Westward Expansion Dana Marie Brown, Ann Pember, and Derek Vandegrift



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Formative assessment:

Revisit the illustration from the Do Now. Ask students: Has your concept/idea of a gold digger changed? Students can choose to re-draw their illustration or write a reflection based on their new understandings.


Imagine you are Alexander Van Valen, and write one last journal entry explaining why you decided to stay in California or why you decided to pack up and return home to New York.

You can go back and review any of Van Valen’s writings or other evidence as needed. Try to match the type and amount of detail Van Valen includes in most of his writing. Use your notes.

Think Aloud: Marking Up a Map

map

How does geography influence decisions?



_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Content Area/Course: US History I

Unit: Western Expansion

Time (minutes): 60 minutes

Lesson #4: James Monroe & Expanding Foreign Policy

Overview: In this lesson, students will explore how world events and an evolving vision of the United States and its role in world affairs contributed to the creation of the Monroe Doctrine. Additionally, students will examine the Monroe Doctrine and discuss its impact upon American foreign policy.

By the end of this lesson students will know and be able to:

  • Explain how world events influenced the creation of the Monroe Doctrine.

  • Summarize US involvement in world affairs prior to the creation of the Monroe Doctrine and identify shifts in American policy from 1789 to 1824.

  • Analyze primary source documents (through use of a close reading protocol) to identify key concepts and ideas.

  • Develop a visual model to illustrate how America’s role in world affairs shifted from the time of George Washing to the time of James Monroe.

Essential Question addressed in this lesson:

  • How have Americans’ perceptions of themselves and their role in world affairs changed over time?

Standard(s)/Unit Goal(s) to be addressed in this lesson (type each standard/goal exactly as written in the framework):

  • G1. USI.26 Describe the causes, course, and consequences of America’s westward expansion and its growing diplomatic assertiveness.

    • C. the 1823 Monroe Doctrine



  • CCSS.ELA-Reading.11-12-1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources, connecting insights gained from specific details to an understanding of the text as a whole.



  • CCSS.ELA-Reading.11-12-2 Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary that makes clear the relationships among the key details and ideas.

Instructional Resources/Tools (list all materials needed for this lesson)

  • Excerpts from George Washington’s “Farewell Address”- transcript available at: http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=15&page=transcript

  • James Monroe’s Message to the Senate About Latin American Independence available at: http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/hlaw:@field(DOCID+@lit(sj01170))

  • The Monroe Doctrine transcript available at: http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=23&page=transcript

Anticipated Student Preconceptions/Misconceptions

  • Students may believe that the United States has been a major world power since its inception and that it has always played an active role in international affairs.

Instructional Model

  • Entrance Ticket / Opening Prompt

  • Introduction of essential question: How have Americans’ perceptions of themselves and their role in world affairs changed over time?

  • Class brainstorm

  • Primary document work – small groups using “close reading” and “pair share” protocols

  • Exit Ticket / Extension Assignment to check for understanding

Instructional Tips/Strategies/Suggestions:



Pre-Assessment



What students need to know and are able to do coming into this lesson (including language needs):

  • Students will have studied early US History beginning with the American Revolution and progressing through the period of the Early Republic. Students should be familiar with some previous instances of US involvement in foreign affairs including (but not limited to): Jay’s Treaty, Citizen Genet Affair, Quasi-War with France, XYZ Affair, War with the Barbary States, Embargo of 1807, War of 1812, Adams-Onis Treaty (acquisition of Florida). Students should have also previously studied George Washington’s “Farewell Address”.

Lesson Sequence:

Entrance Ticket / Opening Prompt

  • The following excerpt from George Washington’s “Farewell Address” will be displayed on the board as students enter the classroom:

    • Observe good faith and justice towards all Nations…In the execution of such a plan nothing is more essential than that permanent, inveterate antipathies against particular Nations and passionate attachments for others should be excluded; and that in place of them just and amicable feelings towards all should be cultivated. The Nation, which indulges towards another an habitual hatred, or an habitual fondness, is in some degree a slave…The Great rule of conduct for us, in regard to foreign Nations is in extending our commercial relations to have with them as little political connection as possible. So far as we have already formed engagements let them be fulfilled, with perfect good faith. Here let us stop…

      • Available at: http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=15&page=transcript

    • Students will be asked to respond in writing to the following questions: “What advice did Washington offer in this excerpt? Why do you think he offered this advice?” The teacher will collect student responses.

Whole Class Discussion and Brainstorm

  • The teacher will lead a brief class discussion during which students will first share their reflections about the excerpt from Washington’s “Farewell Address”. Then, the class will spend a few moments building a list of instances before 1820 in which US policy brought the country into contact (and perhaps conflict) with other nations (possible student responses are listed in the “what students will need to know” section above). Finally, the teacher will introduce the day’s essential question: How have Americans’ perceptions of themselves and their role in world affairs changed over time?

Primary Document Work – Small Groups “Close Reading” and Pair Share

  • Students will be given one of two documents – either James Monroe’s Message to the Senate About Latin American Independence or the Monroe Doctrine. Students will then work in pairs to analyze their document using the following” close reading” protocol.



  • Reading Tasks: Students will silently read the passage, first independently, and then following along with the text as they re-read it aloud with their partner. The students will then work to answer a set of concise, text-dependent questions that compel students to reread specific passages and discover the structure and meaning of their document.




  • Vocabulary Tasks: Most of the meanings of words in this selection can be discovered from careful reading of the context in which they appear. This practice is both called for by the standards and is vital. Teachers must be prepared to reinforce it constantly by modeling and holding students accountable for looking in the context for meaning as well.

  • Discussion Tasks: Students will discuss the passage in depth with their partners, performing activities that result in a close reading of these texts. The goal is to foster student confidence when encountering complex text and to reinforce the skills they have acquired regarding how to build and extend their understanding of a text.




  • Writing Tasks: Students will paraphrase different sentences and paragraphs of each document. . Students will be afforded the opportunity to rewrite their explanation or revise their in-class paraphrases after participating in a whole class discussion at the end of the lesson, allowing them to refashion both their understanding of the text and their expression of that understanding.



  • Once they have completed their “close reading”, each student will meet with a student who worked on the document that they did not work on themselves. These partner pairs will use a “pair share” model to teach one another about their documents. To be sure that students are accountable for both their own learning and their partner’s learning during the pair share, each pair will be expected to follow the following norms:

    • Each member of the pair must keep their own paper in front of them at all times.

    • Each member of the pair must explain their document to their partner orally – they may not simply pass their paper to their partner.

    • Each member of the partner pair must support all of the information that they share by pointing out specific evidence from the document that they read.

    • While listening to their partner, each student must take notes in a different color of ink or pencil (or they may highlight after the fact) to demonstrate what they have learned from their partner. The teacher will review these notes throughout the activity.

Whole Class Discussion

  • The teacher will lead the class in a large group discussion to review and expand upon students’ primary document work. In addition to the questions that students were asked to answer during their close reading of the documents, the teacher will have a series of prompts prepared to guide this discussion. Students should be encouraged to support their responses with evidence from the text of the documents. Prompts may include:

    • Why did recent events in Latin America interest Monroe? What impact may these events may have had upon the U.S.?

    • Why did Monroe take the position that he did in regard to the independence of Latin American Countries? Do you agree?

    • What is the central idea of the Monroe Doctrine? Why did Monroe make this statement? Did the US have the power to enforce it at the time?

    • What had US relations with the European nations named in the documents been like prior to 1823? How might these statements have altered these relations?

Exit Ticket / Extension Assignment

  • Students will be asked produce a visual model to answer the following question: How did Americans’ views of their country’s role in world affairs shift from the time of Washington’s Farewell Address to the creation of the Monroe Doctrine? Students may choose one of the following three formats for their visual model:

      • Create a political cartoon

      • Design a computer slide(s) (resource: www.sliderocket.com)

      • Create a graphic organizer

Formative assessments:

  • Student entrance tickets

  • Teacher observations and completed student “close reading” of their primary source document

  • Students’ notes from “pair sharing” protocol

  • Student exit tickets / extension assignment

Preview outcomes for the next lesson:

Students will understand the evolving views of Americans’ of their nation and its role in world affairs – particularly the Western Hemisphere. In the following lessons, students will explore how Americans’ changing views of themselves and their nation’s role in world affairs brought them into conflict with Mexico.



Summative Assessment:

  • CEPA Activity (Expansion Museum Presentation)

  • End of Unit Exam


Resources for Lesson 4

The Monroe Doctrine

Available at: http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=23&page=transcript
(P1)…as a principle in which the rights and interests of the United States are involved, that the American continents, by the free and independent condition which they have assumed and maintain, are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers. . .

(P2) …Of events in that quarter of the globe, with which we have so much intercourse and from which we derive our origin, we have always been anxious and interested spectators. The citizens of the United States cherish sentiments the most friendly in favor of the liberty and happiness of their fellow-men on that side of the Atlantic. In the wars of the European powers in matters relating to themselves we have never taken any part, nor does it comport with our policy to do so. It is only when our rights are invaded or seriously menaced that we resent injuries or make preparation for our defense.

(P3) With the movements in this hemisphere we are of necessity more immediately connected, and by causes which must be obvious to all enlightened and impartial observers…We owe it, therefore, to candor and to the amicable relations existing between the United States and those powers to declare that we should consider any attempt on their part to extend their system to any portion of this hemisphere as dangerous to our peace and safety. With the existing colonies or dependencies of any European power we have not interfered and shall not interfere. But with the Governments who have declared their independence and maintain it, and whose independence we have, on great consideration and on just principles, acknowledged, we could not view any interposition for the purpose of oppressing them, or controlling in any other manner their destiny, by any European power in any other light than as the manifestation of an unfriendly disposition toward the United States…
= from now on
= contact
= fit; align
= honesty
= interference; involvement
(P4) It is impossible that the allied powers [of Europe] should extend their political system to any portion of either continent without endangering our peace and happiness; nor can anyone believe that our southern brethren, if left to themselves, would adopt it of their own accord. It is equally impossible, therefore, that we should behold such interposition in any form with indifference. If we look to the comparative strength and resources of Spain and those new Governments, and their distance from each other, it must be obvious that she can never subdue them. It is still the true policy of the United States to leave the parties to themselves, in hope that other powers will pursue the same course. . . .

= brothers, fellow men



= choice

Questions

1. Rewrite P1 in your own words. What is the main idea?

2. Look at P2. Which “quarter of the globe” does Monroe speak of? How does he describe the US’ relationship with this region?

3. In P2, what role does Monroe say the US has had in European affairs? When will the US act in these matters?

4. In P3, how does Monroe describe the US’ relationship with “this hemisphere”? How and why is this relationship different from the US’ relationship with Europe?

5. In P4, what word (or phrase) does Monroe use to describe the nations of Latin America? Why did he choose this word? How does it connect with the central theme/idea of the Monroe Doctrine?



James Monroe’s Message to the Senate about Latin American Independence

Available at: http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/hlaw:@field%28DOCID+@lit%28sj01170%29%29

The following written message was received from the President of the United States…

To the Senate of the United States:

(P1)…I consider it my duty to invite the attention of Congress to a very important subject, and to communicate the sentiments of the Executive on it, that, should Congress entertain similar sentiments, there may be such co-operation between the two departments of the government as their respective rights and duties may require.

(P2) The revolutionary movement in the Spanish provinces in this hemisphere attracted the attention and excited the sympathy of our fellow citizens from its commencement. This feeling was natural and honorable to them, from causes which need not be communicated to you…

(P3)As soon as the movement assumed such a steady and consistent form as to make the success of the provinces probable, the rights to which they were entitled by the law of nations, as equal parties to a civil war, were extended to them, Each party was permitted to enter our ports with its public and private ships, and to take from them every article which was the subject of commerce with other nations…Through the whole of this contest the United States have remained neutral, and have fulfilled with the utmost impartiality all the obligations incident to that character.

(P4) This contest has now reached such a stage, and been attended with such decisive success on the part of the provinces, that it merits the most profound consideration

= particular; individual

= beginning

= trade

= fairness; neutrality

= clear; definitive

= serious

whether their right to the rank of independent nations, with all the advantages incident to it, in their intercourse with the United States, is not complete… it is manifest, that all those provinces are not only in the full enjoyment of their independence, but, considering the state of the war and other circumstances, that there is not the most remote prospect of their being deprived of it.

(P5) When the result of such a contest is manifestly settled, the new governments have a claim to recognition by other powers, which ought not to be resisted…The provinces belonging to this hemisphere are our neighbors…

JAMES MONROE.

Washington, March 8, 1822.

= contact

= obvious

= denied

Questions

1. In P1, what is Monroe’s stated purpose for sending this message to Congress?

2. Rewrite P2 in your own words. What is the main idea of this paragraph?

3. Look at P3. What relationship has the U.S. had with the Latin American “provinces” throughout this period? Why does Monroe feel this relationship is proper?

4. In P4, Monroe chooses to include the words “decisive” and “manifest” in his description of the state of the Latin American revolutions. Why did he choose these particular words for his message?

5. What feeling does Monroe aim to create about the provinces of Latin America in P5? Why?



Content Area/Course: Westward Expansion, USI

Unit: Westward Expansion

Time (minutes): 50 minutes

Lesson #5: Texas Annexation

Overview: In this lesson, students will be given a brief history of Texas independence and then decide if there are more reasons for or against annexing Texas to the United States.

By the end of this lesson students will know and be able to:

  • Define and illustrate key terms and people

  • Mark up primary and secondary readings on the annexation of Texas debate

  • Interpret historical maps to look for geographic benefits and controversies for the US to annex Texas

  • Evaluate pros and cons of annexing Texas and determine what would be in the best interest of the United States

  • Write an informative persuasive proposal using evidence on their opinion over the annexation of Texas controversy

Essential Question addressed in this lesson:

E3. Why did some survive and propser in the West while others did not?

E4. Who were the winners and who were the losers in the settlement of the West?

E5. What happens when cultures collide?

E6. How have Americans’ perceptions of themselves and their role in world affairs changed over time?

Standard(s)/Unit Goal(s) to be addressed in this lesson (type each standard/goal exactly as written in the framework):

G1. USI.26 Describe the causes, course, and consequences of America’s westward expansion and its growing diplomatic assertiveness. Use a map of North America to trace America’s expansion to the Civil War, including the location of the Santa Fe and Oregon Trails (H, E, G).

E. the annexation of Texas in 1845

F. the concept of Manifest Destiny and its relationship to westward expansion

CCSS.ELA-Writing.RH.9-10. - 1. Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources, attending to such features as the date and origin of the information.

2. Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of how key events or ideas develop over the course of the text.

6. Compare the point of view of two or more authors for how they treat the same or similar topics, including which details they include and emphasize in their respective accounts.

CCSS.ELA-Writng.WHST.9-10-1. Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.

Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among the claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.

9. Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

CCSS.ELA.Speaking and Listening.SL Grade 9-10 – 1. Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 9–10 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.



  1. Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.

c. Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that relate the current discussion to broader themes or larger ideas; actively incorporate others into the discussion; and clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions.

d. Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives, summarize points of agreement and disagreement, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views and understanding and make new connections in light of the evidence and reasoning presented.



Instructional Resources/Tools (list all materials needed for this lesson)

Petition from Citizens of Pennsylvania in Favor of the Annexation of Texas

http://www.flickr.com/photos/usnationalarchives/6482097611/

Petition from Citizens of Vermont Against Annexation of Texas

http://arcweb.archives.gov/arc/action/ExternalIdSearch?id=595416&jScript=true

https://www.tsl.state.tx.us/exhibits/annexation/part4/senate_debate_excerpts_1844.html

https://www.tsl.state.tx.us/exhibits/annexation/part4/senate_debate_excerpts_1844.html

Anticipated Student Preconceptions/Misconceptions

-Texas was always part of the United States

- The decision to annex Texas was overwhelmingly supported by the United States

Instructional Model

-Modeling, Close reading, inquiry, text mark up, focus, frame and follow up



Instructional Tips/Strategies/Suggestions:

Graphic organizers, timeline, primary source documents



Pre-Assessment

What students need to know and are able to do coming into this lesson (including language needs):

Key terms: annexation, republic, controversy. The role of manifest destiny on westward expansion, the value of land and the consequences of claiming land. Some basic background on the history of Texas, as originally part of Mexico, fighting for independence, then eventually being annexed by the United States.



Information for Teacher

Lesson Sequence

Preview/Opener/Do Now:” In the southwestern states of the US, some areas along the border with Mexico have more Mexican immigrants living in them than American citizens. Should the US give that land to Mexico? Why or why not?

Activity 1 – Students will define the following three key terms in their own words: annexation, republic, controversy


Activity 2 - As an introduction, students will view a brief video clip on the Alamo, to act as an introduction to American involvement in this part of Mexico – use Frame, Focus, Follow-up strategy (full strategy directions attached at the end of the lesson)
http://www.history.com/topics/texas/videos#the-alamo
Frame: Explain this story fits in with what students already know about Manifest Destiny and reasons for why people move west

Focus: How do the vocab words connect in the video? Students will list the ways they hear/see the three main key terms being used in the video

Follow Up – students will apply the three key terms – what is the issue with Texas in the 1840s/ how does the US get involved with Mexican territory?
Activity 3 - Annotate a timeline of major events from settling in Texas through the push for annexation – answer the question, what happens when cultures collide?

Activity 5 - Guided Inquiry using an APPARTS chart. Students will analyze several primary source documents on reasons for and against annexing Texas, using a primary source document strategy called APPARTS (Author, Prior Knowledge, Place, Audience, Reason, The Main Idea, Significance). The full directions for thei strategy are attached at the end of the lesson. Students will be given six-seven primary source documents on reasons for and against annexing Texas. In groups, they will be assigned one document and will read, mark up, and complete an APPARTS chart on their assigned document



  • Teacher will model marking up and analyzing one of the documents to guide students on the process and model determining the point of view – pro/con for Texas annexation

  • Each group will determine if their document is for or against Texas annexation, and write a summary explaining their reasoning

  • Each group will share out with the class their assigned document and decision, then overall the class will determine if there are more compelling pro or con reasons for the US to annex Texas, using the attached graphic organizer (map of Texas)

Activity 6 - Closure

Acting as White House consultants, students will write a persuasive paragraph proposal to President James K. Polk and the United States government with their recommendation of whether the US should annex Texas or not, citing evidence from the documents analyzed in class. They will connect the idea to Manifest Destiny: do they personally agree with this idea? Use evidence from this lesson and earlier lessons on westward expansion, especially their Frayer Models on Manifest Destiny.



Formative assessment:

  • Secondary and primary source text mark ups, timeline annotation, key terms, inquiry on Texas annexation documents APPARTS chart, written recommendation to President Polk whether the US should annex Texas or not

Preview outcomes for the next lesson:

The role of Manifest Destiny in westward expansion, tensions with Mexico



Summative Assessment:

Acting as White House consultants, students will write a persuasive paragraph proposal to President James K. Polk and the United States government with their recommendation of whether the US should annex Texas or not, citing evidence from the documents analyzed in class. They will connect the idea to Manifest Destiny: do they personally agree with this idea? Use evidence from this lesson and earlier lessons on westward expansion. Use the attached persuasive writing rubric.




Resources for Lesson 5
Effective Video-based Lessons Strategy – from Teachers’ Domain

You can use video segments in a variety of ways: to introduce a concept or skill, to reinforce a previously taught concept or skill, to assess student mastery, or to analyze and better understand the ways we use media. Many of the resources and lesson plans on PBS LearningMedia provide you with examples of the three essential parts of an effective video-based lesson: Frame, Focus, and Follow-up. They also show you how video clips can best fit into a larger lesson. However, you are the experts on what works best with your students. If you would like to use video in your own lessons, here are some hints for how to make the most of them.

Uses

There are at least three main reasons for integrating video segments into your lessons:



A) to introduce a new topic,

B) to provide an additional learning experience to reinforce your current lessons,

C) and to assess the extent to which your students have mastered the material.

Guidelines

Follow these guidelines for using video in the classroom, regardless of the purpose for which you use it:

1. Frame: Provide a context that helps students pay attention to the main content of the video. Ask students questions about the topic explored in the video to activate prior knowledge. When necessary, tell your students enough about the part of the story preceding the segment, so they can follow along.

2. Focus: Help students notice the important moments in the video by providing them with a specific focus, something to look for while they watch. Without a focus for viewing, students see all sorts of interesting details - but not necessarily the idea or information you want them to focus on.

3. Follow-up: Provide an opportunity for students to summarize what they saw - because they will see different things, and not always what you expected them to see! Re-telling what they saw helps students consolidate their understanding and remember it.

http://www.eduplace.com/ss/socsci/books/content/ilessons/5/ils_gr5a_u5_c11_l3.pdf

Secondary reading of the summary of Texas annexation


http://www.pbs.org/kera/usmexicanwar/timeline_flash.html

interactive timeline from PBS


Timeline
Name: ____________________________________________________Date: ________________

U.S. History I – College Prep

Texas Independence

Timeline: Texas History, from Missionary System to Independence


Directions: You will create a timeline for the major events from Chapter 9, Section 2 on a separate piece of paper. For each item on your timeline, list a title for the event/entry and the main idea and details with key terms. The basic information is provided for you below. You must fill in the missing parts for each entry on your timeline. The first entry is done for you.



  • 1500s: the Spanish settle Texas. Spanish claim Texas, but don’t settle many people there and leave the Native Americans alone. The Spanish don’t think the land is worth much




  • 1689 - Mission System




  • 1762 - French and Indian War




  • 1820 - _____________________________: American banker Moses Austin, started the Texas Venture, where he settled Texas in return for some land. Son Stephen F. Austin took over when Moses died



  • 1821 – Mexican Independence from Spain



  • 1827 - General Manuel de Mier y Teran was sent to assess the situation in Texas



  • 1827 - Joel Poinsett, U.S. Minister to Mexico, sent to try to buy part of Texas



  • 1830 - ________________________________: More than a dozen colonies were started in Texas by this time, with over 30,000 settlers living there, attracted by cheap, farmable land. Most of the population was American, including thousands of slaves and Tejanos.



  • 1832 – American Protests in Texas



  • 1835 -_________________: This battle started the Texas Revolution, after years of tension between Mexicans and Texans and the election of the new Mexican President Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna



  • 1836 - Remember the Alamo



  • 1836 – Battle of San Jacinto and the creation of the Republic of Texas

APPARTS ANALYSIS CHART



Analytical Questions

Answer and Evidence

Author: Who created the source?





Place: Where and when was it

created?






Prior Knowledge:

What do you already know about it?






Audience: For whom was this

source created?






Reason: Why was this source

produced?






The Main Idea:

What point is it conveying?








Significance: Why is this

source important?






Primary Source Documents


Document 1 – Opinions of Andrew Jackson on the Texas Annexation

. . . If in a military point of view alone, the question be examined, it will be found to be most important to the United States to be in possession of that territory.

Great Britain has already made treaties with Texas; and we know that far-seeing nation never omits a circumstance in her extensive intercourse with the world, which can be turned to account in increasing her military resources. May she not enter into an alliance with Texas? And reserving (as she doubtless will) the north-western boundary question as a cause of was with us, whenever she chooses to declare it, let us suppose that, as an ally with Texas, we are to fight her? Preparatory to such a movement, she sends her 20,000 or 30,000 men to Texas; organizes them on the Sabine, where her supplies and arms can be concentrated before we have even notice of her intentions; makes a lodgment on the Mississippi; excites the negroes to insurrection; the lower country falls, and with it New Orleans, and a servile war rages through the whole South and West.

In the mean while she is also moving an army along the upper western frontier from Canada, which, in co-operation with the army from Texas, spreads ruin and havoc from the Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico.

Who can estimate the national loss we may sustain, before such a movement could be repelled with such force as we could organize on short notice?

Remember that Texas borders upon us, on our west, to 24 degrees of north latitude, and is our southern boundary to the Pacific. Remember, also, that if annexed to the United States, our western boundary would be the Rio Grande, which is of itself a fortification, on account of its extensive, barren, and uninhabitable plains. With such a barrier on our west we are invincible. The whole European world could not, in combination against us, make impression on our Union. Our population to the Pacific would rapidly increase, and soon be strong enough for the protection of our eastern whalers, and in the worst event always be sustained by timely aids from the intermediate country.

. . . though I must say that, in all its aspects, the annexation of Texas to the United States promises to enlarge the circle of free institutions, and is essential to the united States, particularly as lessening the probabilities of a future collision with a foreign power, and giving them great efficiency in spreading the blessing of peace.

Document 2 – Petition from Citizens in Pennsylvania in Favor of Annexation

That they believe in right and justice that Texas is ours, having purchased it from France, it being a part and parcel of the Louisiana purchase made by Mr. Jefferson in 1803, and being actually and absolutely in our possession for 16 years until 1819, when we ceded it without consent of her citizens to Spain, hence it has virtually been ours since. Mr. Jefferson, Mr. Madison, Mr. Monroe, and Mr. Adams contended that Texas was a clearly included in the Louisiana Purchase as New Orleans, and the French Commissioner, Mr. Lausatt when delivering Louisiana to us announced the Rio Del Norte as the true boundary on the west. The Spanish authorities ordered the delivery of all the posts west of the Mississippi and east of the Rio Del Norte to the United States.

In the 3rd Article of the Treaty we made a solemn pledge to France and the people of Texas to protect them, (the people of Texas) in the free enjoyment of their liberty, property, and religion.

And now after Texas having made a patriotic struggle successfully for Independence, and being acknowledge as such by the great powers of the world, and her people being citizens of this great republic, flesh of our flesh, and bone of our bone, and the great unanimity of her people in wishing to become a member of this Union, we are bound as patriots, as lovers of our free institution, to throw the mantle of our Constitution over and around and embrace her as a member of our great and glorious Confederacy . . .

Document 3 - George McDuffie, Democrat, South Carolina

I never, till now, fully realized the truth and justice of Mr. Monroe’s declaration, that no European power must ever be permitted to establish a colony on this continent. The more I reflect on the subject the more I am convinced that the interests, both of Europe and of this country, require that that declaration shall be maintained. Can there be a rational belief entertained by any thinking man, that, should Great Britain permanently secure the control of Texas, it will be utterly inconsistent with the interest of every portion of the United States? And do not senators see unequivocal indications, that England is seeking that control, and making all the exertions in her power to obtain it? I bring no charge against England, as cherishing a spirit of universal domination. I make no such imputation. She is doubtless doing all in her power to advance and secure her own commercial prosperity, by means of her diplomacy. I do not mean to say she is making any hostile demonstrations against the United States; but I do say that she is making efforts by her diplomacy that we are called on to counteract, by every consideration of wisdom, prudence, and patriotism, by all the peaceful and precautionary means in our power. She is trying to obtain control of a region large enough to make five States as large as Virginia. If she shall succeed in this, will she not be able, at any moment, to throw her whole military force into the read of the United States, and thus attack us on our weakest point? General Jackson has not exaggerated the important of the annexation in this view of the subject.

Document 4 – VT petition

http://docsteach.org/documents/595416/detail?menu=closed&page=21&sortBy=era


Document 5 - Jacob W. Miller, Whig, New Jersey

Whatever might be the opinion of the people of this country upon the question of the annexation of Texas, when presented to their consideration in a proper manner and in a legal form, they never can, they never will, sanction this hasty, this clandestine, this dishonorable, this almost treasonable project.

I will now, Mr. President, proceed to state more particularly my objections to this treaty. They are as follows:

1st. That this is an unconstitutional treaty: neither the President of the United States nor the President of Texas had authority to make this compact.

2nd. That it is void by the law of nations.

3rd. That it is a fraudulent and dishonorable compact.

4th. That it is detrimental to the United States, and will retard their prosperity and endanger the Union.
Documents 6 – Joshua R. Giddings, Whig, Ohio

After the line has been drawn, it must be interesting to hear gentlemen demonstrate to the people, how in all good conscience, they are bound to pay their money to arrest and hang all who carry on the business of slave trading east of this line, and to shoot and kill all who oppose the slave trade west of it. Sit, I desire the advocates of this nefarious commerce in slaves, be they who they may, to stand forth boldly before this House, before the people, and before the world, and, like the Secretary of State, maintain its propriety, and advocate its morality with frankness. I hope we may see no evasions, but, in western phrase, “let every man toe the mark.”

But Texas is engaged in a war with Mexico, and wants us to fight her battles; and our Executive, and a portion of this House, say, we will do it if, by that means, we can keep slavery in Texas, and thereby furnish a market for our slave breeding States to sell their surplus population. This war, to say the least, will very likely bring us into conflict with Great Britain, as well as with Mexico, and perhaps with France also. It is, therefore, not unlikely that our constituents may be called on to go forth in arms to maintain this slave trade upon the field of battle. Our people are brace and generous, even gallant in a good cause. Would this war be such as one as would justify us in looking for, or in expecting, the blessing of heaven to rest upon our arms? In the expressive language of Mr. Jefferson, “the Almighty has no attribute which would enable him to take sides with us in such a contest.” Yet, sit, the battles would have to be fought by northern men principally, for our southern friends must remain at home to watch their slaves.

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Name: ___________________________ Date: ______________Westward Expansion – Texas AnnexationPro-Con of Texas xationhttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/eb/wpdms_republic_of_texas.svg/220px-wpdms_republic_of_texas.svg.png

Persuasive Writing Rubric



Malden Middle School Rubric for Persuasive Writing

Criteria

4 Advanced

3 Proficient

2 Developing

1 Limited

Argument and Claim


The writer –

  • Clearly states an argument or claim

  • Demonstrates strong knowledge of topic

  • Shows awareness of audience and/or purpose

(Grades 7,8)

  • Acknowledges alternative or opposing claims/ points of view

The writer-

  • Adequately states an argument or claim

  • Demonstrates knowledge of topic

  • Shows awareness of audience and purpose

(Grades 7,8)

  • Demonstrates some knowledge of opposing points of view or claim; does not elaborate on differences

The writer-

  • Suggests, but does not state an argument or claim

  • Demonstrates very general knowledge of topic

  • Shows little or no awareness of audience and purpose.

(Grades 7,8)

  • Does not demonstrate knowledge of opposing points of view or claims

The writer -

  • Does not state an argument or claim

  • Demonstrates limited knowledge or understanding of topic.

  • Shows no awareness of audience or purpose.

(Grades 7,8)

  • Does not present any opposing point of view/claim

Organization

The writer –

progression of ideas

  • Uses words, phrases and clauses to signal transitions and clarify the relationship among claim(s), reasons, and evidence

  • Effectively paraphrases and integrates information

  • Presents a concluding paragraph that shows how the evidence supports the argument or claim.

The writer -

  • Presents ideas in 2 to 3 organized paragraphs with some organized progression of ideas.

  • Uses words, phrases and clauses to signal transition and clarify relationship among claims, reasons, evidence.

  • Attempts to paraphrase information; awkward wording

  • Presents a concluding paragraph that summarizes the argument or claim.

The writer -

  • Presents ideas in 2 or less paragraphs with some organization

  • Uses words, phrases, or clauses to signal transition or clarify relationship

  • Mostly information is copied directly from sources; little or no paraphrasing

  • Presents a concluding sentence that signals the end of the essay.

The writer does not -

  • Use any relevant wording to show transition or relationship among ideas

  • Does not demonstrate understanding of the elements of an essay structure; no conclusion




Evidence


The writer –

  • Supports claim/argument with logical reasoning and relevant, accurate data and credible evidence that demonstrates a deep understanding of topic.

The writer-

  • Supports claim/argument with some relevant, accurate data and evidence that demonstrates an adequate understanding of the topic.

The writer-

  • Attempts to support a claim/argument with accurate evidence.

The writer -

  • Attempts to support a claim/argument with no evidence.

Word Choice


The writer effectively uses-

  • Content specific and appropriate academic vocabulary

  • Precise language to create a powerfully convincing tone

The writer attempts to use -

  • Content specific and appropriate academic vocabulary

The writer inconsistently and at time inaccurately uses-

  • Content specific and appropriate academic vocabulary.

The writer does not use-

  • Academic or content specific vocabulary




Conventions


The writing-

  • Has few errors in spelling, punctuation, sentence structure, and paragraphing that do not interfere with understanding.

The writing-

  • Has noticeable errors in spelling, punctuation, sentence structure, and paragraphing.

The writing-

  • Has errors that do distract the reader, but do not interfere in understanding of the response.

The writing-

  • Has errors that interfere in the understanding of the response




Content Area/Course: Westward Expansion, USI

Unit: Westward Expansion

Time (minutes): 50 minutes

Lesson #6: War with Mexico Lesson

Overview:

By the end of this lesson students will know and be able to:

  • Mark up primary and secondary readings on the war with Mexico to evaluate the justification for the US going to war

  • Explain the balance of American values and interests around an assigned theme of the Mexican War in a small group discussion

  • Analyze whether the war with Mexican was justified in a written summary


Essential Question addressed in this lesson:

E4. Who were the winners and who were the losers in the settlement of the West?

E5. What happens when cultures collide?

E6. How have Americans’ perceptions of themselves and their role in world affairs changed over time?
Standard(s)/Unit Goal(s) to be addressed in this lesson (type each standard/goal exactly as written in the framework):

G1. USI.26 Describe the causes, course, and consequences of America’s westward expansion and its growing diplomatic assertiveness. Use a map of North America to trace America’s expansion to the Civil War, including the location of the Santa Fe and Oregon Trails (H, E, G).

E. the annexation of Texas in 1845

F. the concept of Manifest Destiny and its relationship to westward expansion

H. the territorial acquisitions resulting from the Mexican War

J. the Gadsden Purchase of 1854

CCSS.ELA-Writing.RH.9-10. - 1. Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources, attending to such features as the date and origin of the information.

2. Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of how key events or ideas develop over the course of the text.

6. Compare the point of view of two or more authors for how they treat the same or similar topics, including which details they include and emphasize in their respective accounts.

CCSS.ELA-Writng.WHST.9-10-1. Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.

Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among the claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.

9. Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

CCSS.ELA.Speaking and Listening.SL Grade 9-10 – 1. Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 9–10 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.



  1. Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.

c. Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that relate the current discussion to broader themes or larger ideas; actively incorporate others into the discussion; and clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions.

d. Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives, summarize points of agreement and disagreement, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views and understanding and make new connections in light of the evidence and reasoning presented.



Instructional Resources/Tools (list all materials needed for this lesson)

http://www.pbs.org/kera/usmexicanwar/resources/video_library.html

http://www.uen.org/themepark/liberty/mexicanamericanwar.shtml

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/feb23.html

http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/mexicanwar/

http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/lincoln-resolutions/index.html

http://www.dmwv.org/mexwar/resources.htm

http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/historical/history_texas.html

http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/mexican-war-maps.htm

http://www.pbs.org/kera/usmexicanwar/resources/primary_sources.html#

http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/list/picamer/paMexican.html

http://www.loc.gov/pictures/search/?q=Mexican+War%2C+1846-1848&sp=3

Anticipated Student Preconceptions/Misconceptions

  • Mexico provoked the US into starting a war

  • The US is always justified to fight for what they want

  • There is always a justified reason to go to war

  • Politicians are always supportive when their country goes to war

  • Manifest Destiny was the only reason for westward expansion


Instructional Model

Modeling, graphic organizers, Frayer model, analyzing primary source readings and visuals



Instructional Tips/Strategies/Suggestions:

Graphic organizers, primary and secondary sources, data interpretation, political cartoons



Pre-Assessment

What students need to know and are able to do coming into this lesson (including language needs):

Key terms: values, interests, justification, controversy, the role of Manifest Destiny in westward expansion, foreign policy issues



Information for Teacher

The theme of justification for war works for many different topics and can be used for the units after this on the Civil War. The discussion protocol directions are listed on the DESE Model curriculum website in PDF form.



Lesson Sequence

Preview/Opener/”Do Now:”

What is a just war? Can war ever be justified? Examples?

Students will think, write, pair and share this question. Then the class will debrief as a whole and try to reach a consensus.

Activity 1 - Introduction to the War with Mexico:

-Introduce a video using the Frame, Focus, Follow up strategy explained in Lesson 5.

video clip:

http://www.pbs.org/kera/usmexicanwar/resources/video_library.html

The United States declares war on Mexico

Frame: The video provides a brief summary of how the war with Mexica started and the overall outcome

Focus : Students should list the causes and effects they see of the Mexican-American war

Follow Up: Students will discuss what they saw and add causes and effects to their notes, connecting it to what they know about the history with Texas annexation from the previous lesson.


Activity 2 - Discussion – students define and compare and contrast American values and interests, with teacher guidance, then connect back to Manifest Destiny and the war. How does this war fit in with the entire unit so far? Was the war justified under the principles of Manifest Destiny? Refer back to the Frayer Model on Manifest Destiny, add to that.
Activity 3 - Inquiry – in small groups, students will be given a variety of several primary source documents based on a general theme: economics, political, land acquisition, social/society, the media, military, and the president’s point of view, Polk.


  • They will evaluate these documents determining the interests and values in each category. They will record their notes in a graphic organizer.




  • They will decide if the war with Mexico balanced American’s values and interests from their theme

Activity 4 - Independently, students will write a persuasive paragraph on whether they think the war with Mexico was justified. Use evidence from the documents they marked up and discussed in class. They can add their own opinions as well, for instance if they can identify the values in going to war with Mexico but do not personally agree with the act.

Activity 5 – Group work

Students will be placed in to a small group of 6, with one student from each theme represented. They will hold a small group discussion using accountable talk on their opinion over whether the war with Mexico was justified or not, focusing on American values and interests. Students may use the “Talking Stick”

http://olc.spsd.sk.ca/DE/PD/instr/strats/discussion/ or a jigsaw method of small group discussion

Activity 6 – Revision/Closure

After the discussion, students will revise their persuasive paragraph on whether the war with Mexico was justified and followed American ideals and values


  • Optional assignment: Students will create a Mind Map within their group of their documents and their identification of the values and interests listed, and then their determination if they are balanced in going to war with Mexico or not


Formative assessment:

-Notetaking and graphic organizers



Preview outcomes for the next lesson:

This will help students prepare for the CEPA by providing a wide array of primary sources and providing practice for preparing information and then sharing and presenting it to the class, similar to a museum exhibit.



Summative Assessment:

Was the war with Mexico justified? Explain how it either did or did not balance American values and interests. Use at least four examples: at least two sources from your own group and then two additional sources from the rest of the class.




Resources for Lesson 6
Possible background secondary reading, from PBS:

http://www.pbs.org/kera/usmexicanwar/index_flash.html

Prelude to War:
1   2   3   4


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