Why do civilizations form political systems? Why are laws necessary?

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Why do civilizations form political systems?

Why are laws necessary?

What is the advantage of written laws?

What happens when laws are not followed?

Why do you civilizations find it necessary to expand into an empire?

Imagine yourself as an Absolute Ruler. How would this change you?

Can absolute rulers be fair and just?

Why can’t Direct Democracies work on a large scale?

How is it possible for Republics to have ‘bad government?’

What are the advantages of a totalitarian society?

What is the inherent problem with Theocracies?

Why can extreme nationalism be used for bad/evil purposes?

In Feudalism; Land = wealth = power

Political Systems

  1. Introduction to Political Systems

  1. Reasons for developing any political system - Purpose of Government:

  1. Organization - to avoid chaos

  1. Stability - to establish a set of rules to provide order

  1. Security – to provide safety for its citizens

  1. Parts of political systems:

  1. Legislative - Creating law or rules for people of a society to live by

  1. LawsRule for a society to follow; to provide stability and safety of a society.

  1. Codified LawsLaws that are written down or recorded

Examples of Codified Law Systems:

  1. Hammurabi’s CodeCodified laws of Babylon that were strict and harsh; “Eye for and Eye

  1. Law of 12 TablesLaws in the Roman Empire that guaranteed the rights of all Roman citizens

  1. Justinian Code – A collection of written civil laws that provided order in the Eastern Roman Empire/Byzantine Empire

  1. Executive - Method of enforcing the law by creating punishments for those who break the laws.

  1. Judicial - Method of judging conduct and interpreting law by setting up courts to set punishments for those who break the laws to provide justice.

  1. Systems of Political Organization

  1. Types of Political Units

  1. City-state - small, independent cities built around a larger area (ex: Greece – Athens, Sparta)

  1. Nation-state - An independent state or country. England, France, China)

  1. Empire - A group of states or territories that were conquered and controlled by one ruler (Rome)

  1. Types of Political Systems

  1. Centralized Governments – A form of government where power is concentrated or consolidated in one area (ex: kings, dictators, emperors)

  1. Decentralized Governments – A form of government where power is delegated or distributed from the top (ex: Feudalism)

  1. Dynasty - A succession of rulers of a country that come from the same family

Examples of Dynasties:

    1. China – Shang, Zhou, Han, Tang, Song, Ming

  1. Dynastic CyclePolitical cycle in China that explains the rise and fall of dynasties

    1. New Dynasty - brings peace and prosperity

    1. Old dynasty - loses the Mandate of Heaven because of heavy taxes, wars, revolts, invaders, natural disasters

  1. Mandate of Heaven – Chinese theory that the power to rule comes from heaven (justify complete control)

  1. Monarchy - Government headed by king or a queen

Types of monarchies:

  1. Absolute Monarchy - Government where a King or Queen has complete control.

  1. Divine Right – Theory that a monarch’s power came from God. It was used to justify the absolute control of the monarch

Examples of Absolute Monarchs:

        1. Louis XIV – France

        2. Phillip II – Spain

        3. Peter the Great – Russia

        4. Catherine the Great – Russia

        5. Henry VIII – England

        6. Suleiman the MagnificentOttoman Empire

c. Limited MonarchyKing or queen shares their power with a law making body
Example of Limited Monarchy:

      1. England after the Glorious Revolution – English parliament shared power with its monarchs.

  1. Democracy - Government where the people hold the power

Types of Democracies:

    1. Direct-democracy – Form of democracy where people have direct say in governmental decisions

1. Athens, Greece – All male citizens over the age of 20 were allowed to vote (No women, slaves, foreigners)

    1. Republic – Form of government where people vote for elected officials

1. Roman RepublicMale citizens elected officials to the Senate, the most powerful governmental body of Rome.

  1. Dictatorship – Government ruled by individual who has complete control over a government for a limited period of time. (Times of crisis)

Examples of Dictatorships:

    1. Julius Caesar – Rome

    1. Adolf Hitler – Germany

    1. Josef Stalin – Soviet Union

    1. Fidel Castro - Cuba

  1. Totalitarian – Government that has total control of its people

Examples of Totalitarian Governments/Societies:

    1. Sparta – Lives of citizens were controlled in a military dictatorship

      1. Age 7 - Boys start training

      2. Age 20 – Allowed to marry

      3. Age 30 - Joined elite forces

      4. Age 60 - Eligible to retire

      5. Women – must train bodies to provide fit sons for the army

  1. Theocracy - Government controlled by the religious doctrine or religious leaders

Examples of theocracies:

    1. Iran – Religious ideals of Islam, based on the Sharia (regulate government, family matters, diets, business practices)

    1. EnglandHenry VIII makes himself the leader of the Anglican Church (church of England)

  1. Communism – Political system where a dictator sets up a totalitarian state where he controls all aspects of life, especially the economy

Examples of Communist States:

    1. The Soviet Union - Russia

    2. China

    3. North Korea

    4. Cuba

    5. Vietnam

  1. FascismGovernment based on extreme nationalism and an all-powerful state (Develops during times of crisis)

Examples of Fascist Regimes:

    1. Nazi Germany – 1930’s – WWII

    1. Italy - 1930’s to WWII

  1. FeudalismDecentralized political system where land is exchanged for loyalty, military service and protection. (Weak leaders)

      1. Each group exchanged land for loyalty, services, and protection

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