mexicans who lived in California. They might have supported a revolt for local control of government, but they opposed what looked like an attempt by a band of Americans to seize land.
In July 1846, a United States Navy squadron under Commodore John Sloat captured the ports of Monterey and San Francisco. Sloat declared California annexed to the United States, and the American flag replaced the Bear Flag in California.
Sloat's fleet sailed for San Diego, carrying Fremont and Carson. The Americans captured San Diego and moved north to Los Angeles. Carson
headed east with the news of California's annexation. On his way he met and joined Kearny's force, marching west from Santa Fe.
After Sloat's ships left, many Californios in San Diego rose up in arms against the Americans who had taken over the city. General Kearny and his troops arrived in the midst of the rebellion. They faced a stiff fight but eventually won. By January 1847, California was fully controlled by the United States.
The Capture of Mexico City
With their victories in New Mexico and California, the Americans met their first two goals in the war. President Polk then launched the third part of his war plan—an attack on Mexico City.
Polk gave the task of capturing Mexico City to General Winfield Scott. In March 1847, Scott's army landed on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico, near the Mexican port of Veracruz. Scott captured Veracruz after a three-week siege and then set out to march the 300 miles to Mexico City.
The Americans had to fight their way toward Mexico City, battling not only the Mexican army but also bands of armed citizens. Scott reached the outskirts of Mexico City with his troops towards the end of August 1847. By mid-September the Americans had taken Mexico City. The Mexican government surrendered.
The United States lost 1,721 men to battle and more than 11,000 to disease in the war with Mexico. Mexico's losses were far greater. The war cost the United States nearly $100 million, but here, too, Mexico paid a higher price. The war would cost Mexico half its territory.
The Peace Treaty
Peace talks between the United States and Mexico began in January 1848. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (GWAH•duhl•OOP hih• DAL, goh) was signed in February 1848.
In the treaty Mexico gave up all claims to Texas and agreed to the Rio Grande as the border between Texas and Mexico. Furthermore, in what was called the Mexican Cession, Mexico ceded—gave—its provinces of California and New Mexico to the United States. In return the United States gave Mexico $15 million.
In 1853 the United States paid Mexico an additional $10 million for the Gadsden Purchase, a strip of land along the southern edge of the present-day states of Arizona and New Mexico. With the Gadsden Purchase, the United States mainland reached its present size. All that remained was to settle the newly acquired territories.
Reading Check Describing What lands did Mexico cede to the United States?
SECTION 3 ASSESSMENT
Checking for Understanding
1. Key Terms Write a short paragraph in which you use the following terms: rancho, ranchero, Californios, cede.
2. Reviewing Facts According to the Mexican government, where did the border between Texas and Mexico lie?
3. Culture and Traditions Why did the Spanish establish missions in the Southwest? What happened to the mission land after Mexico gained its independence?
4. Analyzing Primary Sources Explain the meaning of this sentence in your own words: "If the people [of California] should desire to unite their destiny with ours, they would be received as brethren [brothers]."
5. Categorizing Information Re-create the diagram below and describe the three parts of Polk's strategy and how they were accomplished.
6. Geography Skills List the bathes that appear on the map on page 372 in order from first to last. Identify whether each was a Mexican victory or a U.S. victory.
Science Settlers traveling west encountered new wildlife, vegetation, and landforms. Choose one region of the west and investigate as a traveling scientist would. List plants and animals you would see there. Write a report summarizing what you have observed.
New Settlers in California and Utah
Guide to Reading
The lure of gold and the promise of religious freedom drew many settlers westward.
forty-niners, boomtown, vigilante
Organizing Information As you read Section 4, re-create the diagram below. In the boxes, describe who these groups and individuals were and what their role was in the settlement of California and Utah.
Read to Learn
• how the hopes of getting rich drew thousands of people to California.
• how the search for religious freedom led to the settlement of Utah.
Groups and Institutions In the mid-1800s, people went to California in search of gold, and Mormons settled in Utah in search of religious freedom.
Preview of Events
1846 Mormons migrate to the Great Salt Lake area
1848 Gold is discovered at Sutter's Mill
1850 California applies for statehood
AN American Story
James Marshall was building a sawmill on the South Fork of the American River in California. He worked for John Sutter, who owned a vast tract of land about 35 miles from present-day Sacramento. On January 24, 1848, Marshall saw something shining in a ditch. "I reached my hand down and picked it up," he wrote later. "It made my heart thump, for I was certain it was gold." Looking around, he found other shiny pieces. Marshall rushed to show the glittering pieces to Sutter, who determined that they were gold. Sutter tried to keep the discovery a secret, but word soon leaked out. The great California Gold Rush was underway!
California Gold Rush
People from all over the world flocked to California in search of quick riches. More than 80,000 people came to California looking for gold in 1849 alone. Those who arrived in 1849 were called forty-niners. An official in Monterey reported that "the farmers have thrown aside their plows, the lawyers their