PEER INFLUENCES ON ATTITUDES TOWARD ABSTINENCE AMONG AFRICAN AMERICAN PRE-ADOLESCENTS. Scyatta Wallace1, Kim Miller2, Sarah Wyckoff2, Lisa Armistead3, Nicholas Long4, Mary Gound5, Rex Forehand5, 1State University of New York Health Science Center at Brooklyn, Brooklyn, NY United States; 2Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, GA United States; 3Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA United States; 4University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR United States; 5University of Georgia, Athens, GA United States
Promoting abstinence among youth is an important public health priority because early sexual initiation places young people at risk for many negative health outcomes, including HIV infection and unintended pregnancy (Dittus et al., 2004). Prevention strategies that target African American youth are particularly important given they are more likely to initiate sexual activity earlier than adolescents of other racial groups. According to a national survey, African American male (32%) and female (7%) high school students had initiated sexual activity before age 13 (CDC, 2004).
There are many factors related to early initiation of sexual activity and sexual risk among youth. One important factor to consider in prevention efforts with youth is the influence of peers. Previous research has shown that peer influences are related to youth attitudes toward and involvement in high-risk behaviors (Johnston, O´Malley, and Bachman, 2000; Maxwell, 2002). The study reported here examined how peer attitudes and behaviors were related to youth attitudes toward abstinence, dating practices, and sexual intentions among 1069 African American 4th and 5th graders (ages 9-12 years).
Results indicated that youth with peers who disapprove of sexual activity were more likely themselves to disapprove of dating (r = .22, p<.001) and sexual activity (r = .65, p<.001), more likely to respond they could decline involvement in pre-coital behavior (r = .19, p<.001), and were less likely to have thought about being involved in pre-coital behavior (r = -.15, p<.001) and sexual activity (r = - .20, p<.001). Results from this study have utility for prevention strategies to promote abstinence and delay of sexual initiation among pre-adolescent African American youth.
Centers for Disease Control (2004). Youth Behavior Surveillance- United States, 2003. MMWR, 53 (SS-2).
Dittus, P., Miller, K. S., Kotchick, B., & Forehand, R. (2004). Why Parents Matter!: The conceptual basis for a community based HIV prevention program for the Parents of African American youth. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 13 (1), 5-20.
Johnston, L.D., O´Malley, P.M., & Bachman, J.G. (2001). Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use, 1975-2000. Volume I: Secondary school students (NIH Publication No. 01-4924). Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.
Maxwell, K.A. (2002). Friends: The role of peer influences across adolescent risk behaviors. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 31, 267-277.
THURSDAY, MAY 26, 2005
6:45 AM – 8:00 AM
PROMOTING WELL-BEING: RUN OR WALK
Organizer: Kevin Haggerty
Run or walk for your health! In the spirit of health promotion and prevention, join other prevention scientists for a run or stroll on the mall. Join us in the hotel lobby at 6:45 am. Run from the Capitol to the Lincoln Memorial (about 4.5 miles) or walk from the Capitol to the Washington Monument (just over 2 miles).
7:00 AM – 5:00 PM
7:00 AM – 8:30 AM
7:15 AM – 8:25 AM
NIH NEW INVESTIGATORS WORKSHOP (Registration required. Pick up breakfast at 7:15 AM, session starts at 7:30 AM.)
Chairs: Cheryl Boyce, Ph.D., (NIMH) and Aria Crump, Sc.D., (NIDA)
The New Investigator’s Workshop is an opportunity for researchers who want to obtain NIH funds to learn about NIH research, research training, and career development grants. After a presentation on the differences between common grant mechanisms, we will discuss the NIH grant preparation, submission, review and post-review process. After the presentations, there will be time for questions and discussion with program staff on current research priorities and initiatives in mental health and substance abuse prevention research.
8:30 AM – 10:15 AM
PLENARY SESSION 2
PREVENTION SCIENCE: ASSESSING THE POTENTIAL
Chair: J. David Hawkins
PREVENTION SCIENCE: ASSESSING THE POTENTIAL., Nora D. Volkow1, Steve Aos2, Roger Weissburg,3 1National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIH,NIDA), Bethesda, MD United States; 2Washington Institute for Public Policy, Seattle, WA, United States; 2University of Illinois-Chicago, Chicago, IL United States.
This plenary panel will explore recent developments with implications for the adoption and dissemination of tested and effective preventive interventions. Nora Volkow (Director, National Institute on Drug Abuse) will share her views on promising directions for prevention research. Steve Aos (Washington State Institute for Public Policy) will report findings from his analysis of the costs and benefits of prevention and early intervention programs. Roger Weissberg (University of Illinois-Chicago) will discuss the potential for legislative intervention to support dissemination of effective prevention curricula. A round table discussion session will follow the plenary to allow audience participation.
Steve Aos: The Benefits and Costs of Evidence-Based Prevention and Early Intervention Programs for Youth: Middle Childhood Programs. This presentation will describe the results of an economic analysis of a full range of evidence-based prevention and early intervention programs for youth, including programs focusing specifically on middle childhood. In addition to presenting estimates of the economic “bottom lines” of these interventions, the presentation will briefly discuss the meta-analytic and economic methods used to evaluate and monetize the outcomes. Policy implications will be considered.
Roger Weissberg: Safe and Sound: An Educational Leader's Guide to Evidence-based Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) Programs is a consumer-report evaluation of nationally available school-based prevention programs. The Illinois State Board of Education recently approved social and emotional learning standards as part of the Illinois Learning Standards, and now the Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL) is distributing Safe and Sound to educational leaders in all Illinois school districts. This presentation discusses Safe and Sound's framework and findings, summarizes the new SEL learning standards, and then identifies state, district, school, and leadership factors that influence the adoption, implementation, and sustainability of evidence-based programming.
10:15 AM – 10:30 AM
10:30 AM – 12:00 PM
CONCURRENT SESSIONS 1 - 10
CONCURRENT 1, PLENARY ROUNDTABLE
Chair: Laurie Miller Brotman
PREVENTION SCIENCE: ASSESSING THE POTENTIAL., Plenary Roundtable Discussion. Nora D. Volkow1, Steve Aos2, Roger Weissburg,3 1National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIH,NIDA), Bethesda, MD United States; 2Washington Institute for Public Policy, Seattle, WA, United States; 2University of Illinois-Chicago, Chicago, IL United States.
CONCURRENT 2, SPR BRAIDED FUNDING, ROUNDTABLE
Chair: J. David Hawkins
SPR BRAIDED FUNDING ROUNDTABLE. David Olds1, J. David Hawkins2, Wilson Compton3, Stephanie Colston4, 1University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO United States; 2University of Washington, Seattle, WA United States; 3National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD United States; 4SAMHSA, Rockville, MD United States
In recent years, the federal government and states have been committed increasingly to basing policy and practice on the results of rigorous research, especially randomized controlled trials. Only a tiny fraction of existing programs, however, has been rigorously evaluated. One of the major impediments to rigorous research is funding. A significant portion of research costs in randomized trials of preventive interventions is accounted for by the services being tested. Discussions are underway to increase resources for the conduct of trials by promoting collaboration between service and research agencies by “braiding” funds from service agencies and NIH. This would increase the financial resources for trials of preventive interventions and would promote a culture that values rigorous research and quality program design and implementation. This roundtable will focus on a discussion of this concept.
CONCURRENT 3, EFFICACY TRIALS, Poster Forum
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF FAMILY FOCUSED PREVENTION INTERVENTIONS ON PARENT AND ADOLESCENT PROBLEM BEHAVIORS
Chair: Kevin Haggerty
LONG TERM EFFECTS FROM A RANDOMIZED TRIAL OF TWO PREVENTIVE INTERVENTIONS FOR PARENTAL DEPRESSION. Tracy Gladstone1, William Beardslee1, 1Children's Hospital of Boston, Judge Baker Children's Center, Boston, MA United States
Parental depression is a prevalent and impairing illness, and children who grow up with depressed parents are at risk for psychopathology. To date, few controlled prevention efforts targeting children of depressed parents have been conducted. We report the evaluation of 2 standardized, manual-based preventive intervention strategies for families with parental mood disorder and children ages 8 to 15. Lecture groups were compared to a clinician-based intervention that led to a family meeting. Both approaches provided information about mood disorders and encouraged open dialogue about the effects of parental depression. Our sample included 105 families. All family members in both groups were assessed for psychopathology and overall functioning at intake, and for psychopathology, functioning, and response to intervention immediately postintervention, about one year later, about 2.5 years later, and about 3.5 years postintervention. At our 5th assessment point, our sample consisted of 165 adults and 121 children comprising 92 families (88% of families originally enrolled and 95% of families who completed intervention). Ratings were obtained for 162 adults at time 3, 159 adults at time 4, and 156 adults at time 5. Interaction between group and time was not significant (χ22=1.8, p=.41). In a model with main effects only, clinician families averaged 2.7 changes more than lecture families (95%CI (1.96, 3.37), p<.001), and scores increased over time (χ22=36.7, p< .001). Simple correlations between the number of reported changes at different assessment points were significant (all rho>.7, all p<.001), suggesting that those who reported more changes at time 3 tended to report more changes at subsequent assessments. Correlations were similar when examined by group. Of 121 children in the study, data were obtained for 105 children at time 3 and for 107 children at time 4 and time 5. The test for an interaction between time and group was not significant (χ21=.63, p=.73). Children in the clinician group scored on average 0.9 points higher on child understanding (95% CI(.24, 1.55), p=.007) than those in the lecture group. Scores did not differ by time (χ22=1.64, p=.44). These results suggest that initial gains made in response to intervention have been sustained. Preliminary analyses on data from our 6th assessment point suggest that these gains have been sustained for as long as 4.5 years postintervention. Findings support the use of family-based approaches to preventive intervention. Results suggest that approaches linking cognitive information presented to families´ illness experiences and focusing on all family members may be superior to lecture-based approaches.
TEN-YEAR FOLLOW-UP ASSESSMENT OF BRIEF, FAMILY-FOCUSED INTERVENTION EFFECTS ON LIFETIME CONDUCT AND PERSONALITY DISORDERS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS. Richard Spoth1, Cleve Redmond1, W. Alex Mason2, Rick Kosterman2, Kevin Haggerty2, J. David Hawkins2, 1Partnerships in Prevention Science Institute at Iowa State University, Ames, IA United States; 2Social Development Research Group at University of Washington, Seattle, WA United States
This paper examines the long-term effects of a brief family intervention with young, general population adolescents on conduct and antisocial personality disorders, approximately 10 years past the study baseline.
Epidemiologic studies document high rates of conduct-related problem behaviors across home, school, and community settings among adolescents (Elliott, Hamburg, & Williams, 1998; Farrington, 1986); etiological studies show that adolescent conduct problems place them at risk for conduct and antisocial personality disorders as young adults (Neuman et al., 1996). In addition, there is evidence that family-focused skills-training interventions can reduce adolescent aggression and other problem behaviors (Taylor & Biglan, 1998). These findings support the hypothesis that interventions which reduce conduct-related problem behaviors in adolescents would, in turn, result in fewer conduct and antisocial personality disorders when those adolescents reach young adulthood. An earlier analysis conducted four years past baseline with the sample in this study showed effects on aggressive/hostile behaviors and destructive conduct across settings (Spoth, Redmond & Shin, 2000).
The data are from Project Family, a randomized trial including 22 public schools assigned to the Iowa Strengthening Families Program (ISFP) or a control condition. Analyses supported sample representativeness and failed to show differential attrition effects. The ISFP is a seven-session intervention for parents and their sixth-grade child. A modified version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS—Robins et al., 1981) was used to assess the prevalence rates of conduct disorder and antisocial personality. Pretest data were collected during the first semester of the sixth grade, when the average age of the students was 11 years. Follow-up data were collected immediately following the intervention, at several intermediate follow up assessments prior to early adulthood, and at a young adult follow-up, when the average age of the sample was 22 years.
At the young adult follow-up, lifetime rates of conduct disorder were 4.1% and 11.2% in the intervention and control groups, respectively; lifetime rates of antisocial personality were 4.1% and 9.9%, respectively. Chi-square tests showed that the proportions of disorders were statistically different across conditions, for both sets of prevalence rates.
Results suggest that brief family competency-training interventions designed for general populations of adolescents have potential to reduce conduct disorder and antisocial personality disorder into adulthood, likely through post-intervention effects on reduced adolescent problem behaviors and, thus, have important public health implications.
LONGITUDINAL OUTCOMES OF THE CAFAY MULTICOMPONENT INTERVENTION TRIAL: SUBSTANCE INITIATION 4.5 YEARS PAST BASELINE. Richard Spoth1, Linda Trudeau1, Kevin Randall1, Chungyeol Shin1, Cleve Redmond1, 1Partnerships in Prevention Science Institute at Iowa State University, Ames, IA United States
The implementation of combined family and school preventive interventions is warranted by high prevalence rates of youth substance use (Hanson, 2003) and etiological research establishing the central role of causal factors originating in family and school settings (Mrazek& Haggerty, 1994). Recent national surveys of adolescent alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana initiation continue to reveal high prevalence rates despite downward trends in recent years (SAMHSA, 2002; Johnson, 2003). Early substance initiation is a predictor of substance-related problems in later adolescence and adulthood (Duncan, Stryker, & Duncan, 1999; Windle & Windle, 2001). Testing multicomponent universal interventions, and dissemination of those that prove efficacious, is one approach to the population-based amelioration of youth substance-related problems.
This study extends the substance initiation findings from two earlier reports on effects of a multicomponent, universal intervention combining family and school programs (Spoth, Redmond, Trudeau, & Shin, 2002; Spoth, Randall, Shin, & Redmond, 2004). Additional waves of data collection 3½ and 4½ years following baseline allowed for the evaluation of longer-term intervention effects, using multilevel growth curve analyses. Because earlier reports have demonstrated positive intervention effects on substance initiation through 9th grade, this study evaluated longer-term effects, through 11th grade.
Participants in the study were 1,635 7th graders enrolled in 36 rural schools. A randomized block design guided the assignment of the schools to three experimental conditions (Life Skills Training [LST] only, LST & Strengthening Families Program for Parents and Youth 10-14 [SFP 10-14], control). Multilevel analysis of covariance (SAS PROC MIXED) was used to test for intervention effects on substance initiation (Substance Initiation Index [SII]—alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana), lifetime use of individual substances, and lifetime drunkenness.
For the multicomponent intervention, there were significant (a) point-in-time intervention-control differences 2½ and 4½ years past baseline on adjusted mean levels of SII and (b) intervention-control differences in growth of SII. For the LST-only intervention, there were significant point-in-time intervention-control differences 3½ and 4½ years past baseline on adjusted mean levels of SII and (b) intervention-control differences in growth of SII. In addition, significant differences in growth for lifetime drunkenness were found for both intervention conditions. Results supporting significant long-term effects on initiation for the multicomponent intervention are consistent with earlier findings. Notably, current analyses show stronger effects on growth of SII than were found in earlier analyses.
FAMILIES´ ENGAGEMENT WITH A FAMILY-BASED ALCOHOL PREVENTION PROGRAM AND THEIR SUBSEQUENT OUTCOMES AT POSTTEST. Thomas Nochajski1, Eugene Maguin2, David Dewit3, Scott Macdonald3, Andrew Safyer4, 1University at Buffalo, Amherst, NY United States; 2University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY United States; 3Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, London, Ontario Canada; 4Adelphi University, Long Island, NY United States
Family and parent functioning have been shown to be related to the early initiation of child alcohol use and child externalizing behavior, itself a risk factor for child alcohol use and problems. Theoretically, prevention programs to help parents strengthen their parenting skills should reduce child alcohol use and problems; however, families´ engagement with the intervention program is a generally neglected but potentially critical mediating variable. The present study examines how engagement affects the posttest outcomes of parenting behavior and family functioning of a family skills-based alcohol prevention program (Strengthening Families Program – SFP, a well-documented 14-week parenting education program for parents and their children.). The data consist of pre- and post-test assessments from the first 550 families completing those assessments. Families having at least one 9-12 year old child and a parent with diagnosable alcohol problems and living in the Buffalo metropolitan area or in five large urban centers in southern Ontario (including Toronto) were recruited and randomly assigned to the SFP (n = 274) or a minimal contact (control) group (n = 276). Primary enrolled parents were predominantly female (90%), about three-fifths (64%) were white, and about two-fifths (35%) were married or cohabiting. About one-third (32%) received non-cash benefits. Enrolled children were 47% female and had a mean age of 10.9 years. The dependent variables were parent´s reports of their parenting behavior and family´s functioning (Alabama Parenting Questionnaire, Conflict Tactics Scale, and Family Assessment Measure-III). Engagement was measured by facilitators´ assessments of whether parents completed their assigned homework each week. The number of assignments completed was grouped into four categories: 0 assignments completed (26% of treatment families), 1-6 completed (51% of treatment families), 7-13 completed (24% of treatment families) or Control. Of the 13 measures examined (repeated measures ANOVA), significant (p < .05) group by time interactions were noted for seven measures and trend level effects (p < .10) were noted for an additional three measures. Inspection of cell means indicates that parents who engaged with the program by doing their homework had greater improvements than did parents who did not. Furthermore, parents doing the most homework generally had the greatest improvements. Results will be discussed in terms of strategies for increasing families´ engagement and the necessity of monitoring that engagement as part of the program delivery by facilitators. (Supported by NIAAA grant R01-AA11647).
FAMILY FOUNDATIONS: A STRONG START. Mark Feinberg1, Marni Kan1, Richard Puddy1, 1Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA United States
The transition to parenthood has been described as frequently stressful for parents both as individuals and as couples; many researchers have called for enhanced support for parents as they negotiate the strains of early family life. Family Foundations is based on a theoretical framework which holds the coparenting relationship--how parents work together in their roles as parents--as a central feature of family life. Coparenting both mediates and moderates the influence of risk factors located in individuals (e.g. depression) and the family context (e.g. economic strain, lack of social support) in influencing parental adjustment and parenting. The current trial of Family Foundations is testing this theoretical model through an 8-session, group format, educational program delivered through childbirth education departments at local hospitals. This presentation will describe the theoretical model, outline the intervention, and present preliminary data on the program's efficacy.