Westward Expansion Dana Marie Brown, Ann Pember, and Derek Vandegrift



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Westward Expansion

Dana Marie Brown, Ann Pember, and Derek Vandegrift

This unit is intended to be included in a United States History I course offered at the high school level and the authors anticipate it should take two to three weeks of study to complete. Westward Expansion is a topic rich with opportunities for students to explore questions of critical importance to their understanding of United States history as well as the nation’s evolving role in world affairs. In this unit, students will be introduced to the concept of Manifest Destiny and will consider its impact upon the history of our nation and its diverse peoples. Additionally, students will consider the evolution of Americans’ perceptions of themselves and their nation and recognize essential shifts in American foreign policy. The topics presented also offer myriad opportunities for students to connect the nation’s history to events and issues that challenge the nation and the world today. The unit incorporates a variety of sources including images, primary documents, film, and materials from the web to engage students of varied learning styles and to challenge and develop a broad range of literacy skills. The lessons include high expectations for all students while providing appropriate scaffolds to support the needs of all learners.




Stage 1 Desired Results

ESTABLISHED GOALS G

G1. USI.26 Describe the causes, course, and consequences of America’s westward expansion and its growing diplomatic assertiveness. Use a map of North America to trace America’s expansion to the Civil War, including the location of the Santa Fe and Oregon Trails (H, E, G).

A. the War of 1812

B. the purchase of Florida in 1819

C. the 1823 Monroe Doctrine

D. the Cherokees’ Trail of Tears E. the annexation of Texas in 1845

E. the annexation of Texas in 1845

F. the concept of Manifest Destiny and its relationship to westward expansion

G. the acquisition of the Oregon Territory in 1846

H. the territorial acquisitions resulting from the Mexican War

I. the search for gold in California

J. the Gadsden Purchase of 1854

CCSS.ELA-Reading.11-12-1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources, connecting insights gained from specific details to an understanding of the text as a whole.

CCSS.ELA-Reading.11-12-2 Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary that makes clear the relationships among the key details and ideas.

CCSS.ELA-Reading.9-10-6 6. Compare the point of view of two or more authors for how they treat the same or similar topics, including which details they include and emphasize in their respective accounts.

CCSS.ELA-Reading.11-12-7 Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, as well as in words) in order to address a question or solve a problem.

CCSS.ELA-Writng.9-10-1. Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.

Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among the claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.



CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.9-10.3b Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection, and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.

CCSS.ELA-Writing.11-12-4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
CCSS.ELA-Writing.9-10-9 Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
CCSS.ELA-SL. 9-10 – 1. Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 9–10 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.

a.Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.

c. Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that relate the current discussion to broader themes or larger ideas; actively incorporate others into the discussion; and clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions.

d. Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives, summarize points of agreement and disagreement, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views and understanding and make new connections in light of the evidence and reasoning presented.




Transfer

Students will be able to independently use their learning to…

T1. Analyze conflicts to critically appraise historical claims and decisions.

T2. use their learning to integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media in order to address a question, form an opinion, or to solve a problem

T3. write to inform and explain a topic, concept, or process to a variety of audiences.


Meaning

UNDERSTANDINGS U

Students will understand that…

U1. People move for a variety of reasons – for new economic opportunities, greater freedoms, or to escape hardships.

U2. Many Americans had naïve ideas about the opportunities and difficulties of moving west.

U3. Geography and topography shaped the paths and impacted the journeys of Americans who moved to the West.

U4. While the US has added land and territories throughout its history, it has often come with great costs.

U5. The expansion of the US has often created and/or resulted in both diplomatic and armed conflict with other peoples and nations.

U6. Specific individuals, even outside of elected officials, can have a profound impact on history.



ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS Q

E1. Why do people move?

E2. How do geography and topography affect travel and settlement?

E3. Why did some survive and prosper in the West while others did not?

E4. Who were the winners and who were the losers in the settlement of the West?

E5. What happens when cultures collide?

E6. How have Americans’ perceptions of themselves and their role in world affairs changed over time? (note to teachers – overarching question, introduce now and students will build to this by the end)


Acquisition

Students will know… K

K1. The politicial, economic, and social factors that motivated people to move to the West.

K2. The key geographical features of the American landscape that shaped the routes to and the settlements of the West.
K3. Several major topics / events connected to American westward expansion including (but not limited to): the acquisition of Florida, the Monroe Doctrine, Manifest Destiny, the annexation of Texas, the acquisition of the Oregon territory, the Mexican War, and the California Gold Rush

K4. The major conflicts that were caused by / resulted from American expansion into new territories in the West.

K5. The government policies and actions that encouraged Western settlement and brought the US into conflict with other nations.



Students will be skilled at… S

S1. Recognize, define, and use content specific vocabulary related to western expansion in context.



S2. Identify, examine, and interpret primary and secondary source documents to increase understanding of events and life in US history.

S3. Make connections between the past and the present.

S4. Review information for accuracy, separating fact from opinion.

S5. Identify a problem and recommend solutions.

S6. Select and defend positions in writing, discussion, and debate.

S7. Read and interpret maps.

S8: Skill of reflection and internalizing information, metagocnition (need to rephrase)




Stage 2 - Evidence

Evaluative Criteria

Assessment Evidence



CURRICULUM EMBEDED PERFOMANCE ASSESSMENT (PERFORMANCE TASKS) PT

Plans to launch a “Westward Expansion Museum” are in the works – you are a member of the committee tasked with creating the museum. While there will be many individual exhibits throughout the museum, one of the committee’s most important tasks is to produce one, primary exhibit that will give casual visitors an overview of the important people, events, and accomplishments of the time period. The committee has not yet decided on a format for this exhibit – members have suggested modes ranging from pamphlets to video presentations. The central committee has asked small groups of its member to produce “pitch presentations” for their consideration. You will work with the members of your small group to design your “pitch presentation” and to present your “pitch” to a subcommittee (another group) to receive feedback upon your proposed exhibit. Each group will then work to revise their pitch presentations, incorporating feedback received from the subcommittee, for a final exhibit walk – at the conclusion of this exhibit walk, one presentation will be chosen for inclusion in the museum.
Lesson 1

Formative assessments:

  • Students will identify the topics related to Westward Expansion with which they are already familiar in an opening class brainstorm (assessing prior knowledge).

  • Students will construct a Frayer Model Worksheet to summarize their understanding of Manifest Destiny and to give examples of its implications.

  • Students will read and assess an current events article that explores a recent controversy connected to Manifest Destiny. Students will then express their opinion and support their argument with relevant details during a classroom discussion.

Summative assessments:

  • At the conclusion of the lesson / unit, students can revise their Frayer model worksheets and/or collectively add to their class glogster to illustrate their new understanding of westward expansion and “Manifest Destiny”.


Lesson 2

Summative Assessment: (Skill – content and own learning style)

  • Save the last Word discussion and homework mark up. Accountable talk, cite the evidence from their homework. (Knowledge/understanding and skills)

Literacy Reflection: Students should answer the following questions in a paragraph for homework.

  • What did you miss when just looking at the map that you learned from the reading?

  • What was easier to understand from the map than from the reading?

  • Reflect on your own learning. Which did you prefer to learn from: the Map or the Reading? Why? Explain what works for you.

Writing Prompt – Lesson 3 (Understanding and skills)

Imagine you are Alexander Van Valen, and write one last journal entry explaining why you decided to stay in California or why you decided to pack up and return home to New York.

You can go back and review any of Van Valen’s writings or other evidence as needed. Try to match the type and amount of detail Van Valen includes in most of his writing. Use your notes.
Lesson 4 (understanding and skills)
Formative Assessments


  • Students will summarize an excerpt from Washington’s “Farewell Address” and will explain the author’s intent while placing it in historical context as an entrance ticket.

  • The class will recall and identify instances of US involvement in world affairs prior to the issuance of the Monroe Doctrine during a class brainstorm activity.

  • Students will summarize, analyze, and interpret two primary source documents during a close reading activity and subsequent pair share discussion.


Lesson 5 (knowledge, content, skills)

Mark up of the text will be assessed (earlier ones were practice). APPARTS chart notes on primary documents, write an informative persuasive proposal using evidence on their opinion over the annexation of Texas controversy.



Lesson 6 (knowledge and skill)

Explain the balance of American values and interests around an assigned theme of the Mexican War in a small group discussion. Students will use their graphic organizer to explain.

Analyze whether the war with Mexico was justified in a persuasive written summary.

Also include traditional quizzes and tests.





OTHER EVIDENCE: OE



Stage 3 – Learning Plan

Summary of Key Learning Events and Instruction

  • Lesson 1: Introduction – “Why do people move?” and Manifest Destiny – In this lesson, students will learn and discuss the factors that encouraged Americans to move to the West. Students will also be introduced to the concept of Manifest Destiny and will investigate a related primary document (T2, U1, U5, U6, E1, E6, K1, K3, K5, S1, S2, S3)

-ABC Link Sheet - preview

-Gallery Walk on Manifest Destiny pictures – examine why people move, building content

-Frayer Model on Manifest Destiny – conceptual knowledge

- Video on Manifest Destiny: Frame, Focus, and Follow Up



- Introduction of homework article on the Manifest Destiny t-shirts from the Gap – (need to decide what to call this)

  • Lesson 2: The Trails West – Students will examine how geography and topography helped to shape the paths and impacted the journeys of Americans who moved to the West. (T2, T3, U1, U2, U3, U5, U6, E1, E2, E3, E4, E5, K1, K2, K3, K4, K5, S1, S2, S3, S5, S7)

  • Questioning techniques on the Gap homework article generate questions then determine which questions are valuable. They will generate research in an attempt to answer their own questions

  • Save the Last Word discussion, where every student gets to speak.

  • Video trailer on the Oregon Trail movie – analysis using frame, focus, and follow up

  • Think Aloud on a map of the trails west and on a secondary source about the trails west

  • Revision – add to the Frayer Model from lesson 1

  • Literacy reflection on the trails west activity (summative assessment)

  • Lesson 3: California Gold Rush – Students will examine the opportunities and difficulties individuals faced while moving to the West in search of gold. Specifically, students will examine a variety of primary source documents related to the California Gold Rush. (T2, T3, U1, U2, U5, U6, E1, E3, E4, K1, K3, S1, S2, S3, S4, S7)

  • Hook: drawing a Gold Digger/hunter

  • Visual discovery of a primary source gold digger – examine

  • Making meaning of important vocabulary for the online activity, defining and illustrating

  • Online activity of a gold rusher traveling west, experiential – note taking. Can go back later and revisit any part of the activity if they need it.

  • Revisit drawing of the gold digger, add more content and knowledge learned from the online activity. Or students with a journal entry from the perspective of the gold rush character they just played in the game.

  • Lesson 4: The Monroe Doctrine - In this lesson, students will explore how world events and an evolving vision of the United States and its role in world affairs contributed to the creation of the Monroe Doctrine. Additionally, students will examine the Monroe Doctrine and discuss its impact upon American foreign policy. (T1, T2, U4, U5, U6, E5, E6, K1, K3, K4, K5, S1, S2, S3)

  • Class discussion and brainstorm of Washington’s Farewell Address, connecting this policy to Manifest Destiny.

  • In pairs, students will either analyze Monroe’s Message to the Senate or the Monroe Doctine. They will discuss in pairs, preparing to share with a whole class discussion

  • Lesson 5: Texas Independence and Annexation – Students will examine and interpret several documents related to Texas annexation and will decide if the United States was justified in annexing the territory. (T1, T2, T3, U1, U3, U4, E1, E2, E4, E5, K1, K2, K3, K5, S1, S2, S6, S7)

-Vocabulary definitions on Texas annexation

-Video on Texas annexation: frame, focus, follow up

- Close reading individually on a secondary source reading of the history of Texas

- Annotation of a timeline of Texas history

- Guided inquiry where students will read 4 primary source documents of different points of view of whether to annex Texas or not

- Persuasive paragraph writing as a political advisor to the president with the student’s own decision on whether the US should annex texas or not


  • Lesson 6: War With Mexico – Students will briefly explore both the causes and effects of the Mexican American War. Students will then decide if the war with Mexico was justified based on those American values and interests. (T1, T2, T3, U3, U4, U5, E2, E4, E5, E6, K1, K3, K4, K5, S1, S2, S4, S6, S7)

-Video clip on the war with Mexico war: frame, focus, follow up

- Secondary reading on the war with Mexico, focusing on the causes and effects

- Venn diagram identifying and labeling American values and interests

- Inquiry in small groups. Students will be assigned a general theme (economic, military, political, etc). They will be given a series of documents based around their theme. They must read and mark those up, and then decide how they fit in with American values and interests

- Persuasive paragraph individually where students decide if the war with Mexico was justified or not.


  • Lesson 7: CEPA – Westward Expansion Museum – Students will collaboratively research and discuss the major ideas, events, and figures of Westward Expansion in order to create a proposed exhibit for a Westward Expansion Museum.

Adapted from Understanding by Design 2.0 © 2011 Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe Used with Permission



July 2012




Content Area/Course: US History I

Unit: Western Expansion

Time (minutes): 60 minutes

Lesson #1: Why do people move?

Overview: In this lesson, students will consider the essential question “Why do people move?” and begin to explore the many factors that have historically led (and continue to) Americans (and others) to relocate. Students will also be introduced to the concept of “Manifest Destiny” and will construct a Frayer Model worksheet to build their own understanding of this concept.

By the end of this lesson students will know and be able to:

  • Identify several factors that have historically led Americans (and others) to relocate.

  • Explain the concept of “Manifest Destiny” and discuss its implications.

Essential Question addressed in this lesson:

  • Why do people move?

Standard(s)/Unit Goal(s) to be addressed in this lesson (type each standard/goal exactly as written in the framework):

  • G1. USI.26 Describe the causes, course, and consequences of America’s westward expansion and its growing diplomatic assertiveness.

    • F. The concept of Manifest Destiny and its relationship to westward expansion



  • CCSS.ELA-Reading.11-12-2 Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary that makes clear the relationships among the key details and ideas.

  • CCSS.ELA-Reading.11-12-7 Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, as well as in words) in order to address a question or solve a problem.

  • CCSS.ELA-Writing.11-12-4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

Instructional Resources/Tools (list all materials needed for this lesson)
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