Westward Expansion Dana Marie Brown, Ann Pember, and Derek Vandegrift



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Article: “Gap's 'manifest destiny' T-shirt was a historic mistake” from The Guardian available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2012/oct/16/gap-manifest-destiny-t-shirt

  • Frayer Model worksheet – can be created at: http://www.worksheetworks.com/miscellanea/graphic-organizers/frayer.html

  • John O’ Sullivan’s “On Manifest Destiny” available at: http://www.pbs.org/kera/usmexicanwar/resources/manifest_destiny_sullivan.html


    Anticipated Student Preconceptions/Misconceptions

    • Students may believe that the factors that led Americans to move westward during the 19th century were unique to that particular time and place when, in reality, many of the same factors lead people around the world to move today.

    • Students may believe that “Manifest Destiny” was universally accepted by all and that America’s growth came without serious consequences for Americans and other peoples.

    Instructional Model

    • Pre-Assessment: LINKS “ABC sheet” completed by student pairs

    • Introduction of essential question: Why do people move?

    • Class brainstorm

    • Gallery Walk: Causes of Western Expansion

    • Direct Instruction – Introduction of concept of “Manifest Destiny”

    • Student creation of “Frayer Model” definition sheet

    • Extension Homework: “Why did Manifest Destiny t-shirts create such controversy?”

    Instructional Tips/Strategies/Suggestions:



    Pre-Assessment

    • LINKS “ABC sheet”: Students will work in pairs to complete an “ABC sheet” for half of the alphabet (A to L / M to Z) aiming to provide one (or more) term related to Westward Expansion beginning with each of the letters in their assigned section of the alphabet. After student pairs have completed their work, there will be a class “reporting out” with one student recording student responses on the board at the front of the room.

    What students need to know and are able to do coming into this lesson (including language needs):

    • Students will have studied early US History beginning with the American Revolution and progressing through the period of the Early Republic. Students should be familiar with some previous instances of US involvement in foreign affairs including (but not limited to): Jay’s Treaty, Citizen Genet Affair, Quasi-War with France, XYZ Affair, War with the Barbary States, Embargo of 1807, War of 1812, Adams-Onis Treaty (acquisition of Florida). Students should have also previously studied George Washington’s “Farewell Address”.

    Lesson Sequence:

    Pre-Assessment

    • LINKS “ABC sheet”: Students will work in pairs to complete an “ABC sheet” for half of the alphabet (A to L / M to Z) aiming to provide one (or more) term related to Westward Expansion beginning with each of the letters in their assigned section of the alphabet. After student pairs have completed their work, there will be a class “reporting out”. To capture student responses, the teacher may want to create a class “Wordle” (http://www.wordle.net/) with the heading “Before Lesson” – once completed, the teacher can print out the Wordle for their students to add to their notebooks. At the conclusion of the unit, the teacher may want to have students add their new knowledge to the Wordle and/or create a new class Wordle to demonstrate their learning. Finally, as a culminating assignment, the teacher may ask their students to use their “after learning” wordle to write a paragraph / short essay summarizing their understanding of westward expansion.

    Introduction of Essential Question and Class Brainstorm

    • After the completion of the pre-assessment activity, the teacher will introduce the first essential question for the unit – “Why do people move?” The class will then take a few moments to brainstorm and to create a list of factors that have led, and continue to lead, people to relocate.

    Gallery Walk – Causes of Westward Expansion

    • The students will visit 6 to 10 stations around the room. Each station will feature a primary source document that will illustrate one of the factors that led Americans to move westward during the 19th century. At each station, students will be asked to identify the type of source and the cause of American westward expansion that is illustrated in the source. Possible sources include:

      • Advertisements for available land / land sales

      • An excerpt from The Homestead Act

      • Images of gold prospectors

      • Advertisements for steamships departing for California

      • Articles about the Mormons / religious struggle

      • Excerpts from the diaries of Lewis and Clark

    • At the conclusion of the gallery walk, the teacher will lead the class in a discussion of the documents that the students viewed. For each document, the class will work together to determine the what type of source it is (newspaper article, photograph, etc.) and the cause of American westward expansion that each source illustrates. The teacher (or a selected student) will record these causes on the board.

    • The class will then compare their initial brainstorm list created in response to the essential question “why do people move?” to the list created by the class after their gallery walk – this should reveal that people move for many of the same reasons today as they did during the nineteenth century.

    Student Creation of Frayer Model Worksheet and Direct Instruction
    • The teacher will introduce the students to the concept of “Manifest Destiny”. To build their understanding of Manifest Destiny, the students will create a Frayer Model worksheet. In the center of the worksheet, the students will write the term “Manifest Destiny”. Additionally, in order to better meet the needs of diverse learners such as ELL students, the teacher may want to leave additional space in the center of the worksheet for students to write a definition in their native language or to create a visual representation of their understanding of Manifest destiny. In the four boxes surrounding the term, students are asked to provide a definition for Manifest Destiny (they can look this up in their textbooks, on the internet, etc) , list characteristics of Manifest Destiny, provide examples of Manifest Destiny, and to list “non-examples” of Manifest Destiny. A Frayer model worksheet can be created at: http://www.worksheetworks.com/miscellanea/graphic-organizers/frayer.html. The teacher may want to have students add to this worksheet throughout the course of the unit to demonstrate their increased understanding of Manifest Destiny and its implications.


    • The teacher will add to the students’ understand of this concept by placing it in historical context and explaining that the term was first used by a newspaper editor in reference to the US’ proposed annexation of Texas.

    Video Excerpt: “Frame Focus, and Follow-Up” Model

    • The teacher will show the class a brief (4 minute) video created by the Kansas Historical Society about Manifest Destiny. The video is available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YLmUhT9QOlE The teacher will use “Frame, Focus, and Follow Up” model to help students build their understanding of the concept of Manifest Destiny.

      • Frame: The teacher will explain to students that the term “Manifest Destiny” was first used by journalist John L. O’Sullivan in regard to the proposed US annexation of Texas.

      • Focus: While students watch the brief clip, students should aim to answer the following questions:

        • Why did Americans feel that they had the right to possess lands in the West?

        • How did Americans feel that they could improve the lands and peoples of the West?

        • How did Americans view the native peoples of the West? How did they fit into Americans’ understanding of “Manifest Destiny?”

      • Follow-Up: After viewing the clip, the teacher will give students a few moments to reflect upon the clip, write their answers to the “focus” questions, and then ask students to share their answers to the “focus” questions with the class. After this brief discussion, the teacher will ask students to return to their Frayer model and add new information that they have learned.

    Extension / Homework Assignment

    • Students will be given a copy of the article “GAP’s Manifest Destiny t-shirts were a mistake” to read for homework. Students identify one point they agree with or disagree with from the article and one argument that surprised them. The teacher may want to frame this response by asking the students “Why did this t-shirt create such controversy more than 150 years after the time of Manifest Destiny?” Students will discuss this in class with the next lesson

    • At the conclusion of the lesson / unit, students can individual add to their Frayer model worksheets and/or collectively add to their class glogster to demonstrate their new understanding of westward expansion and “Manifest Destiny”.

    Formative assessments:

    • Pre-assessment: LINKS “ABC sheets”

    • Class “before lesson” wordle

    • Frayer Model worksheets

    • Student reactions to homework/ extension assignment

    Preview outcomes for the next lesson:

    The next lesson will open with students sharing their reactions to the homework assignment. In the next lesson, students will examine the modes and routes by which Americans followed their “Manifest Destiny” to move to the West.



    Summative Assessment:

    • CEPA Activity (Expansion Museum Presentation)

    • End of Unit Exam

    s of Latin America in P5? Why?

    Lesson 2: The Trails West


    Brief Overview: In this lesson, students will hold a discussion, using the Save the Last Word protocol, on the article from the previous day’s lesson. The article is an activator for understanding the concept of Manifest Destiny and how it played a role in Westward Expansion. After debriefing the article, students will watch a You Tube trailer for the Oregon Trail and complete a Think Aloud on a map of the Trails West. Students will mark up the map and determine how geography influences decisions.

    Prior Knowledge Required: Students will have a working definition for the term Manifest Destiny.

    Estimated Time: Approximately 90 minutes (2 class periods)

    Resources for Lesson: Map of the Trails West, You Tube video and projection, Secondary Source on the Trails West, Eno Board, Chart Paper, Article

    Content Area/Course: United States History I

    Unit: Westward Expansion

    Time (minutes): Approximately 90 minutes

    Lesson: The Trails West

    Overview:

    By the end of this lesson students will know and be able to:

    • Analyze maps for purpose and information

    • Explain why Americans moved West and how geography influenced their decisions


    • Explain the concept of “Manifest Destiny” and discuss its implications.

    Essential Question addressed in this lesson:

    E1. Why do people move?

    E2. How do geography and topography affect travel and settlement?

    Standard(s)/Unit Goal(s) to be addressed in this lesson (type each standard/goal exactly as written in the framework):

    G1. USI.26 Describe the causes, course, and consequences of America’s westward expansion and its growing diplomatic assertiveness. Use a map of North America to trace America’s expansion to the Civil War, including the location of the Santa Fe and Oregon Trails (H, E, G).

    A. the War of 1812

    B. the purchase of Florida in 1819

    C. the 1823 Monroe Doctrine

    D. the Cherokees’ Trail of Tears E. the annexation of Texas in 1845

    E. the annexation of Texas in 1845

    F. the concept of Manifest Destiny and its relationship to westward expansion

    G. the acquisition of the Oregon Territory in 1846

    H. the territorial acquisitions resulting from the Mexican War

    I. the search for gold in California

    J. the Gadsden Purchase of 1854

    CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.9-10.1a Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.
    CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.9-10.1d Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives, summarize points of agreement and disagreement, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views and understanding and make new connections in light of the evidence and reasoning presented.

    Instructional Resources/Tools (list all materials needed for this lesson)


    • Eno/Smart Board with Projection and Video Capabilities (YouTube Trailer)

    • Handouts of Map

    • Protocol: Save the Last Word

    • http://www.nsrfharmony.org/protocol/doc/final_word.pdf Save the Last word protocol and directions

    Anticipated Student Preconceptions/Misconceptions

    Students may still have confusions about the term Manifest Destiny. They may also have a hard time making the connection between the Current Events article and the push for Westward Expansion in the 1800’s.



    Instructional Model: Gradual Release, Think/Write/Pair/Share, Small Group Work, Collaboration, Discussion Protocol

    Instructional Tips/Strategies/Suggestions:

    • Think/Write/Pair/Share

    • Save the Last Word

    • Mark Up the Text

    • Think Aloud

    What students need to know and are able to do coming into this lesson (including language needs):

    Students should be familiar with Marking up a Text. They should also have a working definition of the term Manifest Destiny. It will be useful to have the Frayer Model out and on their desk for this lesson.



    Lesson Sequence:

    Opener: What questions does this article (from last night’s homework) raise about manifest destiny? Write at least two “research questions” that you need answered to understand more about the article and the argument.

    1. Whole Class: Debrief as whole class and generate a class list of questions. This can be done on the ENO board, chart paper, etc. Discuss what makes a good/valuable question. Have students think about what questions do not have easy answers and need to be discovered.

    2. Pair/Confer: Students should have their Frayer Model from the previous lesson on the desk before beginning the Pair/Confer portion of the lesson. After the list of questions (4 or 5) have been generated, have students work on answers to these questions in pairs/small groups. While they may not have access to vast amounts of information at their fingertips, they should be able to make some educated guests, inferences. Debrief quickly as a whole class and talk about how these questions are important in understanding the different viewpoints Americans had on the idea of manifest destiny. Question generating protocols: http://hepg.org/hel/article/507#home

    3. Save the Last Word: Students will complete a Save the Last Word Protocol on the Article from last night’s homework in groups of 4. Teacher should review the protocol before beginning. Students were asked the night before to identify one point they agreed with or disagreed with from the article and one argument that surprised them. Instruct students that the purpose of this strategy is to hold a structured discussion on the article and listen to other students’ thoughts about what they read.

    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Probable Break for beginning of Day 2:

    4. Whole Class: As a whole class, watch the YouTube trailer for the fake Oregon Trail Movie. Use the Frame/Focus/Follow Up Model.



    Frame: Make sure students understand that the video itself is made for humor but many of the ideas are realistic.

    Focus: Have students answer the question: What factors would you need to consider if you were planning a trip West like these families? What obstacles might you face?

    Follow Up: What does this video have to do with Manifest Destiny? Add/revise to the Frayer model.

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CHps2SecuDk

    5. Whole Class Instruction: Think Aloud on a map of the Trails West. Teacher should model “marking up” the map with their observations, questions, etc. on the Smarthboard/Eno board. A good place to start may be the Title and Key of the map (things the students may otherwise ignore).

    6. Independent Work: Gradually release students to continue marking up the map with their questions, connections, inferences, etc based on ability level. At the bottom of the map, students should answer the question: How does geography influence decisions?

    7. After marking up the map and answering the question at the bottom, students will be given a short secondary source on the Trails West. Students should do a quick mark up of the text and answer the same question at the bottom: How does geography influence decisions?

    Formative assessment:

    Revisit the Frayer Model on Manifest Destiny and add to each section based on any new understandings. .



    Summative Assessment:

    Literacy Reflection: Students should answer the following questions in a paragraph for homework.



    • What did you miss when just looking at the map that you learned from the reading?

    • What was easier to understand from the map than from the reading?

    • Reflect on your own learning. Which did you prefer to learn from: the Map or the Reading? Why? Explain what works for you.

    Lesson 3
    Brief Overview: In this lesson, students will look at what it was like to be a Gold Digger during the California Gold Rush. They will have an opportunity to illustrate their ideas of a gold digger and will take an interactive journey on the Smithsonian site, “On the Water’. When completed, students will write a journal entry from the perspective of someone who made the trek. Throughout the interactive journey, students will look at Primary Sources dealing with the California Gold Rush.



    Prior Knowledge Required: Students will have a working definition of the term Manifest Destiny and will have traced the Trails West by marking up a map.

    Estimated Time: Two Class Periods

    Resources for Lesson: Technology: Laptops/Computer Lab/etc., Word Cards, Drawing Paper and Materials, Student Worksheet from Online Interactive

    Content Area/Course: United States History I

    Unit: Westward Expansion

    Time (minutes): Two Class Periods

    Lesson: The Gold Rush

    Overview:

    By the end of this lesson students will know and be able to:

    • Analyze maps for purpose and information

    • Explain why Americans moved West and how geography influenced their decisions
    Essential Question addressed in this lesson:

    E1. Why do people move?

    E2. How do geography and topography affect travel and settlement?
    Standard(s)/Unit Goal(s) to be addressed in this lesson (type each standard/goal exactly as written in the framework):

    G1. USI.26 Describe the causes, course, and consequences of America’s westward expansion and its growing diplomatic assertiveness. Use a map of North America to trace America’s expansion to the Civil War, including the location of the Santa Fe and Oregon Trails (H, E, G).


    A. the War of 1812

    B. the purchase of Florida in 1819

    C. the 1823 Monroe Doctrine

    D. the Cherokees’ Trail of Tears E. the annexation of Texas in 1845

    E. the annexation of Texas in 1845

    F. the concept of Manifest Destiny and its relationship to westward expansion

    G. the acquisition of the Oregon Territory in 1846

    H. the territorial acquisitions resulting from the Mexican War

    I. the search for gold in California

    J. the Gadsden Purchase of 1854

    CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.9-10.3b Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection, and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.

    Instructional Resources/Tools (list all materials needed for this lesson)

    Technology: Laptops/Computer Lab/etc.

    Word Cards

    Drawing Paper and Materials

    Student Worksheet from Online Interactive

    http://amhistory.si.edu/onthewater/goldrush/


    Anticipated Student Preconceptions/Misconceptions

    Students may not know what a Gold Digger is and may have no background knowledge on the California Gold Rush. They may also have the idea that it was a positive experience for people seeking gold.



    Instructional Model: Gradual Release/Technology Exploration

    Instructional Tips/Strategies/Suggestions:

    Online Interactive Journey, Word Cards, Preview Drawing, Primary Sources



    What students need to know and are able to do coming into this lesson (including language needs):

    Students should have an understanding of looking at primary sources and a toolbox of strategies to use when looking at primary sources.



    Information for Teacher

    Teachers will want to have the “drawing” supplies somewhere where students can access them for the Do Now.



    Lesson Sequence

    Do Now: We will be looking at the lives of Gold Diggers/Hunters in the mid 1800's. Sketch a quick picture of what you think a Gold digger/hunter might look like. What might they have with them? Be as detailed as possible in the time allotted. We will come back to your drawings later in the lesson.



    1. Now look at "The independent Gold Hunter on his way to California" and compare it to your own drawing. Picture link:

    http://amhistory.si.edu/onthewater/goldrush/

    What are some similarities? What are some differences? Which character (the one you drew or the one in the painting) has a better chance of striking it rich in California? Why? What makes him the best prepared? After answering the questions on your own, turn and talk to a partner. Discuss the differences between all the visuals and add some of your partner's thoughts to your own notes in a different color. You will have a chance to go back to these answers at the end.

    2. Now preview the following vocabulary specific to the Gold Rush. Students should complete Word Cards for each term. Words Cards can be done on Index Cards, on slips of papers, on PowerPoint slides, or using other technology. This is a great tool for ELL students. Each Word Card should include the term in the middle, a definition in one corner, a visual representation, and connections to other words/experiences. These cards can be used throughout the lesson to check in or in a review activity at the end.

    *pioneer


    *Forty-Niners

    *Miner Pan*

    *Clipper Card

    *argonaut

    *claim

    *Boom Town



    *Gold Fever

    *Nugget


    *Pan Out


    1. Students should explore the Smithsonian's "On the Water", an interactive journey through Alexander Van Halen's Gold Rush experiences. Students should download the Student Worksheet to record their answers as they trace his journey. They should also complete the journal writing activity at the end (if time allows). As students navigate the site, they should be instructed to click on the additional primary sources at the bottom of the page. All of the information is on this link:

    http://amhistory.si.edu/onthewater/goldrush/
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