What are strongest arguments brought by anti-Federalists against strong executive?

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What are strongest arguments brought by anti-Federalists against strong executive?

Based on Lincoln’s actions do you think Presdent should be able to assume extratextual powers during war?

- vacuum of congressional authority during his term

- rising military and

-can’t do so arbitrarily

-Lincoln exhibited restraint whereas other may have not

- actions were conditional – divided nation

- rebellion of south nothing outlined in constitution so taking actions beyond constitution might be permitted but should not go against constitution (suspending writ of habeas corpus)

President Jackson ran his administration in the name of the common man – was he a people’s president?

  • Humble origins, background was among the people, came from rural area

  • Advocated universal white male suffrage, common man voting

  • Conventions established (first was actually by Anti-masonists)

  • Jackson felt cheated out of previous election, made his mark on presidency

  • Invited everyone to the inauguration

  • Jeffersonian: acted through the people

  • Opposition to the bank = favored Jeffersonian agrarian ideal, led to more credit; against stereotypical

  • Jackson built on Jeffersonian tradition of agrarian interests ; builds on Jefferson

  • Marks generation shift

  • Not from original 13 countries

  • Hadn’t been previous political experience

  • WASN”T: against women, blacks, Indians

What went wrong during the election of 1800?

  • did not predict tie

  • Georgia ballet filled out wrong

  • Vote-counter should not be candidate

  • No clear distinction who was president and vice-president

  • Founding father did not consider political parties/factions but more considered with balance of states

  • Undefined if they didn’t figure out problem before the next president was to be inaugurated

  • Rise of Plebiscitarian president above procedurial presidency

  • Mob was convening and there was threatening military action

How did congress weaken the presidency following Lincoln’s term?

  • Johnson turned out to be against congress

  • Congress assault on presidency

  • Congress stayed in session – took away pocket veto

  • Congress tried to impeach him twice and tried to eliminate checks and balances by getting rid of president’s opposition

  • Pendleton Act – put limits on patronage system and long-term limitation of presidential authority; civil service – positions no longer filled by patronage but by merit

  • Line of weak presidents did not help executive branch

  • Ability of congress to get 2/3 majority to overrule veto

  • Tenure of Office Act: officials could not be appointed without Congress’ concent – went against Washington’s precedent ; punitive measure against Andrew Johnson

  • Ability to elect cabinet officials

Do you believe if, had Lincoln lived, reconstruction would have been a less divisive and painful process?

  • possibly in abasense of war, Lincoln would not have been as powerful

  • 10 percent plan still opposed

  • Many of his policies still controversial

  • Tension with radical republicans would not have been as severe

  • Lincoln was a good politician and might have been able to handle opposition

  • Could have pushed people to do what he wanted and less hard-lined than radicals were

  • If Lincoln had lived, successors still would have been less competent than Lincoln

What kind of successor would Lincoln groom?

  • may have chosen someone who was classical Whig who advocated less presidential authority

  • someone from the West

Explain the foundation of the system of parties? What caused faction to coalesce into parties? How did affect the later election of 1800?

  • domestically, argument over constitution on whether strong or weak president would prevail between Federalists and Democratic Republicans

  • split over the Jay Treaty

  • Washington’s international policy – side with France or over England? Sympathies with French revolution

  • Foreign policy issues influence division

  • States rights, Hamilton and Federalists

Consider the broad sweep of Presidential History from 1789 to 1883, which branch of government has been more influential?

  • war time presidencies were mostly successful but then there was Madison

  • congressional power came after war time

  • presidents often expanded territory

  • presidents had more leniency to shape office since constitution was vague but legislature’s role largely established

  • presidents more popular

  • time sensitive 

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