What’s the Deal with the New Deal? Investigating the Great Depression and Analyzing Propaganda Posters of the New Deal



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What’s the Deal with the New Deal?

Investigating the Great Depression

and Analyzing Propaganda Posters of the New Deal



Aimee Cottingham

Kathy Nelson

Lynn Parker

Heyworth Junior High School




Summer 2012



Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division

Washington, D.C. 20540 USA ,LC-USZC2-5191


This unit will allow students to examine the Great Depression and the New Deal through primary sources that include photos and New Deal propaganda posters. Students will practice their analysis and evaluation skills and ultimately create their own book mark and New Deal poster. This is in preparation for reading A Long Way from Chicago, which is set during the Great Depression.
Overview/ Materials/LOC Resources/Standards/ Procedures/Evaluation/Rubric/Handouts/Extension

Overview Back to Navigation Bar

Objectives

Students will:

  • locate photos and propaganda posters on the Library of Congress website

  • analyze photographs and propaganda posters using primary source analysis tools

  • determine cause/effect relationships of the Great Depression

  • design and create a book mark demonstrating knowledge of the Great Depression

  • evaluate propaganda and its effectiveness

  • determine point of view or bias

  • design and create a propaganda poster for a New Deal Program

  • connect content to a current event

Recommended time frame

1 week

Grade level

7th-8th

Curriculum fit

Social Studies, Integrated Studies, Language Arts

Materials

  • Primary Source analysis tools: http://www.loc.gov/teachers/primary-source-analysis-tool/

  • Connection Reflection handout

  • Computer with internet access

  • New Deal Teacher’s Guide

http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/primarysourcesets/new-deal/

  • Library of Congress website:

  • http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/wpapos/

  • http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/themes/great-depression/

  • Microsoft Word

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Common Core Standards

History/Social Studies:

CC. 6-8.RH.2. Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions

CC.6-8.RH.6. Identify aspects of a text that reveal an author’s point of view or purpose

CC.6-8.RH.7. Integrate visual information with other information in print and digital text
NETS technology standards

  • 1. Creativity and Innovation: Students demonstrate creative thinking, construct knowledge, and develop innovative products and processes using technology.

  • 1.a. Apply existing knowledge to generate new ideas, products, or processes

  • 1.b. Create original works as a means of personal or group expression

  • 2. Communication and Collaboration: Students use digital media and environments to communicate and work collaboratively, including at a distance, to support individual learning and contribute to the learning of others.

  • 2. a. Interact, collaborate, and publish with peers, experts, or others employing a variety of digital environments and media

  • 2.b. Communicate information and ideas effectively to multiple audiences using a variety of media and formats

  • 2.d. Contribute to project teams to produce original works or solve problems

  • 3. Research and Information Fluency: Students apply digital tools to gather, evaluate, and use information.

  • 3.b. Locate, organize, analyze, evaluate, synthesize, and ethically use information from a variety of sources and media

Reading: Literature

CC.7.RL.9. Compare and contrast a fictional portrayal of a time, place, or character and a historical account of the same period as a means of understanding how authors of fiction use or alter history.

Speaking and Listening

CC.7.SL.1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 7 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.

  • Come to discussions prepared, having read or researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion.

  • Follow rules for collegial discussions, track progress toward specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed.

Procedures Back to Navigation Bar




Day One: 2 class periods, Reading and Writing

  • In Language Arts, students will locate photographs of the Great Depression from the Library of Congress. With a partner, they will try to determine what time in American history all of the photos relate to without looking at the captions. Partners will then choose one of the pictures to analyze, using the primary source analysis tool.

  • Hold a class discussion to share what students have learned, and assess knowledge of the Great Depression, using a K-W-L chart on Smartboard.

  • Partners or small groups will read the background information from either the link provided or a handout of the information.

  • Hold a class discussion to help students with content and summarization of material, and complete the K-W-L chart.

  • Students will create a book mark that lists important points about this historical period. See rubric.

Day Two:

  • In Integrated Studies, locate different propaganda posters from provided links on Library of Congress website.

  • Student groups should select a poster, print it out, and provide the proper copyright information.

Day Three:

  • In Social Studies, students will use the primary source analysis tool to analyze their selected poster.

  • Students will discuss and evaluate the poster’s effectiveness.

Day Four:

  • In Integrated Studies, students will design and create their own propaganda poster from one of the New Deal Programs listed in the background information. See rubric for grading.

Day Five:

  • In Social Studies, students will present their posters to the class and their classmates will evaluate the poster’s effectiveness.

Evaluation Back to Navigation Bar




  • Student understanding will be assessed informally through peer and instructor discussions within daily activities.

  • Formal assessment of the book mark will use a rubric.

  • Formal assessment of the propaganda poster will use a rubric and peer evaluations.

Extension Back to Navigation Bar




  • Instruct students to research further a New Deal Program that still exists today. Locate a news story that discusses the program and connect it to this learning experience.

  • This unit may be expanded to include Science and Math. Have students view the LOC webcast Food Thrift: Scraps from the Past @ http://www.loc.gov/today/cyberlc/feature_wdesc.php?rec=5176

  • Students would bring in their favorite recipe. In Math, they could research the prices for the various ingredients in the 1930’s and the current prices to determine the % of increase of each ingredient as well as the recipe as a whole (and even per serving). In Science, students could experiment with substituting for ingredients that were cost-prohibitive in the 1930’s.


Primary Resources from the Library of Congress

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Image

Description

Citation

URL




Poster for Federal Writers' Project advertising "American Guide Series" volume on Illinois, showing outline of map of the state.

Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA (reproduction number LC-USZC2-5191)

http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/98507272/



W.P.A. poster showing view of Grand Canyon.

Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

(reproduction number LC-DIG-ppmsca-13397)




http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2007676131



W.P.A. poster advertising the Workers Service Program.

Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

(reproduction number LC-USZC2-5209)



http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cph.3f05209





Poster announcing vaudeville show to raise funds for the needy through New York City Mayor Edwards' milk fund, showing a large bottle of milk.

Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA (reproduction number LC-USZC2-5331)

http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/94502853/




Visit the Brookfield Zoo by the "L", text with panda.


Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA (reproduction number LC-USZC4-3396)


http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/95514304/



Dorothea Lange’s Migrant Mother (of 7 children) photo

Destitute pea pickers of CA (1936)



Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, DC 20540


http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/fsa.8b29516/



Breadline under the Brooklyn Bridge, NY

Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, DC 20540 USA

http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/fsa1998018760/PP/




Hungry children

Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, DC 20540 USA

http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/cph.3b06165/



School at Pie Town, NM is held at the Farm Bureau building

Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, DC 20540 USA


http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/fsa1992000353/PP/resource/fsac.1a34104/



Farm foreclosure sale

Picture from the FDR Library, courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration.

http://history1900s.about.com/od/photographs/tp/greatdepressionpictures.htm




Christmas dinner IA in 1935

Picture from the FDR Library, courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration.

http://0.tqn.com/d/history1900s/1/0/Z/1/gd50.gif




Family who traveled by freight train

Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, DC 20540 USA

http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/fsa.8b34311/





Poster for the annual farm and home week at the College of Agriculture, University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana, January 6-10, 1941, showing a snow-covered barn, silo, and mailbox.

Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA (reproduction number LC-USZC2-3742)

http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/92500875/





Poster for exhibition of WPA welfare services; text in red, white and blue.

Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA (reproduction number LC-USZC2-5193)


http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/98510089/




Poster for the WPA Statewide Library Project, showing a boy reading a book, surrounded by a bat, ghost, witch, and other images of Halloween.

Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA (reproduction number LC-USZC2-854)

http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/98509532/




Poster showing an outhouse in a picturesque, small town setting.

Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA (reproduction number LC-USZC2-1594)

http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/98508956/




Poster for the Chicago Department of Health, showing a flying disc "Toxoid" preventing a lightning bolt from striking a child.

Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA (reproduction number LC-USZC2-5171)

http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/98508392/




Poster shows a young woman holding books and a young man holding machine parts, with factories and city skyline below.

Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA (reproduction number LC-USZC2-5219)

http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/98509768/




Poster encouraging planting trees as a method of soil conservation.

Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA (reproduction number LC-USZC2-815)


http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/98517930/

Rubric

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NEW DEAL PROGRAM

PROPAGANDA POSTER

(30 points)


Design a propaganda poster in MS Word for your New Deal Program. You can use color, pictures, borders, font, font size, bold, italics, underline, and/or capital letters to emphasize the important parts of the poster.


  • Poster should be mostly visual.




  • Keep text brief and to the point, use words and/or phrases only, no sentences (10 – 15 words maximum). Remember to proofread and View – One Page before printing.


Self Evaluation: (5 points possible for each item on list)
Poster is mostly visual
Message is clear
Important information is emphasized
Page Layout – made good use of the whole page
Creativity is evident
Peer Evaluation (average score)


Teacher Evaluation: (5 points possible for each item on list)
Poster is mostly visual
Message is clear
Important information is emphasized
Page Layout – made good use of the whole page
Creativity is evident
Peer Evaluation (average score)


Peer Evaluation:
Poster is mostly visual (2 pts)
Message is clear (3 pts)

Handouts



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Connection Reflection

Name: Hour:


Article Title: Author:

Publication: Date:




SUMMARIZE: Briefly describe what the text was about.

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


CONNECTION: How is this article related to the content we are learning about? Give specific examples.

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________



Rubric for Great Depression Book Mark

(20 points total)


One of the featured photographs

is included, with proper citation _____/5 points

Important information about the

Great Depression is included _____/10 points

The book mark shows creativity and

neatness, and uses proper mechanics _____/5 points


Total/grade _____/20 points

Rubric for Great Depression Book Mark

(20 points total)


One of the featured photographs

is included, with proper citation _____/5 points

Important information about the

Great Depression is included _____/10 points

The book mark shows creativity and

neatness, and uses proper mechanics _____/5 points


Total/grade _____/20 points

Historical Background

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20th Century History

Top of Form



The Great Depression

By Jennifer Rosenberg, About.com Guide



Destitute pea pickers in California. Mother of seven children. (Circa February 1936)



(Photo courtesy the National Archives and Records Administration.)

Historical Importance of the Great Depression: The Great Depression, an immense tragedy that placed millions of Americans out of work, was the beginning of government involvement in the economy and in society as a whole.

Dates: 1929 -- early 1940s

Overview of the Great Depression:

The Stock Market Crash

After nearly a decade of optimism and prosperity, the United States was thrown into despair on Black Tuesday, October 29, 1929, the day the stock market crashed and the official beginning of the Great Depression. As stock prices plummeted with no hope of recovery, panic struck. Masses and masses of people tried to sell their stock, but no one was buying. The stock market, which had appeared to be the surest way to become rich, quickly became the path to bankruptcy.

And yet, the Stock Market Crash was just the beginning. Since many banks had also invested large portions of their clients' savings in the stock market, these banks were forced to close when the stock market crashed. Seeing a few banks close caused another panic across the country. Afraid they would lose their own savings, people rushed to banks that were still open to withdraw their money. This massive withdrawal of cash caused additional banks to close. Since there was no way for a bank's clients to recover any of their savings once the bank had closed, those who didn't reach the bank in time also became bankrupt.

Businesses and industry were also affected. Having lost much of their own capital in either the Stock Market Crash or the bank closures, many businesses started cutting back their workers' hours or wages. In turn, consumers began to curb their spending, refraining from purchasing such things as luxury goods. This lack of consumer spending caused additional businesses to cut back wages or, more drastically, to lay off some of their workers. Some businesses couldn't stay open even with these cuts and soon closed their doors, leaving all their workers unemployed.



The Dust Bowl

In previous depressions, farmers were usually safe from the severe effects of a depression because they could at least feed themselves. Unfortunately, during the Great Depression, the Great Plains were hit hard with both a drought and horrendous dust storms.

Years and years of overgrazing combined with the effects of a drought caused the grass to disappear. With just topsoil exposed, high winds picked up the loose dirt and whirled it for miles. The dust storms destroyed everything in their paths, leaving farmers without their crops.

Small farmers were hit especially hard. Even before the dust storms hit, the invention of the tractor drastically cut the need for manpower on farms. These small farmers were usually already in debt, borrowing money for seed and paying it back when their crops came in. When the dust storms damaged the crops, not only could the small farmer not feed himself and his family, he could not pay back his debt. Banks would then foreclose on the small farms and the farmer's family would be both homeless and unemployed.



Riding the Rails

During the Great Depression, millions of people were out of work across the United States. Unable to find another job locally, many unemployed people hit the road, traveling from place to place, hoping to find some work. A few of these people had cars, but most hitchhiked or "rode the rails."

A large portion of the people who rode the rails were teenagers, but there were also older men, women, and entire families who traveled in this manner. They would board freight trains and crisscross the country, hoping to find a job in one of the towns along the way.

When there was a job opening, there were often literally a thousand people applying for the same job. Those who weren't lucky enough to get the job would perhaps stay in a shantytown (known as "Hoovervilles") outside of town. Housing in the shantytown was built out of any material that could be found freely, like driftwood, cardboard, or even newspapers.

The farmers who had lost their homes and land usually headed west to California, where they heard rumors of agricultural jobs. Unfortunately, although there was some seasonal work, the conditions for these families were transient and hostile. Since many of these farmers came from Oklahoma and Arkansas, they were called the derogatory names of "Okies" and "Arkies." (The stories of these migrants to California were immortalized in the fictional book, The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck.)

Roosevelt and the New Deal

The U.S. economy broke down and entered the Great Depression during the presidency of Herbert Hoover. Although President Hoover repeatedly spoke of optimism, the people blamed him for the Great Depression. Just as the shantytowns were named Hoovervilles after him, newspapers became known as "Hoover blankets," pockets of pants turned inside out (to show they were empty) were called "Hoover flags," and broken-down cars pulled by horses were known as "Hoover wagons."

During the 1932 presidential election, Hoover did not stand a chance at reelection and Franklin D. Roosevelt won in a landslide. People of the United States had high hopes that President Roosevelt would be able to solve all their woes. As soon as Roosevelt took office, he closed all the banks and only let them reopen once they were stabilized. Next, Roosevelt began to establish programs that became known as the New Deal.

These New Deal programs were most commonly known by their initials, which reminded some people of alphabet soup. Some of these programs were aimed at helping farmers, like the AAA (Agricultural Adjustment Administration). While other programs, such as the CCC (Civilian Conservation Corps) and the WPA (Works Progress Administration), attempted to help curb unemployment by hiring people for various projects.



The End of the Great Depression

To many at the time, President Roosevelt was a hero. They believed that he cared deeply for the common man and that he was doing his best to end the Great Depression. Looking back, however, it is uncertain as to how much Roosevelt's New Deal programs helped to end the Great Depression. By all accounts, the New Deal programs eased the hardships of the Great Depression; however, the U.S. economy was still extremely bad by the end of the 1930s.

The major turn-around for the U.S. economy occurred after the bombing of Pearl Harbor and the entrance of the United States into World War II. Once the U.S. was involved in the war, both people and industry became essential to the war effort. Weapons, artillery, ships, and airplanes were needed quickly. Men were trained to become soldiers and the women were kept on the homefront to keep the factories going. Food needed to be grown for both the homefront and to send overseas.

It was ultimately the entrance of the U.S. into World War II that ended the Great Depression in the United States.



http://history1900s.about.com/od/1930s/p/greatdepression.htm


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