Why do you think there was a progressive reduction in the number of voluntary enlistments over the period 1915-1918?



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  1. Why do you think there was a progressive reduction in the number of voluntary enlistments over the period 1915-1918?

As the number of enlistments declined, governments tried to pressure men to enlist through propaganda and campaigns which either encouraged or shamed men into enlisting. This process of asking people to enlist so as to increase the size of the army is called recruitment. In Australia, recruitment became an issue by about 1916 when the Australian prime minister William Hughes return from a visit to Britain and the western front. Over 27,000 Australian soldiers had just been killed within the first five weeks of the Battle of the Somme in July 1916. Hughes believed that Australia needed at least 7500 men to enlist per month if Australia was to maintain its fighting strength. To achieve this he believe we needed to introduce conscription (a policy of forcing men to go to war). In October 1916, Australians were asked to vote for or against conscription in a referendum. By a very narrow margin, the Australian people voted against conscription. Another referendum on conscription was held in December 1917, and once again, the Australian people voted against it, and conscription for overseas service in World War 1 was never introduced.


Following is a range of examples of recruitment and conscription propaganda from Britain and Australia during World War 1. Analyse each source, and then answer the questions, which follow.



  1. What emotions does the poster in Source 2 appeal to?




  1. What methods are used by Source 2 to encourage recruitment?




  1. How useful would Source 2 be in explaining methods used by the British Government to encourage volunteers for the army?



  1. What emotions does the poster in Source 3 appeal to?



  1. What methods are used by Source 3 to encourage recruitment?




  1. How useful would Source 3 be in explaining methods used by the British Government to encourage volunteers for the army?



  1. How are the methods and messages used in Source 3 different to Source 2?





  1. What emotions does Source 4 appeal to?



  1. What methods are used by source 4 to encourage recruitment?




  1. What emotions does Source 5 appeal to?





  1. What methods are used by Source 5 to encourage recruitment?



  1. Compare Source 5 with Source 4. How are the two sources different in tone?




  1. Who wrote Source 6?





  1. What is the main idea? What kind of impression does the author create?




  1. How might this poem have encouraged Australian men to enlist?




  1. What audience was Source 7 intended for?





  1. What is the motive of Source 7?



  1. What emotions does Source 7 appeal to?



  1. Write a paragraph explain the difference between recruitment and conscription



  1. Use all the sources on pages 52-58, as well as your own knowledge, to write a paragraph which explains the methods used to recruit civilians into the armed forces in Britain and Australia.





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