What Accounts for the Movement of Rural Household Heads?: Logan Township, Perth County, Ontario, 1871-18811



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What Accounts for the Movement of Rural Household Heads?: Logan Township, Perth County, Ontario, 1871-1881

Peter Baskerville

Department of History and Classics and Humanities Computing

University of Alberta

A Working Paper

For

The RecordLink Workshop

Guelph, May, 24-5, 2010

(Please do not cite without permission, thanks)



What Accounts for the Movement of Rural Household Heads?: Logan Township, Perth County, Ontario, 1871-18811

This working paper emerges from the confluence of two separate projects: the Recordlink Project, which is constructing a computerized linkage program for historical census data and the Perth County Project, a study of credit and community in an Ontario County between 1860 and 1921. The first project is linking nominal level census data from the 1871 Canadian census to the 1881 Canadian census and to the 1880 US census. The second is constructing and utilizing linked files from the 1871 through 1911 Canadian censuses (and other files) with special focus on Perth County. The whole of Logan Township (pop.: 3196) in Perth County in 1871 has been entered into a machine readable file and that population has been linked to an unusually large catchment area: the whole of Canada in 1881 and the United States in 1880. The linkage was done by hand in accordance with rigorous rules to provide a set of true links both for use in testing and establishing the computer generated linkage program for Recordlink and to further the general ends of the Perth County Project.

The paper focuses on a sub set of Logan's 1871 population, all household heads, and seeks to establish the factors affecting the probability of Loganites persisting in the County or moving elsewhere in the decade of the 1870s. Measuring persistence in small areas is a venerable historical pursuit.2 The first attempts at such measurement assumed that if a person could not be found in the study community at a designated point in the future then that person was classified as a mover. Some studies controlled for death rates. But all of these early studies were limited to the area they studied; thus little was known about where movers went and what movers did after leaving and, indeed, whether those they could not find actually moved. More recently longitudinal historical studies are broadening their geographical and chronological scope, tracing people within and between whole nations.3 In a sense this study of Logan falls between the two approaches noted above. It is local in terms of the study group but international in terms of the linkage scope.

Can Logan Township be seen to be representative of anything other than itself? Any declarative answer to this question would, given the present state of historical knowledge, be quite presumptuous. I can however suggest some of the reasons why I chose to study this county. In the context of Ontario, Perth County was one of the last agricultural regions to be settled, largely because it did not abut any of the Great Lakes. Yet it was a relatively rich agricultural area.4 Importantly it also offered the opportunity to study a relatively large group of tenants and to compare their geographical and social mobility with that of owners over time. In this respect Logan Township had one of the highest rates of tenancy anywhere in Ontario in 1871 (48.5 % of household heads in Logan were tenants in 1871 compared to a provincial average of 15.3%).5 Finally Logan Township had a potentially interesting ethnic mix which allows for an exploration of the effect of origin/ethnicity on geographical mobility (see Table One).



Table One

Birthplace and Origin: Household Heads, Logan Township, 18716



Place

Birthplace

Origin

Ontario

12.5

-

Elsewhere Canada

4.9

-

England/English

15.5

19.2

Scotland/Scottish

6.0

8.1

Ireland/Irish

29.6

36.7

Germany/German

28.6

32.4

Total Number

521

521

There were 555 household heads in Logan in 1871 of whom we know that 34 died before the 1880s leaving 521 for analysis. Four hundred and fifteen heads were successfully linked to either the Canadian 1881 census or the US 1880 census, a linkage rate of just under 80%. It is important to emphasize here that our linkage process does not require that we conflate persistency with successful linkages as is the case for most historical longitudinal studies focusing on small areas. Because of the broader catchment area our linkage rate is higher than that reported in most studies and more importantly we can distinguish between persisters and movers with greater clarity and confidence. Thus of the 415 linked heads 72 percent (299) stayed in Logan and 21 percent (116) moved.7

Despite the broad catchment area we still could not locate 106 or 20 % of the household heads in 1871 Logan 10 years later, even after controlling for known deaths, raising the question as to whether these non linked heads differed in any measureable way from the linked heads. To explore this relationship we ran a logistic regression with linked/not linked as the dependent variable (Table Two).

On the basis of existing studies of linkage rates we would expect that age would matter with the elderly in 1871 less likely to be linked than those who were younger due to mortality risks. The logistic regression (LR) confirms that for Logan heads. The most likely age group to be linked were those between 30 and 39 in 1871 and the least likely were those over 60 in 1871. We would also assume that land owners and most especially farmers, would be more likely to be linked than tenants and non-farmers although that assumption should be somewhat qualified by the fact that we are able to link beyond the boundaries of the study region and thus we should catch some of those movers who might be tenants and/or non-farmers and who, in other studies, would be unlinkable. The LR finds that neither land ownership nor being a farmer increases the chances of a successful linkage. In other words relationship to land and/or means of production is not an important indicator of linkage probability. A third potential predictor is precedence time, and, following Atack, by that we mean time in Logan before 1871.8 Few studies have access to that kind of time data, but for those that do the finding is the longer the precedence time the greater the chances of linkage. But once again, given our catchment area, it is possible that this factor might not be as prominent as in other studies limited to equating linkage with persistence. However, the LR strongly confirms that as time of occupancy increases, so, too, do the chances of being successfully linked. Current literature stresses the difficulty of linking those who were single and especially single women (due to name change at marriage). We would expect that our data might not be as challenged by these demographic characteristics because we are focussing only on household heads and few of those were single and even fewer were single women. The LR indicates that on the basis of gender one cannot predict a successful linkage but being married greatly enhances the chances of a successful linkage.

Finally our data, drawn mainly from the 1871 nominal census, allows us to explore the effect of ethnicity on the chances of being linked. Given the results of past studies we would expect that those born in Canada would be most likely to be linked. As Table One shows there were a substantial number of settlers who were Irish in birth or origin and German in birth or origin. Almost all the Germans were Lutherans but the Irish were not as homogeneous: 43.5 percent were Protestants and the rest were Catholics. Studies of the rural Irish in Ontario are pretty conclusive on the issue that Irish Catholics were equally as likely as Irish Protestants to be successful farmers.9 On the basis of that literature then we might expect that linkage rates should be relatively similar. Studies of German immigrant settlements in the United States and in Australia point to the strong probability of persistence on their part so one might think that a high linkage rate would be found. The LR, however, demonstrates that ethnicity and/or birthplace is of no help in predicting a successful linkage, a finding different from that of other studies and probably due to the fact that our linkage compass or potential for linkage exceeds that of many past studies.10

Table Two

Logistic Regression with Linked/not Linked as the Dependent Variable: All Household Heads, Logan Township, 1871

Variables

Log odds of being linked

Marital Status

Never married

Widow

Reference Category: Married



*

.28*


.24*

Age

20-29


30-39

40-49


50-59

Reference Category: 60+



*

3.3*


4.7*

2.6*


3.4*

Precedent Years

1-5


6-10

11-15


16+

Reference Category: <1



Ratio dependents to earners

*

2.2**


4.7*

3.3*


4.1*

1.02*


Farmer/not

ns

Owner/Tenant

ns

Literate/not

ns

Gender

Ethnicity11

ns

ns








* sig is <.02

** sig is between .02 and .05

no * sig is >.05

ns: not significant, removed from the equation by the backward stepwise likelihood ratio procedure.


In sum, then, three characteristics strongly influenced the probability of linkage: time in the community, age and marital status. Would these characteristics also be strong indicators of the probability of persistence? The answer is no in all cases. A logistic regression with stay/move as the dependent variable run with all linked heads and then with linked farm heads found there was no relationship between the odds of moving and one’s precedent time, age or marital status (see Table Three). These findings are quite significant since most past studies of persistence have highlighted all three characteristics as important predictors pointing to continued residency, when in fact all they might be indicating is the odds of being linked. The finding regarding improved acres for farm heads is also surprising. To the extent that improved acres can be viewed as a proxy for investment and time on the land one might have predicted that the higher the number of acres improved the stronger the probability of persistence. The relationship between the number of improved acres and the odds of moving was, however, insignificant. The ratio of dependents to earners also proved to be a poor predictor of the odds of moving, perhaps because if a family had a large number of dependents moving might have been difficult and if they had a small number of dependents the incentive to move might be less compelling.

Less surprisingly, we would anticipate that tenants would be more apt to move than land owners and so they were. The fact of ownership, if not degree of improvement, proved to be a strong predictor of continued residency. We would also anticipate that farmers (whether tenants or not) would be less apt to move than non farmers and such was the case. I divided the township into three groups of concession rows expecting that those who resided in the lower concession numbers, closer to Mitchell, the main rural village, would be the least likely to move while those in the higher, less well established concessions would be the most likely to move. For reasons that are not apparent at this time the reverse proved to be the case.12

We have noted that one's' ethnicity (defined as a combination of origin and religion) was no help in predicting a successful linkage. By contrast one's ethnicity was the most powerful predictor of the odds of moving from or staying in Logan township. German Lutherans were by far the most likely of all ethnic groups to persist in the township.
Table Three

Logistic Regression with Stay/Move as the Dependent Variable13




Variables

All Household Heads

Log Odds of Moving

Farm Household Heads

Log Odds of Moving

Owner/Tenant

Tenant


Reference Category: Owner

*

2.0*


*

2.2*


Ethnicity

Irish Catholics

Other Catholics

Irish Protestants

English Anglicans

English/Scotch Protestants

Reference Category: German Lutherans/Protestants14


*

2.4**


5.7**

6.3*


9.4*

4.3*



*

2.7**


3.4

4.2*


6.4*

3.9*


Farmers/non-farmers

Non-farmers

Reference Category: Farmers


*

3.2*


----

Concession Line

1-4


5-8

Reference Category: 9-16



*

2.5*


3.9*

*

4.5*


6.7*

Ratio dependents to earners

ns

ns

Improved acres15

-----

ns

Marital Status

ns

ns

Precedent Years16

ns

ns

Literate

ns

ns

gender

ns

ns

Age17

ns

ns


* sig is <.02

** sig is between .02 and .05

no * sig is >.05

ns: not significant, removed from the equation by the backward stepwise likelihood ratio procedure.


Before exploring why German Lutherans were the least likely to move it is important to emphasize that the odds of being linked were governed by a different set of characteristics than the odds of moving. As Table Four demonstrates conflating linkage or not with persistence or not is subject to possibly severe interpretive problems. Only two of nine variables in Table Four indicated similar relationships. Many local area studies have understandably concluded that a non-link was equivalent to a non-persister. Given the larger catchment area for this study we are in a position to test that assumption and have found it to be problematic.

Table Four

Variables Compared between Logistic Regressions on odds of being linked and odds of moving: Logan Household Heads, 1871

Variable

Significant Log Odds of being Linked

Significant Log Odds of Moving

Same/Different

Marital Status

yes

no

different

Age

yes

no

different

Precedent Years

yes

no

different

Ratio dependents to earners

yes

no

different

Owner/Tenant

no

yes

different

Farmer/not

no

yes

different

Ethno/religion

no

yes

different

literate

no

no

same

gender

no

no

same

Who, then, were the German Lutherans and how do we explain their persistence? A study of nineteenth century German Lutheran settlements in the Southern Riverina area of Australia noted the strong clustering tendency of these immigrants and their persistence on the land often through times of significant adversity. The authors offered two explanations: the German Lutheran's strong allegiance to church and community and their tendency to engage in a balanced form of mixed farming more than other ethnic groups thus allowing more flexibility to meet adverse challenges.18

Religion was definitely important to Logan's German Lutherans. Yet in the early years religious issues divided as much as united that population. Two groups split over a number of issues: where to establish a central church, the naming of the congregation, ownership of the Protocol Books and communion ware, synodical affiliation (Pittsburgh or Missouri) and the appropriate pastor. The minutes of a congregational meeting held on January 1, 1867 declared that "nearly the whole congregation dissolved into chaos." By 1871 a truce had been declared and a number of separate and fervently supported parishes were established around which German communities conducted their lives.19 One might suggest that the intense investment of time, energy and emotion expended on these early factional disputes cemented local attachments and contributed to long term persistence.



It is quite possible, too, that environmental factors further contributed to German Lutheran persistence. Logan, like much of Perth County, was mainly comprised of subaqueous soil that demanded skills in wetland farming.20 Many of the Germans in Logan came to Canada with those skills honed over generations in the northern provinces of Germany--Mecklenburg and Saxony--where wet land farming was common.21 As well by 1871 Logan's Germans had acquired about one-half of the township's best farming land. Tables Five and Six suggest that the German farmers did adopt a balanced approach to stock raising and crop production. A statistically higher number of German run farms grew peas, wheat, and oats and kept cattle, pigs, and working oxen. The affinity for pigs is consistent with behaviour in the 'old country'. Their tendency to utilize oxen, often instead of horses, for farming, was also a practice consistent with traditional practice in Germany.22 Oxen were much more efficient than horses for working wet land environments. The fact that the average stock holding and crop production figures were smaller for German Lutheran run farms probably points to a balanced approach to agriculture. Indeed over time the German settlers attained a reputation for excellent farming skills throughout much of Perth County.23

Table Five

Stockholding: German Lutheran Farms compared to all other Farms, Logan Township, 187124

Stock

Percent Farms with Stock

Average Stockholding for Farms with Stock

German Lutheran Farms

Other Farms

German Lutheran Farms

Other Farms

Horses

69.8

69.0

2.8

3.0

Working Oxen

21.4*

8.4*

2.0

2.0

Milk Cows

93.7*

84.0*

2.5

2.8

Other Cows

83.3*

70.0*

4.3

4.6

Sheep

75.4

66.6

5.9

8.1

Swine

88.1*

77.7*

4.2

4.1

* Significance level of the chi-square <.05

Table Six

Crop Cultivation: German Lutheran Farms compared to all other Farms, Logan Township, 187125

Crop

Percent Farms with Crop/Acres

Average Crop Production/Acres for Farms with Crop

German Lutheran Farms

Other Farms

German Lutheran Farms

Other Farms

Spring wheat (bushels)

83.8*

61.3*

54.3

41.4

Fall wheat (bushels)

20.6

23.7

51.6

57.9

Wheat (acres)

86.5*

65.5*

10.8

10.2

Barley (bushels)

38.9

48.8

39.4

87.5

Oat (bushels)

85.7*

69.0*

119.8

156.5

Pea (bushels)

82.5*

57.8*

64.0

61.4

Potato (acres)

90.5

82.9

1.5

4.3

Potato (bushels)

90.5

81.2

61.4

68.9

Hay (acres)

83.3*

73.9*

9.0

11.3

Hay (tons/bundles)

84.1*

71.1*

10.1

13.0

* Significance level of the chi-square <.05

Many studies of German farmers have pointed to the fact that their rates of ownership were high and that this further contributed to their high persistence rates.26 We have already noted that being an owner did increase one's odds of staying in Logan. One might assume, then, that German Lutherans were the most apt to be owners and that that would help explain their high persistence tendencies. Yet as Table Seven demonstrates the reverse is the case: German Lutherans were by far the most likely to be tenants; indeed, in 1871, they were the only ethnic group comprised of more tenants than owners.



Table Seven

Ethno/Religion by Tenant/Owner: Farmer Household Heads, Logan Township, 1871, Nominal Level Census



Ethno/Religion

Percent Tenant

Percent Owner

Number

Irish/other Catholics

44.0

56.0

84

Irish Protestants

42.2

57.8

64

English/Anglicans

38.1

61.9

21

English/Scotch Protestants

24.7

75.3

85

German Lutherans/Protestants

60.2

39.8

108

Among all tenants they were the strongest persisters. Time of settlement is thrown out of a logistic regression with the dependent variable stay/move run with tenants only so that does not seem to explain their persistence. How is it that an ethnic group defies odds by being most likely to be tenants and least likely to move?

Following Conzen, who has shown that family strategies played a large part in accounting for the persistence of German Catholics in a Minnesota township, we might expect that leasing can be understood as a means of providing for children even while protecting parents as they aged. To test this one needs to know who leased from whom and the 1871 census does not give us that information.27 Part of the answer, however, may lie in the manner in which land was made available in Logan Township and much of Perth County. The Canada Company, a private company chartered in England in 1824, was granted rights to a huge area that included Logan Township in return for which the Company was expected to promote immigration and settlement.28 As part of a developing strategy the Canada Company advertised in Germany and hired agents there to promote the Company and encourage immigration to Canada. To sweeten the incentives, The Canada Company, in the early 1840s, instituted a long term lease program (5-10 years) whereby the new settlers could take up residence at a low annual rental fee and after fulfilling some requirements--erecting a house, fencing and clearing land--at the end of the lease period the family had the right to purchase the land. This campaign had some success and German families, increasingly challenged by political and economic change in their homeland, and generally without much ready cash, moved to Perth County and surrounding areas. Those who arrived first encouraged others to follow and a small form of chain migration was set in motion.29 Very likely the extent of lease holding in Logan was directly attributable to the Canada Company's strategy and the Canada Company itself was the land owner.30

Further context is provided by data in a rather unique local history which has compiled what seem to be all land transactions for each lot in Logan Township from the date of first settlement to 2000.31 I have entered all transactions up to 1911 in a machine readable database, called here the Logan Land Database (LLD). Using first and last name and land coordinates I linked the LLD to the 1871 census thereby creating a longitudinal file of land transactions for household heads in 1871. In other words I now have a file which shows the extent to which a head in 1871 owned/leased land in Logan before and after that date as well as at that date. To make sense of the data I constructed four ownership categories: those who only leased; those who leased and then owned; those who only owned; and those who owned first and then leased while owning.

Table Eight provides a preliminary look at this data. Leasing/ownership varied significantly by ethno-cultural affiliation. This observation fits well with an emerging literature that stresses the variety of motivations that underlay lease holding in nineteenth century North America.32 Irish Catholics and German Lutherans took the greatest advantage of the Canada Company's leasehold arrangement. Not only did more of them lease at some time in their residency in Logan but, on average, they leased for a longer time than other ethnic groups, double that of English Protestants (12.7 years to 6.2 years) and over a third longer than Irish Protestants (12.7 years to 9.4 years).



Table Eight

Land Holding Patterns by Ethnicity, (1871 census cohort): Logan Township, 1840-1911

Ethnicity

Ownership Patterns (%)

Number of Cases

Leased only

Leased then owned

Owned only

Owned first and leased while owning

Irish Catholics

13.5

58.1

24.3

4.1

74

Irish Protestants

10.2

55.9

20.3

13.6

59

English Anglicans

8.7

47.8

34.8

8.7

23

German Lutherans/Protestants

18.0

57.7

15.3

9.0

111

English/Scotch Protestants

10.3

35.9

44.9

9.0

78

While German Lutherans and Irish Catholics exhibited similar land tenure profiles (about 72 percent of Irish Catholics leased at sometime in Logan compared to about 76 percent of German Lutherans), they differed in one important respect: those Irish Catholics, and indeed all other ethnic groups, who leased were more likely to move than German Lutheran leaseholders. Leasing land led to different outcomes for different cultural groups. The Canada Company and their German settlers were a match made in heaven. The Canada Company sought settlers who would stay and take advantage of their lease hold arrangement. More than all other ethnic groups, German Lutherans leased to stay and in the process legitimated the Company's land lease program and complicated what leasing might mean for our understanding of rural strategies relating to movement and persistence in nineteenth century Ontario.

1 Special thanks go to Sara Van Sligtenhorst and Jill Leslie for their diligent work linking Loganites across decades and countries.

2 See Jeremy Atack, "A Nineteenth Century Resource for Agricultural History Research in the Twenty-first Century, " Agricultural History, 78, 2004, 389-412 and Donald H. Parkerson, "How Mobile were Nineteenth Century Americans?' Historical Methods, 15, 1982, 99-110 for surveys of this work.

3 Joseph Ferrie, "The End of American Exceptionalism?: Mobility in the United States since 1850," Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19, 2005, 199-215; Richard H. Steckel, “Household Migration and Rural Settlement in the United States, 1850-1860,” Explorations in Economic History, 26 1989, 190-218. See also from this Workshop: Luiza Antonie, Peter Baskerville, Kris Inwood and Andrew Ross, "An Automated Record Linkage System - Linking 1871 Canadian Census to 1881 Canadian Census" and Becky Vick, "Record Linkage at the Minnesota Population Center."


4 Peter Baskerville, "Chattel Mortgages and Community in Perth County Ontario," Canadian Historical Review, 87, 2006, 583-619. W. S. Johnston and Hugh J. M. Johnston, History of Perth County to 1967, Stratford, 1967.

5 Catherine Ann Wilson, Tenants in Time: Family Strategies, Land and Liberalism in Upper Canada, 1799-1871, McGill/Queen's, Montreal/Kingston, 2009, 232.

6 Data from computerized census file for Logan Township, 1871. The census did not allow one to be a Canadian by origin. Small pockets of others are not recorded here.

7 This is a lower rate of movement than one finds in many past studies probably for several reasons: 1) we are only focussing on household heads and thus might expect less movement; 2) we are focussing on a rural area; and, 3) we have not included missing links as movers.

8 Atack, "A Nineteenth Century Resource", 398. I was able to determine precedence time thanks to the discovery of a local history that had compiled what seems to be complete land registry information from the 1850s to 2000 for the whole township. See pp. 16-17 below for more on this source.

9 Donald Akenson, The Irish in Ontario: A Study in Rural History, Second edition, McGill/Queen's Press, Montreal/Kingston, 2009.

10 The LR was also run with birthplace only and there was no significant relationship.

11 Ethnicity was constructed with origin and religion: Irish Catholics, Other Catholics, Irish Protestants, English Anglicans, German Lutherans/Protestants, and English Protestants.

12 This pattern was the case for both farmers and non farmers.

13 I ran a logistic regression with just missing equal to mover: as in Table Three tenants were more apt to move although the sig was less significant; ethnicity was significant although less so than in Table Three and importantly the run with missings as movers highlighted various ethnicities in different ways; as in Table Three non-farmers were more apt to stay but the sig was less significant than in Table Three; in direct opposition to Table Three, precedent years were significant with those with the longer duration more likely to stay; in direct contrast to Table Three literacy improved ones chances of moving as did having a higher ratio of dependents to earners; concession group was not significant, but was for the regression reported in Table Three.

14 An LR was run with just German Lutherans and with Lutherans and other German Protestants combined. The results were the same.

15 Improved acres was run as a category variable, an interval variable and as improved acres squared.

16 Precedent years was run as a category variable, an interval variable and as years squared.

17 Age was run as a category variable, an interval variable and as age squared.

18 Dirk H R Spennemann and Gaye Sutherland, "Late Nineteenth Century German Immigrant Land and Stock Holdings in the Southern Riverina: An Exploration of Large Scale Spatial Patterns", Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, 94, 2008, 74-90.

19 See http://stpetershouse.ca/history_125booklet.html; Carl R. Cronmiller, A History of the Lutheran Church in Canada, vol 1, Toronto, 1961, 142-44.

20 D. W. Hoffman and N. R. Richards, Soil Survey of Perth County, Report No. 15 of the Ontario Soil Survey, Guelph, Ontario, 1952.

21 Eric Brose, German History, 1789-1871, From the Holy Roman Empire to the Bismarckian Reich, Berghahn Books, Oxford, 1997, 112-115.

22 Terry Jordan, German Seed in Texas Soil: Immigrant Farmers in Nineteenth Century Texas, Univ of Texas Press, Austin, 1966, 35.

23 Listowel Banner, Dec. 14, 1877, p. 7.

24 The data are for farms with owners for whom a link has been determined. German Lutheran farms number 126 and all other farms number 287. The same contrasts are reflected if all farms are included, ie., adding the farms for whom the owners could not be linked.

25 The data are for farms with owners for whom a link has been determined. German Lutheran farms number 126 and all other farms number 287. The same contrasts are reflected if all farms are included, ie., adding the farms for whom the owners could not be linked.

26 See Spennemann and Sutherland, "Late Nineteenth Century German Immigrant...", Jordan, German Seed , 193, and Kathleen Neils Conzen, "Peasant Pioneers: Generational Succession among German Farmers in Frontier Minnesota," in Steven Hahn Jonathon Prude, Countryside in the Age of Capitalist Transformation, Univ of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, 1985, 284. Jeremy Atack, "Tenants and Yeomen in the Nineteenth Century," Agricultural History, 62, 1988, 26, 29.

27 Conzen, "Peasant Pioneers", used wills to help understand family strategies but that research has yet to be undertaken in sufficient detail for this study. See also Sonya Salamon, Prairie Patrimony: Family, Farming and Community in the Midwest, Univ of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, 1992.

28 Clarence Karr, The Canada Land Company: The Early Years, An Experiment in Colonization, Ontario Historical Society, Research Publication, No. 3, Ottawa, 1974; Robert C. Lee, The Canada Company and the Huron Tract, 1826-1853: Personalities, Profits and Politics, Toronto, Ontario, 2004; Anatole Browde, "Settling the Canadian Colonies: A Comparison of Two Nineteenth-Century Land Companies," Business History Review, 76, 2002, 299-335.

29 Gerhard Friesen, "A German-Canadian Rarissimum: Briefe von Ansiedlern in Huron Trackt, Canada," German-Canadian Yearbook, 10, Toronto, 1988, 11-31; Arthur Grenke, "German Land Settlement in Eastern Canada and its Influence on Community Development and Assimilation," German-Canadian Yearbook, 14, 1998, 31-56; Heinz Lehmann, The German Canadians, 1750-1937: Immigration, Settlement and Culture, Jesperson Press, St John's Newfoundland, 1986, 80-86.

30 The Canada Company's papers are available at the Ontario Archives and according to Finding Aids contain a systematic run of leases granted in Logan Township. These will be examined in the future.

31 Hilary Machan, ed., Legacy of Logan: Logan Township, 1850-2000, Logan Township History Book Committee, 2000.

32 Frank Yoder, "Rethinking Midwestern Farm Tenure: A Cultural Perspective," Agricultural History, 71, 1997, 457-478; and Catharine Ann Wilson, Tenants in Time: Family Strategies, Land, and Liberalism in Upper Canada, 1799-1871, McGill/Queen's Press, Montreal/Kingston, 2009.



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