Crash Course World History Video Notes-The Latin American Revolution
Before independence, Latin American society was characterized by three institutions that exercised control over the population.
The first was the ______________ crown, or if you are Brazilian, the ______________ crown. The job of the colonies was to produce ______________ in the form of a 20% tax on everything that was called “the royal fifth.”
Secondly, the ______________which even controlled time – the church bells tolled out the hours and they mandated a six day work week so that people could go to church on Sunday.
And finally, there was ______________. In Latin America, like much of the world, husbands had complete control over their wives and children.
Couple other things: First, Latin America led the world in transculturation or ______________ ______________. A new and distinct Latin American culture emerged mixing
This blending of cultures may be most obvious when looking at Native American and African influences upon ______________. The Virgin of Guadalupe, for instance, was still called Tonantzin, the indigenous earth goddess, by Indians, and the profusion of blood in Mexican iconography recalls the ______________ use of blood in ritual. Transculturation pervaded Latin American life, from food to secular music to fashion.
Somewhat related: Latin America had a great deal of racial diversity and a rigid social hierarchy to match. There were four basic racial categories: white, black, ______________–a mix of white and American Indian-and ______________, a mix of white and black.
Successful people of lower racial ______________ could become “legally white” by being granted gracias al sacar. By 1800, on the eve of Latin America’s independence movements, roughly a ______________ of the population were mixed race.
Like a lot of revolutions in Latin America, Brazil’s was fairly conservative. The ______________ wanted to maintain their privilege while also achieving independence from the Peninsulares. And also like a lot of Latin American revolutions, it featured ______________.
When Napoleon took over Portugal in 1807, the entire Portuguese ______________ ______________and their royal court decamped to Brazil. And it turned out, they loved Brazil that even after Napoleon was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo, they just kind of stayed in Brazil.
In 1821, the king reluctantly returned to Lisbon, leaving his son Prince ______________behind.
Meanwhile, Brazilian creoles were organizing themselves around the idea that they were culturally different from Portugal, and they eventually formed a Brazilian Party to lobby for ______________.
So Pedro declared Brazil an independent ______________ monarchy with himself as king. As a result, Brazil achieved independence without much bloodshed and managed to hold on to that social hierarchy with the plantation owners on top. And that explains why Brazil was the last new world country to abolish ______________, not fully abandoning it until 1888.
Latin America’s independence movements began not with Brazil, but in ______________ when Napoleon put his brother on the Spanish throne in 1808. Napoleon wanted to institute the liberal principles of the French Revolution, which angered the ruling elite of the Peninsulares in what was then called _____ _________.
Massive ______________ uprisings began, led by a renegade priests Padre Hidalgo and Father Morelos without much success. In 1820, when Spain, which was now under the rule of a Spanish, rather than a French king, had a REAL ______________ revolution with a new constitution that limited the power of the church. Soon peasants and Creoles joined forces and won independence with most of the Peninsulares returning to Spain.
The interior of Venezuela was home to mixed-race ______________ called llaneros who supported the king. They kept the Caracas revolutionaries from extending their power inland. And that, is where ______________ ______________, “el Libertador,” enters the picture. After uniting the various groups he quickly captured the northern area of South America including Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador.
Argentina’s general Jose de _____ _________ was also vital to the defeat of the Spanish. He led expeditions against the Spanish in ______________ and also a really important one in Lima, Peru.
in December of ________, at the battle of Ayacucho, the last Spanish viceroy was finally captured and all of Latin America was free from Spain.
So by 1825, almost the entire western hemisphere –with a few exceptions in the ______________ —was free from European rule. Oh, right. And ______________.
The most revolutionary thing about these independence movements was that they enshrined the idea of so called ______________ sovereignty in the New World.
In a number of ways, Latin American independence wasn’t terribly revolutionary. First, while the Peninsulares were gone, the rigid social ______________, with the wealthy creoles at the top, remained. Second, whereas revolutions in both France and America weakened the power of the established church, in Latin America, the ______________remained very powerful in people’s everyday lives. And then, there is the ______________, where women were not extended voting rights until the mid-twentieth century.
Latin America’s revolutionary wars were long and bloody, they didn’t always lead to ______________, and it’s important to note that fighting for freedom doesn’t always lead to freedom; the past two centuries in Latin America have seen many military ______________ that protect private property at the expense of egalitarian governance.