What are the reasons for European Exploration? Gold economic



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  1. What are the reasons for European Exploration?

  • Gold – economic

  • God- religious

  • Glory – political



  1. Why did the English colonize America?

  • Religious freedom

  • Economic benefits ($)

  • Military power (political)

  • Send criminals and debtors (Georgia)



  1. Jamestown

  • Founded in 1607

  • First permanent English settlement

  • Leader is John Smith

  • Chesapeake Bay, Virginia

  • House of Burgesses – 1619



  1. Plymouth

  • Founded in 1620 by Separatists (Pilgrims)

  • Cape Cod, Massachusetts

  • Mayflower Compact – 1620

  1. What was the economy of the New England colonies?

  • Fishing

  • Shipbuilding

  • Fur trading

  1. What were the 3 main cash crops grown on southern colonial plantations?

  • Tobacco, rice, indigo

  1. House of Burgesses

  • Jamestown

  • First representative government in America

  • Elected people to make laws

  1. Mayflower Compact

  • Plymouth

  • Democracy (direct) – majority rule

  • All adult males make laws

  • Social contract that established a SELF GOVERNING colony

  • 1620



  1. Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

  • Written by Thomas Hooker

  • More men can vote (not just church members)

  • Made Connecticut’s government more democratic

  • 1st written constitution in the colonies



  1. Colonial Regions

  • New England – New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut

  • Middle – New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware, New Jersey

  • Southern – Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia



  1. The French and Indian War aka The Seven Years War

  • Fought between France and Britain over the Ohio River Valley

  • Britain won

  • Washington was a military leader

  • Treaty of Paris 1763 ended the war

  • France lost almost all their land in North America

  1. Boston Massacre

  • March 1770

  • 5 people killed including Crispus Attucks

  • Colonists used it as propaganda



  1. Boston Tea Party

  • December 11, 1773

  • Sons of Liberty dumped British tea into the Boston Harbor

  • Protest against the Tea Act

  • The punishment for the Boston Tea Party were the Intolerable Acts



  1. Lexington and Concord

  • 1775

  • “Shot heard round the world”

  • First battles of the American Revolution



  1. British Taxes

  • Sugar Act – tax on molasses

  • Stamp Act – tax on printed papers

  • Tea Act – tax on colonial tea

  • Townshend Acts – tax on imported goods like glass, tea, paper, lead



  1. Other Causes of the American Revolution

  • Proclamation of 1763 – no settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains

  • Intolerable Acts- punishment for the Boston Tea Party

  • Quartering Act – colonists had to house British soldiers

  • Mercantilism – controlled colonial trade to benefit England

  • No taxation without representation



  1. Saratoga

  • 1777

  • Turning point in the American Revolution

  • France joins the Patriot side



  1. Valley Forge

  • Winter camp for Washington’s troops

  • Many deaths due to frostbite and starvation

  • Marquis de Lafayette trained the military



  1. Yorktown



  1. Sons of Liberty

    • Samuel Adams organized it

    • Colonial protest group

    • Responsible for the Boston Tea Party



  1. Causes of tension between the Redcoats and the colonists:

    • Quartering Act – colonists had to house British soldiers

    • Writs of Assistance – soldiers could search colonists homes

    • Boston Massacre – 5 colonists were killed (Crispus Attucks)



  1. Declaration of Independence

    • Second Continental Congress

    • Written by Thomas Jefferson

    • Adams, Jefferson, Franklin were all members of the Declaration of Independence committee

    • July 4, 1776



  1. Important People of the Revolution

    • George Washington – commander of the Continental Army

    • John Hancock – president of the Continental Congress (first to sign the DOI)

    • Ben Franklin – persuaded France to become U.S. ally; negotiated Treaty of Paris

    • Samuel Adams – leader of the Sons of Liberty

    • Thomas Paine – author of Common Sense and The Crisis

    • Patrick Henry – “Give me liberty or give me death”

    • Wentworth Cheswell – African American who fought in the war

    • Marquis de Lafayette- French General for the Patriots



  1. Important People of the Revolution Part 2

    • Abigail Adams – “remember the ladies”

    • John Adams – member of the Continental Congress

    • Mercy Otis Warren – Patriot writer supporting independence

    • James Armistead – African American Patriot spy

    • Bernardo de Galvez – Spanish governor of the LA territory that sent supplies to the Patriots

    • King George III – King of England during the Revolution

    • Haym Salomon – Jewish immigrant that helped finance the Revolution



  1. Treaty of Paris 1783

    • Ended the Revolution

    • John Adams, John Jay, Ben Franklin negotiate it

    • The United States is independent and gets all the land from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mississippi River



  1. Triangle Trade

    • Triangular shaped trade routes between Africa, Europe, West Indies and 13 Colonies

    • The Middle Passage – Africans were transported in cruel conditions to North America to be sold into slavery

    • Molasses, sugar, rum were other goods that were traded



  1. Articles of Confederation

    • Weaknesses: federal government couldn’t tax, regulate trade, there was

no executive branch (president) or court system

    • Strength: Northwest Ordinance – created an organized way to create new states



  1. Constitutional Convention

    • Virginia Plan – representation based on population

    • New Jersey Plan – equal representation

    • The Great Compromise – bicameral legislature

    • Three-fifths Compromise – out of 5 slaves, 3 would count for taxation

and representation

  1. Constitution

    • James Madison -“Father of the Constitution”

    • September 17, 1787

    • Bill of Rights are the first 10 amendments

    • Plan of government

  2. Legislative Branch

    • Congress makes the laws

    • Senate – 30 years old – 2 per state

    • House of Representatives – 25 years ol- based on

  3. Executive Branch

    • President, Vice President, Cabinet

    • Enforces (carries out) the laws

    • 35 years old

    • Natural born citizen

    • Commander in chief

    • Appoints federal judges

  4. Judicial Branch

    • Supreme Court

    • 9 justices – can serve for life

    • Decide constitutionality of law

  5. Popular Sovereignty

    • People are the source of the government’s power

  6. Republicanism

    • People elect (vote) for their political representatives

  7. Limited government

    • The constitution limits the actions of government by specifically listing powers it does and does not have

  8. Federalism

    • Power is divided between the national government and state governments

  9. Checks and balances

    • Each branch limits the power of the other two branches

    • Ex. President can veto a bill

  10. Separation of Powers

    • 3 different branches with 3 different jobs

      1. Legislative – makes the laws

      2. Executive – enforces the laws

      3. Judicial – interprets the laws

  11. Individual rights

    • Basic liberties and rights of all citizens that the government is obligated to protect

    • Found in the Bill of Rights



  1. Washington’s Farewell Address

    • No political parties

    • No foreign alliances



  1. Washington’s Presidency

    • Whiskey Rebellion

    • Farewell Address

    • Precedents:

      1. “Mr. President”

      2. 2 terms



  1. John Adams Presidency

    • Federalist

    • XYZ Affair

    • Alien and Sedition Act



  1. Thomas Jefferson’s Presidency

    • Democratic Republican

    • Louisiana Purchase – 1803

    • Lewis and Clark

    • Embargo Act – didn’t trade with European countries

    • Marbury v Madison – judicial review



  1. James Madison’s Presidency

    • War Hawks

    • War of 1812 – caused by impressment

      1. Star Spangled Banner – Francis Scott Key

      2. Battle of New Orleans

      3. Treaty of Ghent

      4. Increased American manufacturing

      5. International respect



  1. James Monroe’s Presidency

    • Era of Good Feelings

    • Erie Canal

    • Missouri Compromise

    • Monroe Doctrine

    • McCulloch v Maryland – national bank

    • Gibbons v Ogden – interstate commerce

    • Adams – Onis Treaty- Florida Annexed



  1. Andrew Jackson’s Presidency – 7th President – Jacksonian Democracy

    • Expanded voting rights (suffrage)

    • Common man president

    • Spoils System

    • Nullification Crisis – Tariff of 1828

    • Indian Removal Act

    • Worcester v Georgia

    • Trail of Tears

    • “Killed” the National Bank


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