"We Served America, Too!" Blacks in the Women's Army Corps During World War II



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"We Served America, Too!"

Blacks in the Women's Army Corps During World War II;

A Selected Bibliography




Compiled by Dr. Janet Sims-Wood

Assistant Chief Librarian, Reference and Reader Services

February, 1995
Moorland-Spingarn Research Center

Howard University, Washington, D.C.
Source http://www.founders.howard.edu/moorland-spingarn/Wwii.htm


Books
Berlin, Ira, ed. The Black Military - Experience. NY: Cambridge University

Press, 1983, 852p.


Binkin, Martin, and Mark J. Eitelberg. Blacks And The Military. Washington,

DC: The Brookings Institution, 1982, 190p.


Brooks, Harry W., and James M. Miller. The Gathering Storm. An Analysis Of

Racial Instability Within The Army. Carlisle Barracks, PA: U. S. Army

War College, 1970, 98p.


Buchanan, Albert R. Black Americans In World War II. Santa Barbara, CA:

CLIO Books, 1977, 148p.


Butler, John S. Inequality In The Military: The Black Experience. Saratoga,

CA: Century Twenty One, 1980, 117p.


Byers, Jean. A Study Of The Negro In Military Service. Washington, DC:

U. S. Department of Defense, 1950, 263p.


Dalfiume, Richard M. Desegregation Of The U. S. Armed Forces: Fighting On Two

Fronts, 1939-1953. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 1969, 252p.
Davis, Lenwood G., and George Hill, comps. Blacks In The American Armed Forces

1776-1983: A Bibliography. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1985, 198p.
Earley, Charity Adams. One Woman's Army: A Black Officer Remembers The WAC.

College Station, TX: Texas A&M University, 218p.


Finkel, Lee. Forum For Protest: Black Press During World War II.

Rutherford, NJ: Farleigh Dickerson University Press, 1975, 249p.


Foner, Jack D. Blacks And The Military In American History: A New Perspective.

NY: Praeger, 1974, 278p.


James, C. L. R., George Breitman, Edgar Keemer, et. al. Fighting Racism In World

War II. NY: Monad Press, 1980, 376p.
Johnson, Jesse J., ed. Black Women In The Armed Forces, 1942-1974: A Pictorial

History. Hampton, VA: J. J. Johnson, 1974, 110p.
Lee, Ulysses Grant. United States Army In World War II, Special Studies: The

Employment Of Negro Troops. Washington, DC: U.S. Army Center Of Military

History, 1966, 740p.


Litoff, Judy Barrett and Davis Smith. "We're In This War, Too:" World War II

Letters From American Women In Uniform. NY: Oxford University Press, 1994,

288p.
MacGregor, Morris J., and Barnard C. Nalty, eds. Black In The United States Armed



Forces: Basic Documents: Vol. 5. Black Soldiers In World War II.

Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, 1977, 521p.


MacGregor, Morris J., and Barnard C. Nalty. Integration Of The Armed Forces,

1940-1965. Washington, DC: U. S. Army Center Of Military History, 1981,

647p.
McGuire, Philip. He Too Spoke For Democracy: Judge Hastie World War II And The



Black Soldier. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press 1988, 154p.
McGuire, Philip. Taps For A Jim Crow Army: Letters From Black Soldiers In

World War II. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 1983, 278p.
Motley, Mary Penick. The Invisible Soldier: The Experience Of The Black

Soldiers In World War II. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 1975,

364p.
Nalty, Bernard C. Strength For The Fight: A History Of Black Americans In The



Military. NY: Free Press, 1986, 424p.
Pitts, Lucia M. One Negro Wac's Story. Los Angeles, CA: The Author, 1968,

22p.
Proceedings Of The First Conference On Black Americans In World War II.

Carlisle Barracks, PA: U. S. Army Military History Institute, September 9,

1992.
Putney, Martha S. When The Nation Was In Need: Blacks In The Women's Army-Corps



During World War II. Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press, 1992, 231p.
Silvera, John D. The Negro In World War II. NY: Arno Press, 1969, n.p.
Stillman, Richard J. Integration-Of The Negro In The U.S. Armed Forces.

NY: Praeger, 1986, 167p.


Treadwell, Mattie E. United States Army In World War II. Special Studies:

The Women's Army Corps. Washington, DC: U. S. Army, Center of Military

History, 1991 (1954), 841p.
Washburn, Patrick S. A Question Of Sedition: The Federal Governments

Investigation Of The Black Press During World War II. NY: Oxford

University Press, 1986, 296p.


Weatherford, Doris. American Women And World War II. NY: Facts On File,

1990, 338p.


Willenz, June A. Women Veterans: America's Forgotten Heroines. NY:

Continnum, 1983, 252p.


Wilson, Ruth D. Jim Crow Joins Up: A Story Of Negroes In The Armed Forces Of

The United States. NY: William J. Clark, 1944, 129p.
Wynn, Neil. The Afro-American And The Second World War. NY: Holmes &

Meier Publishers, (1976), 1994, 183p.


Chapters In Books

Anderson, Karen. "World War II," in Black Women In Americas An Historical



Encyclopedia, edited by Darlene Clark Hine, Elsa Barkley Brown and

Rosalyn Terborg-Penn. Brooklyn, NY: Carlson Publishing, 1993, 2 vols.,

p. 1291-1293.
Creamer, Maureen. "Earley, Charity Adams," in Black Women In America: An

Historical Encyclopedia, edited by Darlene Clark Hine, Elsa Barkley

Brown and Rosalyn Terborg-Penn. Brooklyn, NY: Carlson Publishing, 1993,

2 vols., p. 376.
Lane, Linda Rochelle. "The Military," in Black Women In America: An Historical

Encyclopedia, edited by Darlene Clark Hine, Elsa Barkley Brown, Rosalyn

Terborg-Penn, Brooklyn, NY: Carlson Publishing, Inc., 1993, 2 vols.,

p. 791-797.
"Maggie," in My Soul Is My Own: Oral Narratives Of African American Women In

The Professions, by Gwendolyn Etter-Lewis. NY: Routledge, 1993, 213p.

p. 49-56.


"Negro Women," in Black Americans In World War II, by A. Russell Buchanan.

Santa Barbara, CA: Clio Books, 1977, 148p., p. 103-140.


Putney, Martha S. "Some Experiences In The Women's Army Corps During World

War II," in Proceedings Of The First Conference On Black Americans In



World War II. Carlisle Barracks, PA: U. S. Army Military History

Institute, September 9, 1992.


"Women Go To War," in The Negro in World War II. NY: Arno Press, 1969,

unpaged.
"World War II," in Black Texas Women: 150 Years Of Trial And Triumph.

by Ruthe Winegarten. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1995, 425p.,

p. 227-246.



Journal Articles

Campbell, D'Ann "Women In The Military: Bibliographic Essay." Choice.

September, 1993, p. 63-70.
Collier-Thomas, Bettye. "Recovering The Military History Of Black Women." Minerva.

Vol. 1, Spring, 1983, p. 76-80.


Gluck, Sherna Berger. "Interlude Or Change: Women And The World War II Work Experience:

A Feminist Oral History." International Journal Of Oral History.

Vol. 3, June, 1982, p. 92-113.
Johnson-Roundtree, Dovey. "Out Of The Service Into New Careers." Opportunity.

Vol. 27, April-June 1947, p. 83-84, 126-127.


McGuire, Philip. "Desegregation In The Armed Forces: Black Leadership Protest and

World War II." Journal of Negro History. Vol. 68, Spring 1983,

p. 174-258.
Moore, Brenda L. "African-American Women In The U.S. Military." Armed Forces

Society. Vol. 17, Spring, 1991, p. 363-384.
Moore, Brenda L. "Serving With A Dual Mission: African American Women in World

War II." National Journal of Sociology. Vol. 7, Summer, 1993, p. 1-42.


Negro History Bulletin. Special Issue on "African Americans And World War II."

Vol. 51-57, December 1993.


"Negro Women In Waac Uniforms." The Ivy Leaf. September 1942, p. 8.
"Omaha And Kansas City Urban Leagues Assist In Waac Recruiting." Opportunity.

Vol. 21, January 1943, p. 19.


Payne, Ethel. "Black Women In The Military." The Delta. Winter, 1986,

p. 7-10, 15-16, 29-30.


Putney, Martha S. "Blacks In The Women's Army Corps During World War II: The

Experiences Of Two Companies." Journal Of The Afro American Historical and



Genealogical Society. Vol. 12, Spring/Summer 1991, p. 88-100.
Putney, Martha S. "Mary McLeod Bethune And The Women's Army Corps During

World War II." Journal of The Afro American Historical and Genealogical



Society. Vol. 12, Spring/Summer 1991, p. 80-87.
Shatley, Sandy. "An Interview With An Original Black WAAC - The Personal Story of

Sgt. Rosie Lee (Sams) Beard." The Black American Veteran. Vol. 1, #1,

April 1991, p. 53-54.
Sims-Wood, Janet. "African Americans And World War II: An Annotated Bibliography."

Negro History Bulletin. Vol. 51-57, December 1993, p. 62-68
Sims-Wood, Janet. "We Served America Too! Black Women In The Women's Army

Corps During World War II." Journal of The Afro-American Historical And



Genealogical Society. Vol. 13, #3 & 4,1994, p. 165-175.


Master's Theses


Akers, Regina. The Integration Of Afro-Americans Into The WAVES, 1942-1945.

Master's Thesis. Howard University, 1993, 98p.

Doctoral Dissertations

McGuire, Philip. Black Civilian Aides And The Problems Of Racism And Segregation



In The United States Armed Forces, 1940-1950. Ph.D. Howard University,

1975, 294p.


Sims-Wood, Janet. "We Served America Too!" Personal Recollections of African

American Women In The Women's Army Corps During World War II. Ph.D.

The Union Institute, 1994, 290p.






Calendar


Sims-Wood, Janet. The 1993 Black WAC Calendar. Temple Hills, MD:

Afro-Resources, Inc., 1993.

Archival Collections

A: Manuscript Collections (including microfilm collections):
Papers of A. Philip Randolph. Washington, DC: Library of Congress.
Papers of Dovey Johnson Roundtree. Washington, DC: National Archives For Black

Women's History. (unprocessed)


Papers of Ethel Heywood Smith. Washington, DC: National Archives For Black

Women's History. (unprocessed)


Papers Of Oveta Culp Hobby. Washington, DC: Library of Congress.
Papers Of The NAACP. Part 1: Meetings Of The Board Of Directors, Records of

Annual Conferences, Major-Speeches, And Special Reports. 1909-1950.

Frederick, MD: University Publications of America, 1982, 28 reels. (with paper

guide).
Papers of The NAACP. Part 2: Personal Correspondence Of Selected NAACP-

Officials. Frederick, MD: University Publications of America, 20 reels.

(with paper guide).


Papers Of William Hastie, 1916-1976. Washington, DC: Library of Congress.
Records Of Headquarters Army Service Forces, Office of The Director Of Military

Training. Women's Army Corps - Training Historical File, NARG 160,

National Archives.


Records of The National Council of Negro Women. Washington, DC:

National Archives For Black Women's History.


Records Of The Office Of The Secretary of War, Office of The Administrative

Assistant To The Secretary Of War. Coordination and Records, NARG 107,

National Archives.


Records Of The War Department General And Special Staffs, Office Of The Chief

Of-Staff. Correspondence, NARG 165, National Archives, Washington, D.C.
Scott, Anne Firor, and William H. Chafe. Records Of The Women's Bureau of the

U. S. Department of Labor. 1918-1965. Part Two Women In World War II.

Bethesda, MD: University Publications of America, 1993, 45 reels. (This

collection has two series which was filmed from NARG 86, Records Of The

Women's Bureau, National Archives, Washington, D.C.):


Series A - Unpublished Studies And Wartime Community Surveys

10 reels


Series B - Subjects and Correspondence Files On War Industries

35 reels
B. Books:


Newman, Debra L. Black History: A Guide To The Civilian Records In The National

Archives. Washington, DC: National Archives Trust Fund Board, General

Services Administration, 1984, 379p.


Seeley, Charlotte Palmer, Virginia C. Purdy, and Robert Gruber. American Women

And The U. S. Armed Forces: A Guide To The Records Of Military Agencies In

The National Archives Relating To American Women. Washington, DC:

National Archives and Records Administration, 1992, 355p.





Newspaper Articles


"Announce Roster of Women In Army Auxiliary Corps." Chicago Defender.

August 1, 1942, p. 6.
"Army Bias To Apply To Wac's P. S. - Pen Percent." Cleveland Call and Post.

August 3, 1946.


"Army Calls For 2000 Wacs For Overseas Duty." Chicago Defender.

July 21, 1946.


"Army Commander Pays Tribute To Negro WACs." Chicago Defender.

September 22, 1945, p. 17.


"Army Court Convicts 4 Negro Wacs Of Disobeying Orders." Washington Post.

March 21, 1945, p. 4.


"Army Injects Discrimination Into WAAC Ranks In Southern Style." Chicago Defender.

September 5, 1942, p. 7.


"Army Protects Wacs From White Soldiers." Amsterdam Star News. August 12, 1944.
"Army Rebuffs Tories On Negro Wacs In Hospital." Daily Worker. July 3, 1945.
"Army Should Act." New York Age. August 18, 1945.
"Army Will Send Waacs To England To Help Entertain Troops Of Their Race."

N.Y. Times. August 16, 1942.
"Ask Discipline For Prejudiced Soldiers." Chicago Defender. August 29,1942,

p. 8.
"Bar Negro Wacs From Public Bath In English City." Chicago Defender. May 26,

1945, p. 10.
"Black Wacs Draw Historians' Interest." Pentagram. September 3, 1993, p. 18-19.
"Campaign For More WAC Enrollees." Chicago Defender. September 12, 1942, p. 6.
Capreol, Joan. "Big Welcome In Britain For Negro WACs." PM. February 14, 1945,

p. 7.
"Capt. Dovey Johnson Lauds Fellow Members of Corps." Chicago Defender.

December 18, 1943, p. 17.
"Captain Freeman Heads WAC Recruiting Office." Chicago Defender.

January 15, 1944, p. 14.


"Captain In Waac." Louisville Defender. January 23, 1943.
"Captain Mildred Carter Leads WAC Dance Group." Chicago Defender.

January 15, 1944, p. 15.


"Chicagoan Plays Trumpet In First Negro Wac Band." Chicago Defender.

January 22, 1944, p. 7.


"Citizens Aid Womens Army Corps In Recruit Drive." Chicago Defender.

January 22, 1944, p. 14.


"Colored Women Graded According To Ability." Philadelphia Tribune.

November 7, 1942.


Demi, Tanya L. "Black Postal Unit." McClellan (AL) News. February 13,

1985, p. 14-16.


"Dr. Bethune Says Waac Is Challenge To Women." Chicago Defender.

July 25, 1942, p. 4.


"Dr. Bethune Will Make Tour Of WAC Hospital Units." Chicago Defender.

July 14, 1945, p. 16.


Duke, Karen. "Atty. Roundtree Reflects On An Eventful Career." Free

Voice. May, 1988, p. 8.
Durham, Richard. "Army Bucks Lily-Whites In Battle Over WACs." Chicago

Defender. June 30, 1945, p. 1, 6.
"Expect Waacs To See Duty In England." Chicago Defender. November 14,

1942, p. 4.


"First Christmas In Uniform Will Be Merry For Waacs." Norfolk Journal &

Guide. December 26, 1942.
"First Lady Lauds Waacs At Iowa Camp." Chicago Defender. February 27,

1943, p. 3.


"First Wacs Overseas Greeted In England." Chicago Defender. February

27, 1945, p. 1.


"Form First Wac Battalion For Overseas Duty." Chicago Defender.

January 20, 1945, p. 1.


"Fort Des Moines WAC Band On Parade." Chicago Defender.

July 22, 1944, p. 14.


"40 Officer Trainees To Be Used." Norfolk Journal And Guide. June 20,

1942.
"14 WAAC 3rd Officers To Do Recruiting Duty." Norfolk Journal & Guide.

December 19, 1942.
"Future Officers Of Women's Army Seriously Prepare For Training." Chicago

Defender. July 18, 1942, p. 1.
Godden, Frank D. "French Town Greets Wac Postal Unit." Chicago Defender.

June 23, 1945, p. 15.


"Good News For GI's In France." Chicago Defender. June 30, 1945,

p. 1.
"Graduated As Administrative Specialists." Norfolk Journal & Guide.

December 19, 1942.
"Graduation Day Set For Waac Candidates." Chicago Defender. August 22,

1942, p. 18.


"Head Of WACs Evades Question On Policy Bias." Chicago Defender. June 17,

1944, p. 5.


"History Making Wac Unit Gets Big Send-Off Before Sailing." Chicago Defender.

March 3, 1945, p. 5.


"Hobby Out; Wac 'New Deal' Seen." Chicago Defender. July 21, 1945, p. 3.
Howard, Charles P. "Negro WAAC Officers In Des Moines Hotels." Philadelphia Tribune.

October 3, 1942.


"Immunization." Black Dispatch. January 30, 1943.
"Marian Anderson Guest Of Wacs At Ft. Des Moines." Chicago Defender.

December 9, 1944, p. 15.


"Mrs. Bethune Guest Of Wacs." Chicago Defender. March 10, 1945, p. 14.
"Negro Waac Commands White Platoon." Louisville Defender. February 27, 1943.
"Negro Wacs." Washington Post. April 12, 1945.
"Negro Wacs Overseas Praised By General." Chicago Defender. September 22, 1945,

p. 10, 17.


"Never Approved Waac Policy - Mrs. Bethune." Chicago Defender.

November 21, 1942, p. 3.


"l00 Assigned To Waacs Cooks and Bakers School." Chicago Defender.

May 8, 1943, p. 10.


"l73 Wacs Back Home On Queen Mary." Chicago Defender. November 24, 1945, p. 3.
"Operate Postal Unit For Uncle Sam." Chicago Defender. March 17, 1945, p. 15.
"Order Halts Recruit Drive For Race Waacs." Chicago Defender.

June 26, 1943, p. 5.


"Overseas." Chicago Defender. February 27, 1945, p. 7.
"PM Attacks Segregation At Waac Camp." Chicago Defender. December 19, 1942, p. 3.
Qualey, J. S. "War Dept. Probe Asked Of Trial Of 4 Negro Wacs." PM.

March 23, 1945.


"Reconsider Wac Band Disbanding Stimson Asked." Chicago Defender.

July 29, 1944, p. 16.


Rust, Carol. "'We Served America, Too': Blacks In The Wac Were Up Against More

Than Nazis." Houston Chronicle. June 4, 1994, p. D1, D8.


"6888th Women In Army Corps Remembered." Cleveland Call And Post.

June 9, 1994, p. 1.


Smith, Alfred E. "WAC Head Confers With Women Leaders." Chicago Defender.

August 28, 1943, p. 7.


"Soldiers See Waacs Taking 'Easy' Jobs." Chicago Defender. November 28,

1942, p.9.


"3rd Officer Adams Made A Supervisor." Chicago Defender. July 3, 1943,

p. 10.
"Third Officer Charity Adams Commands Unit." Chicago Defender.

September 10, 1942, p. 16.
"35 Negro Officers Of Waacs Promoted." New York Age. January 9, 1943.
"39 Waacs Take Final Hurdle In Quest For Commissions As Officers." Chicago

Defender. August 29, 1942, p. 6.
"36 End Waac Training At Ft. Des Moines." Chicago Defender.

September 5, 1942, p. 7.


"3 Colored Waacs At Officers School." Philadelphia Tribune.

January 9, 1943.


"3 Congressmen Ask Probe Of Wac Trials." Washington Post.

March 23, 1945, p. 17.


"390 Waacs Arrive At Fort Des Moines To Begin Duties." Norfolk Journal

& Guide. April 17, 1943.

"To WAC Post." Chicago Defender. December 4, 1943, p. 17.


Toles, Edward B. "First Negro Wacs Reach Contingent At French Town."

Chicago Defender. June 9, 1945, p. 6.
Toles, Edward B. "First Wacs Overseas Greeted In Britain." Chicago Defender.

February 27, 1945, p. 5.


Torrey, Volta. "Army's Jim Crow Policies Hurt Waacs ... Nevertheless, Morales Of

Negroes Is Fine." PM. December 10, 1942.


"'Unholy 3' Fight Wacs In 'Black Ghetto' Plot." Chicago Defender.

July 7, 1945, p. 6.


"Urges Waac To Observe Democracy." Chicago Bee. June 21, 1942.
Vaught, Wilma L. "America's Black Patriots -- The Women Who Served."

The Carolina Peacemaker. February 2-8, 1995, p. 14.
"Waac Activities Throughout Seventh Service Command." Omaha Star.

March 9, 1943.


"Waac Auxiliaries Arrive At Des Moines." Philadelphia Tribune.

October 3, 1942.


"Waac Cadets Prepare For Commissions." California Eagle.

August 13, 1942.


"Waac Lieutenant Addresses Students." Chicago Defender.

February 6, 1943, p. 16.


"Waac Opens Drive To Enlist Colored Recruits." Washington Star.

November 19, 1942.


"Waac Will Train 2 Negro Companies." N.Y. Times. July 7, 1942.
"Waacs Abroad Perform Specific Military Duties." Philadelphia Tribune.

September 5, 1942.


"Waacs And Gas Masks." Philadelphia Independent. January 23, 1943.
"Waacs At Work." Oklahoma Eagle. February 27,1943.
"Waacs Get Stirring Welcome In Arizona." Norfolk Journal & Guide.

December 26, 1942.


"Waacs Graduate First Officers In Army Ceremony." Philadelphia Tribune.

September 5, 1942.


"Waacs In Training For 33 Jobs Formerly Soldiers'." Norfolk Journal & Guide.

December 19, 1942.


"Waacs Make First Public Bow In Style At Fort Des Moines, Iowa." Chicago Defender.

August 15, 1942, p. 5.


"Waacs Move Into Hotels For Training." Chicago Defender. October 3, 1942, p. 17.
"Waacs Not 'Companions' Says Chief." Chicago Defender. September 5, 1942, p. 1.
"Waacs Open Ranks To Colored Applicants." Philadelphia Tribune. October 3, 1942.
"Waacs Seek More Negro Women In Auxiliaries." Chicago Defender. October 17, 1942,

p. 18.
"Waacs Try Gas Masks." Chicago Defender. January 30, 1943, p. 24.


"Wac Band Beats Out Victory Tune." Chicago Defender. May 12, 1945, p. 14.
"Wac Band Gets Final Okeh By War Department." Chicago Defender.

September 2, 1944, p. 2.


"Wac Band Gets New Director." Chicago Defender. February 10, 1945, p. 15.
"Wac Capt. Adams Promoted To Major." Chicago Defender. October 2,1943, p. 7.
"Wac Capt. Heads West Coast FEPC Drive." Chicago Defender. December 1, 1945,

p. 16.
"Wac Capt. Johnson Opens Ohio Drive For Recruits." Chicago Defender.

December 4, 1943, p. 16.
"Wac Swears Menial Duties Go To Negroes." PM. March 20, 1945.
"Wacs In Postal Unit Praised For Efficiency." Chicago Defender.

April 14, 1945, p. 15.


"Wacs Parade Past Joan d'Arc Shrine." Chicago Defender. July 14,1945, p. 5.
"Wacs Present Band Program At Army Post." Chicago Defender.

April 21, 1945, p. 14.


"Wacs Protesting Jim-Crow Given Hard Labor Terms." Militant. March 31, 1945.
"Wacs Relieve Soldiers Of X-Ray Work." Chicago Defender. September 4, 1943,

p. 9.
"Wacs Tell Why They Enlisted In Army." Chicago Defender. March 10, 1945, p. 15.


Waters, Enoc P. Jr. "Segregation Rules Waac Training Camp; Race Volunteers Lag

Behind Quotas." Chicago Defender. January 16, 1943, p. 13.


"Whites Back Army Stand In Wac Fight." Chicago Defender. July 7, 1945, p. 2.
Williams, Rudi. "First Black WACs Paved Way For Better Life In Today's Military."

The Monmouth (Fort Monmouth, N.J.) Message. February 18, 1994, p. 6.

Williams, Rudi. "'It Was Rough, Unfair, But Worth Enduring,' Say Former WACs."



The Monmouth (Fort Monmouth. N.J.) Message. February 18, 1994, p. 7.
"Women Auxiliaries For War Work Only." Pittsburgh Courier. September 5, 1942.
"Women In Armed Services May Solve Race Problems." Chicago Defender.

November 21, 1942, p. 7.


"Women's Army Auxiliary Corps Plans Told Group." Chicago Defender.

July 18, 1942, p. 17.


Zack, Eugene C. "Devens Wacs Stage Sitdown." Chicago Defender. March 24, 1945,

p. 3.




Video Series




Experiences of Black Wacs In World War II. Fort McClellan, AL: WAC Foundation.


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