Westward Expansion Unit



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CL5-A

Westward Expansion Unit


Lesson 3: California, Texas, and Oregon

Become Part of the United States

By Shauna Kadel
Grade 5: History/Social Science


  1. LESSON OVERVIEW:




This lesson will discuss the Texas War for Independence, the Mexican-American War, and diplomacy with Britain, leading up to the United States acquiring the land that would become California, Texas, and Oregon.

This lesson is third in a series of four in a “Westward Expansion” Unit. This lesson will take 2-3 sessions of approximately 45 minutes each.






  1. STANDARDS ADDRESSED:




  1. History/ Social Science


  • 5.8.6 Relate how and when California, Texas, Oregon, and other Western lands became part of the United States, including the significance of the Texas War for Independence and the Mexican-American War

  • 5.3 Students describe the cooperation and conflict that existed among the American Indians and between the Indian nations and the new settlers (supplementary)



  1. English/ Language Arts




  • See final unit (Lesson 4)






  1. TEXT RESOURCES/ MATERIALS NEEDED:




  • “History Alive” United States History Curriculum, published by Teacher’s Curriculum Institute, (2003): Chapter 16: 16.6 Texas Annexation (1845) pp. 166-167; 16.7 Acquisition of Oregon Country (1846) p. 168; 16.8 Mexican Cession and Gadsden Purchase (1848 and 1853) pp. 169-170

  • Overhead Transparency for Chapter 16 of “History Alive” (also pictured on page 160 of textbook OR use a similar transparency of an 1800s, southwest or western town with a railroad station OR of the Alamo, etc.)


IV. DIFFERENTIATION:


Materials:

  • Resources of equivalent information and appropriate reading level to use in place of “History Alive”: “Our Nation” History Social-Sciences for California Curriculum, published by Scott Foresman, (2006): Unit 8, Lesson 6, pp. 201-203; The History of US-Book 4: The New Nation by Joy Hakim; The Mexican War by Bronwyn Mills; The Alamo in American History by Roy Sorrels; Voices of the Alamo by Sherry Garland

  • “Indian Removal” reading from The American West: Native Americans, Pioneers and Settlers by Christine Hatt, (1998), pp. 20-21 (or an equivalent article with the Indian “perspective” of experience of these events)

  • (optional) Appropriate clips of 1800s “western life” from the TV mini-series “Into the West,” available at the public library

  • Chart paper divided into Allies/Enemies

  • Chart Paper of each group’s questions to “research” following their readings from “History Alive,” Ch. 16 (and/or a copy of the questions—see pages at end of this lesson—for each student in each section)

  • A blank, 3-Way Venn diagram for each student and a transparency or poster version

  • Poster with the following key vocabulary (with key pictures) (teacher created): territories, Manifest Destiny, annex, acquisition, defenders, boundary, cession

  • (optional) Access to 2-4 computers with internet: www.historychannel.com or www.thealmo.org (or other relevant sites that you are familiar with.)

  • (optional) sections from “History Alive” Ch. 16 and “Indian Removal” reading read on tape and placed at a listening center (or the articles that you will be using.)

Teaching Strategies
1.“History Alive” sections from Ch. 16 and “Indian Removal” read on tape by teacher, in a Listening Center

2. Access to World Wide Web for high-achieving students to find their information using the teacher selected websites listed above, rather than using the texts.

3. Option of assigning one partner to be “note-taker” for those students with a Language Arts learning disability

4. Lesson “as a whole” contains the following strategies:



  • Teacher Directed

  • Small, heterogeneous groups OR a high-achieving group, and mixed mid to low groups.

  • “jig-saw,” expert groups with peer interviews

  • multi-media options

  • SDAIE strategies, ie graphic organizers, heterogeneous groupings




V. INTRODUCTION:


Hook/Prior Knowledge (2 options):

Option 1. Display the “History Alive” transparency for Chapter 16 and using a “magic white board,” (hold up a student’s white board in front of the projected image, “hi-lighting” the section of the transparency that you are talking about) ask the following questions: What do you see here? What types of transportation do you see? In what direction do most people appear to be moving? Why do you think people were in such a hurry to move west of the Mississippi River during the 1800s? What do you think of the Native Americans pictured in the lower right-hand corner thought of the new settlers? What do you see in this painting that reminds you of things we talked about in the first lesson of this unit on Westward Expansion? After the brief discussion, introduce the activity. Review the standard (posted on the board) that this unit has been addressing.


Option 2. Ask the same questions, (or ones of your choosing) after having the class view a brief clip of 1800s life from the video series “Into the West.” Review the standard as described above. (You might want to find a clip that includes, or an additional clip that shows the Westward Expansion effects on the Indian nations.)


VI. THROUGH:


Direct Instruction/ Guided practice/Independent Practice:

1. Introduce the key vocabulary using a manner comfortable to you. Suggestions: each student draws their own picture of the meaning of the terms that is different than the image/picture you have provided; create a motion for each word as you introduce them; each student adds the terms to a year-long journal of Social Study terms; create a Power Point for the words.

2. Divide the class into three sections. One section will be studying 16.6 Texas Annexation (1845); one section will be studying 16.7 Acquisition of Oregon Country (1846); 16.8 Mexican Cession and Gadsden Purchase (1848 and 1853). Each section will also read the additional article, “Indian Removal” reading from The American West: Native Americans, Pioneers and Settlers. Within each section, divide the students into groups of 2-3 to study the “research.” (You can also have relevant groups work on the computer for research as opposed to the readings provided OR have relevant groups working with the readings on tape at a listening center.)

3. Provide each group with the relevant section to read and study. Direct each group to the appropriate questions for their readings. Have them prepare answers for the questions:



16.6 Texas Annexation

What was the Alamo?

Who was involved?

What events led to the Alamo and the confrontation?

What was the outcome?

What was happening to the Indian Nations during this time?

16.7 Acquisition of Oregon Country

What was the Oregon Country?

Who was involved?

What events led to the Acquisition?

What was the outcome?

What was happening to the Indian Nations during this time?

16.8 Mexican Cession and Gadsden Purchase

What was the Mexican War?

Who was involved?

What events led to the Mexican War?

What was the outcome of the Mexican War?

What was happening to the Indian Nations during this time?

4. When the sections have answered these questions, partner students with a student from a different section. When in these partnerships, have students interview each other and begin to fill out their 3-way Venn diagram, labeling each section one of the three topics of the lesson. After an appropriate amount of time, partner the students one last time with a member of the final section they have not interviewed. Repeat the activity.

5. Bring the students back together. Using the overhead or poster version of the Venn diagram and input from the students’, complete a class Venn diagram.



VII. BEYOND:


1.Bring the students to the Allies/Enemies chart. Using the information provided by the students from their research, interviews, and Venn Diagrams, chart the diagram. You may encounter interesting discussion when trying to apply the Oregon Country situation to the chart.

2. Direct the students to save their answers to the questions and Venn diagrams. They will be referring to them for the final activity (lesson) in the unit, which will also act as an assessment.



Optional Closing:

Show an additional clip from “Into the West.”




CL5-A

16.6 Texas Annexation

What was the Alamo?

Who was involved?

What events led to the Alamo and the confrontation?

What was the outcome?

What was happening to the Indian Nations during this time?



CL5-A

16.7 Acquisition of Oregon Country
What was the Oregon Country?

Who was involved?

What events led to the Acquisition?

What was the outcome?

What was happening to the Indian Nations during this time?


CL5-A

16.8 Mexican Cession and Gadsden Purchase
What was the Mexican War?

Who was involved?

What events led to the Mexican War?

What was the outcome of the Mexican War?



What was happening to the Indian Nations during this time?




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