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376

ALCOHOL ADVERTISING AND YOUTH ALCOHOL USE IN INNER-CITY CHICAGO. Keryn Pasch1, Cheryl Perry1, Kelli Komro1, Karen Munson1, Kian Farbakhsh1, Mary Hearst1, 1University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN United States

The purpose of this study was to determine the density of alcohol advertisements in neighborhoods surrounding schools in Chicago. In addition, the association between density of ads and adolescent alcohol use, overall and by race and SES, was analyzed. Project Northland Chicago is a multi-component intervention that includes three years of behavioral curricula, family interventions, youth-planned extra-curricular activities, and community organizing. The evaluation design is a randomized community trial involving 63 Chicago public elementary or middle schools and surrounding neighborhoods. The advertisement data were collected in spring of 2002 in designated areas within approximately a 1500 foot radius from each of the Chicago elementary school participating in Project Northland Chicago. Trained staff members photographed all alcohol-related signs attached to or affiliated with a store, bar, restaurant, or lounge and all freestanding ads and billboards. Global positioning devices were used to document the latitude and longitude of each sign. Each sign was entered into a database and coded for type, content, and theme by two independent coders. Twenty-two themes were developed using Finn and Strickland`s (1982) coding scheme. Four additional themes were also created. Based on a review of the literature, 11 of the themes were designated as “youth oriented” which indicated they were appealing to youth. Focus groups were conducted with 35 ethnically diverse 7th and 8th graders in Chicago public schools to validate the youth oriented category. Students in these focus groups validated the coding of youth oriented advertisements as all ads that were coded by the independent coders as youth oriented were deemed youth oriented by the students in Chicago. In addition, the students also agreed that the ads coded as non-youth oriented did not appeal to youth. In total, 1468 advertisements were coded. Of those, 947 were alcohol advertisements. The number of youth oriented ads will also be determined as well as their associated themes. Maps will be created using ArcView GIS to show the density and location of all alcohol ads and those ads that are youth oriented. Maps will also show the density of ads around each school and how the density varies by SES and race. Preliminary data show a disproportionate number of alcohol advertisements around schools that have high proportions of Hispanic students, while schools with high proportions of African-American students have considerably fewer alcohol advertisements. Analyses will also be conducted to determine the relationship between alcohol advertisement density and adolescent alcohol use.



377

REGULATORY FOCUS AND ADOLESCENT SUBSTANCE USE. Alexis T. Franzese1, Michelle R. Sherrill1, Rick H. Hoyle1, Timothy J. Strauman1, 1Duke University, Durham, NC United States

Individual differences in motivational orientation (the kinds of goals people pursue) have been hypothesized to be contributory factors in the development of substance use through their effects on social cognition (how people interpret everyday life situations). As part of a larger program of research within the Transdisciplinary Prevention Research Center at Duke University, we conducted a cross-sectional study examining the associations between motivational orientation and situations of use among middle-school students. We predicted that individual differences in regulatory focus (Higgins, 1997) would be significantly and discriminantly associated with students´ beliefs about and reports of substance use. Regulatory focus refers to stable orientations that individuals possess toward one or both of two kinds of goals: promotion goals (making good things happen) and prevention goals (keeping bad things from happening). Based on this model, we tested two main hypotheses. First, that individual differences in regulatory focus would have modest but significant direct associations with substance use attitudes and behaviors such that students with strong promotion goals would be more favorable toward substance use while those with strong prevention goals would be less favorable. Second, that regulatory focus and the student´s everyday classroom and peer context would interact to predict substance use attitudes and use. A total of 105 seventh-grade students at a North Carolina middle school completed a series of measures including an adolescent version of the Regulatory Focus Questionnaire. We found support for both of our hypotheses. Regulatory focus was associated with characteristics of substance users. We found that both prevention success and promotion success are related to alcohol use. Individuals with self-perceived success pursuing prevention goals were less likely than those without prevention success to use alcohol, while individuals with self-perceived success pursuing promotion goals were more likely than individuals without promotion success to use alcohol. These results suggest that a strong promotion focus may be a risk factor for substance use, while a strong prevention focus may be a protective factor. In addition, we observed an interaction between the student´s regulatory focus history and their gender in predicting substance use. For girls, predicted illegal drug use is similar regardless of prevention history (being socialized toward prevention goals). For boys, increased drug use is predicted for those without a strong prevention history. The findings suggest the possibility of incorporating interventions tailored to individual differences in regulatory focus within existing prevention programs for adolescents.



378

THE RELATIONSHIP OF MULTIPLE SUBTYPES OF CONDUCT PROBLEMS TO STAGES OF TOBACCO USE. Robert McMahon1, Craig Colder2, Lisa Dierker3, Richard Clayton4, 1University of Washington, Seattle, WA United States; 2SUNY at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY United States; 3Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT United States; 4University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY United States

Conduct problems (CP) in youth are associated with a host of negative outcomes, including tobacco use. This relationship has been documented in clinical, community, and high-risk samples; with youth at various ages; with multiple ethnic groups and in different countries; and in both genders. However, the extent to which different subtypes of CP may be differentially associated with various stages of tobacco use has not been examined. Such relationships would have important implications for preventive interventions for both CP and tobacco use.

The purpose of this poster is to examine the extent to which various subtypes of CP are associated with different stages of tobacco use in a large sample of college freshmen (UpTERN). Participants were selected from responses to a screener survey (N=4690) administered to incoming freshman at Purdue University (response rate 71%). 2001 individuals reported at least some experience with smoking (i.e. one or more puffs lifetime). 912 of these individuals completed a baseline survey and took part in weekly web-based surveys throughout their freshman year. The sample is 46% female and largely Caucasian. At baseline, 16% smoked more than 25 packs of cigarettes in their lifetime, 31% smoked more than 1 pack but less than 25 packs, 38% smoked between 1 cigarette and 1 pack, and 15% had smoked only a puff.

Three approaches to subtyping CP will be examined: a) DSM-IV diagnoses of Conduct Disorder (CD) and Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD); b) childhood-onset (at least one CD symptom prior to age 10) and adolescent-onset (initial onset of symptoms at age 10 or older) types of CD; and c) aggressive (e.g., fighting, cruelty) and nonaggressive (e.g., stealing, vandalism) CP (dimensional). Retrospective reports of CP symptoms and age of onset will allow for both lifetime and past year diagnoses and dimensions. Tobacco use was assessed longitudinally throughout the first year of college using a web-based weekly timeline followback procedure in which participants noted frequency of daily tobacco use. Multiple measures of dependence (e.g., DSM, Fagerstrom) were collected longitudinally as well. Stages of tobacco use to be examined are experimentation, regular use, and dependence. The relationship of subtypes of CP to trajectories of tobacco use over the first year will also be examined. Gender will be examined as a moderator. Covariates will include ADHD, lifetime smoking, and other substance-use history. Data analyses are underway. Multinomial logistic regressions will be used to examine the relation between CP and tobacco use across stages of smoking. Random effects regression will be used to examine the relation between CP and trajectories of tobacco use.



379

DEPRESSION AND SUPPORT RECEIPT: PRIMARY SUPPORTER RELATIONSHIP FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH DEPRESSION AMONG A DISADVANTAGED POPULATION WITH HIV/AIDS. Amy Knowlton1, Carl Latkin1, 1Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD United States

Background: Studies suggest that among the chronically ill, receiving social support may be stressful as well as beneficial. Interpersonal ties and social support play a critical role in the psychological well-being, medical adherence, and other health outcomes among persons living with HIV/AIDS or other chronic conditions. Interpersonal support is heavily relied on by disadvantaged chronically ill populations, yet the effects of interpersonal support receipt on psychological well-being are equivocal. Some studies suggest that psychological distress among the chronically ill may indicate difficulties in the supporter-recipient relationship and threaten the effectiveness or continuity of support or care among those in need. High levels of depression and disparities in HIV illness outcomes in disadvantaged compared to more advantaged populations suggest the need for understanding the effects of support receipt among disadvantaged populations. Studies suggest that among the chronically ill, receiving social support may be stressful as well as beneficial. Objectives: This study examined primary supporter and supporter-support recipient relationship factors associated with psychological distress among a disadvantaged population living with HIV/AIDS. Findings may inform appropriate targets and approaches to intervention to improve the well-being this population. Methods: Participants were 156 dyads of low income, primarily African American drug injectors with HIV/AIDS, and their primary HIV-related supporters. Results: The findings indicate that, in addition to health status and drug use factors, support recipients´ psychological distress (CES-D>=16) was associated with supporter´s distress, financial reliance on supporter, and supporter´s being a friend or same generation kin (versus partner or other kin); positive supporter-recipient communication was protective of recipients´ distress. The regression model explained 52% of the variance in recipients´ distress. Conclusions: Results suggest the importance of interpersonal support dynamics in the psychological well-being of disadvantaged chronically ill populations. Study results suggest that intervention approaches that address their interactions with their main supportive ties may be more efficacious compared to individual-focused interventions in promoting the psychological well-being of this vulnerable population.



380

COMPARING PARENT AND CHILD REPORTED MODELS PREDICTING VIOLENT BEHAVIOR IN EARLY ADOLESCENTS. Lisa M. Schainker1, 1University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL United States

Recently, researchers have become interested in studying whether contextual effects influence the strategies that parents use to keep their children from engaging in violent or harmful behaviors. While data from many different informant combinations can be used to conduct analyses (i.e., parent reported predictors and child reported outcomes or vice-versa), it is often difficult to know which one will provide the most meaningful results. Therefore, knowing how different individuals within the same family perceive their situations can provide valuable insight into the best way to intervene with each of them. The purpose of this study was to explore the similarity between two different models both predicting violent behavior in AA (n=467) and EA (n=921) early adolescents. The first model used variables that were all child-reported, including perceptions of their neighborhood, preventive parenting strategies, promotive parenting strategies, and interaction terms between the neighborhood variable and both parenting variables. The second model included these same variables as reported by parents, primarily mothers. Both models also included main effect terms of child´s gender and race.Preliminary results suggest that there are important differences in prediction patterns between the two models. Findings from the parent-predicted model indicated that parents who used more prevention-oriented practices reported having children who engaged in lower levels of violent behavior. However, in the child-reported model, those who reported experiencing higher levels of preventive parenting practices reported exhibiting higher levels of violent behavior. There were also gender and race differences across models. In the parent-reported model, boys were found to engage in significantly higher levels of violent behavior than girls, although this difference was not significant in the child-reported model. A similar pattern emerged for child´s race. In the parent-reported model, African-American adolescents were found to have significantly higher levels of violent behavior than European American adolescents. However, in the child-reported model there was not a significant difference found for race.Additionally, there were different patterns in how perceived neighborhood environment interacted with parenting practices to affect violent behavior among adolescents. The neighborhood by preventive parenting interaction was significant for the child-reported model, while the neighborhood by promotive parenting interaction was significant for the parent-reported model. These results clearly indicate that researchers should carefully consider which informant´s information they decide to use and, subsequently, how to best use the information to develop successful programs.



381

EARLY SUBSTANCE USE INITIATION AND CHILDHOOD ABUSE: MEDIATING EFFECTS OF TRAUMATIC STRESS ON SUBSTANCE USE AMONG CRACK-USING AFRICAN-AMERICAN WOMEN. Wendy K Lam1, Antonio A Morgan-Lopez1, Wendee M Wechsberg1, 1RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC United States

INTRODUCTION. Early substance use initiation (SUI) and childhood abuse each have been associated with substance use problems (SUPs) in adulthood. This association appears to be particularly strong among women. Research has consistently shown that childhood abuse is highly prevalent among women with SUPs, and women and girls with abuse histories have higher rates of SUPs. Age of SUI has also been linked to SUPs in adulthood, with strongest effects for preadolescent initiation. Some empirical evidence suggests that the relationship between childhood abuse and early SUI with adult SUPs is mediated by traumatic stress among women. No published studies, however, appear to examine such mediating effects for both childhood abuse and early SUI on SUPs of African-American women who use crack cocaine.

METHODS. This etiological study presents baseline data (n=938) from a NIDA-funded HIV prevention intervention study, the North Carolina Women's CoOp, which targeted African-American women who currently use crack cocaine but are not receiving treatment. Of the 938 women (mean age 36 years), 31% were homeless; 56% were single; and 47% had less than a high school education. Mediation effects of childhood physical abuse (CPA), childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and SUI before 15 on adult SUPs (through traumatic stress) were examined using the recently developed Asymmetric Confidence Interval method.

RESULTS. In this community sample of African-American crack-using women, 38% initiated substance use before age 15, 25% reported CPA, and 24% reported CSA. Sixty-seven percent of women reported acute-clinical levels of traumatic stress and 87% reported substance use in the acute-clinical range. Analyses revealed significant direct and indirect effects of SUI before age 15 on adult SUPs and significant mediated effects of CSA on adult SUPs. The effects of these childhood events were significant above and beyond those of current victimization and aggression.

DISCUSSION. This study found that histories of early substance use and victimization continued to have significant effects on adult SUPs beyond other current stressors (adult victimization and aggression). Findings reinforce the enduring impact of childhood events on women´s mental health and functioning, especially among women with limited resources. The strong and significant effects of current traumatic stress, victimization, and aggression also highlight the concurrent influences supporting SUPs within the high-risk environments of African-American women who abuse crack. Although data are retrospective and cross-sectional, this study reinforces the critical need to prevent substance use before youth enter adolescence, and to address childhood abuse, particularly within resource-poor, high-risk environments.

382

DOES PERCEIVED SAFENESS OF DRUG USE PREDICT EARLY DRUG USE?. Ty Ridenour1, Lynn Zinn2, Amanda Miller1, 1Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA United States; 2Second Mile of State College, State College, PA United States

Numerous drug abuse prevention programs include an attempt to warn children about the dangers of drug use. Few efforts have examined the impact of this prevention program component. To our knowledge, no etiological studies have focused on the role of the perceived safety of drug use in the initiation of drug use. This study investigated if perceived safety of drug use might play an etiological role in the early initiation of use of alcohol, tobacco, and inhalants. Selected ALEXSA (Assessment of Liability and EXposure to Drug use and Antisocial behavior) measures were administered to 388 Pennsylvanian eight to 13 year-olds during their week-long summer camp as part of a program evaluation. Children eligible for the camp are (1) faced with stressful, long-term situations such as a difficult divorce between parents, academic difficulties, or familial drug abuse and (2) referred for the camp by an adult sponsor. The program is designed to provide support to the campers, but they also are mentored to develop a plan to complete a personal goal, an academic goal, and service project in their community when they return home. Program staff remains in contact with the campers and their sponsors during the year to remind campers of their goals and to monitor campers´ progress. Annually, 75-85% of campers accomplish their goals and are eligible to return to camp the following summer. Campers´ ALEXSA self-report surveys indicated that 29.9% had tried alcohol, 16.1% had tried some form of tobacco, 7.0% had tried an inhalant, and 1.7% had used cannabis. Most campers who had tried tobacco (88.6%) had also tried alcohol. Most inhalant users (82.1%) had used alcohol; fewer inhalant users (63.0%) had tried tobacco. Univariate odds ratios indicated that campers´ use of a drug was predicted by use of the same drug by family members and friends, personal characteristics (including impulsivity, susceptibility to peer pressure, depression, and irritability), and the perception that the drug is safe to use. In multivariate logistic regressions predicting early alcohol use, perceived safeness of alcohol consumption interacted with having a friend who uses alcohol as well as with impulsivity after statistically controlling for other predictors. Perceived safeness of tobacco use and perceived safeness of inhalants use were not statistically significant predictors of use of the drugs after controlling for other predictors. Implications of these results for preventive interventions will be discussed.



383

SENSATION-SEEKING AND PROBLEM BEHAVIORS IN THE MILITARY. Michael Pemberton1, Kristine Rae2, Robert Bray2, 1Research Triangle Institute, New Orleans, LA United States; 2Research Triangle Institute, RTP, NC United States

The purpose of this study was to use the 2002 Department of Defense Survey of Health Related Behaviors among Military Personnel (DoD Survey) to investigate the associations between sensation-seeking and problem behaviors such as substance abuse and accidental injury in the military. Reduction of these behaviors has been identified as a high priority by military health care planners, and requires prevention programs that are tailored towards the specific characteristics of the target populations. Towards this, it is important to identify individual difference variables, such as sensation-seeking, that may be associated with these behaviors. Sensation-seeking, as defined by Zuckerman (1994), refers to seeking varied, novel, complex, and intense sensations and experiences. The 2002 DoD Survey, a comprehensive survey of health-related behavior including measures of substance use, accidental injuries, and sensation-seeking, was completed by a representative sample of 12,756 active-duty personnel from all four Services. We conducted analyses to determine: 1) differences in sensation-seeking between different sociodemographic groups as well as between the four military Services; and 2) the associations between sensation-seeking and problem behaviors, including substance use (illicit drug use, heavy alcohol use, and tobacco use) and accidental injuries. Compared with other sociodemographic groups, sensation-seeking was higher among males, whites, and those younger than age 25; sensation-seeking was also higher among personnel in the Army and Marine Corps than among personnel in other Services. Logistic regression models controlling for sociodemographic factors indicated that personnel classified as high or moderate sensation-seekers were more likely to report current cigarette use and heavy alcohol use, and were more likely to have been hospitalized for unintentional injuries, than those classified as low sensation-seekers. No differences were found for marijuana use. These results indicate that individual difference variables can predict multiple types of problem behaviors. Implications for development and selection of prevention programs are discussed.



384

DEVELOPMENTAL TRAJECTORIES OF PERSONAL COMPETENCE SKILLS AND ADOLESCENT DRUG USE. Kenneth Griffin1, Lawrence Scheier1, Gilbert Botvin1, 1Cornell University Medical College, New York, NY United States

One of the recent advances in drug prevention is extending the focus of intervention from drug refusal skills to more generic skills training that provides young people with the social and personal skills needed to confront a variety of developmental challenges they may face as they transition from childhood to adolescence. This study examined various cognitive and behavioral self-management strategies (i.e., personal competence skills) as a protective factor for adolescent drug use. Latent growth modeling procedures were used to examine how transitions in competence skills were associated with change in gateway drug use (alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana) from early to mid-adolescence. The sample consisted of predominantly white, suburban, and middle-class (N=3549) students attending 56 middle schools who were followed-up annually from the 7th through 10th grades. Findings indicated that drug use increased in a steady fashion, whereas change in competence was relatively flat and even characteristically negative in shape. Patterns of increasing drug use were associated with decreasing competence. A conditioned growth model indicated that early levels of drug use increased the decline in competence over time. Early competence skills, on the other hand, were protective and slowed growth in drug use. Relations between the two slope growth factors indicated that increases in drug use over time were associated with parallel decreases in competence. Receiving higher grades in school was protective and downwardly influenced growth in drug use, whereas being male was associated with a greater decline in competence skills. These findings support the utility of prevention programs emphasizing competence skills training as an effective deterrent to early-stage drug use.


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