War at Home, War Abroad, 1965—1974 Part One: Introduction



Download 31.95 Kb.
Date conversion26.05.2016
Size31.95 Kb.

  • War at Home, War Abroad, 1965—1974

  • Part One:

  • Introduction

  • Chapter Focus Questions

  • How and why was U.S. involvement in the war in Vietnam widened?

  • What was the “sixties generation” and what was its role in the antiwar movement?

  • How did poverty contribute to the urban crisis?

  • What characterized the election of 1968?

  • What contributed to the rise of “liberation” movements?

  • What characterized the Nixon presidency and how did the Watergate conspiracy arise?

  • Part Two:

  • Uptown, Chicago, Illinois

  • Chicago

  • In 1964, a small group of college students tried to help residents in a poor Chicago neighborhood.

  • The activists were members of Students for a Democratic Society.

  • Founded by white college students, SDS initially sought reform and grew by 1968 to have 350 chapters and between 60,000 and 100,000 members.

  • Efforts to mobilize the urban poor were unsuccessful, but SDS members helped break down isolation and strengthened community ties.

  • By 1967, SDS energies were being directed into protests against the widening war in Vietnam.

  • Part Three:

  • Vietnam: America’s Longest War

  • Johnson’s War

  • Although pledging not to send American soldiers into combat, he manipulated Congress into passing a resolution that was tantamount to a declaration of war. When bombing failed to halt North Vietnamese advances, Johnson sent large numbers of troops into Vietnam to prevent a Communist victory.

  • Search-and-destroy missions combined with chemical warfare wreaked havoc on the people and the land.

  • LBJ was committed to a war of attrition to wear out and destroy Vietnam.

  • The Credibility Gap

  • Johnson kept his decisions from the American public and distorted accounts of military actions.

  • News media increasingly questioned the official descriptions of the war.

  • As casualties mounted, more Americans questioned LBJ’s handling of the war.

  • In Congress, Democratic senators led by J. William Fulbright opposed Johnson’s handling of the conflict.

      • Part Four:

  • “The Times They Are A-Changin’”

  • People of all ages protested against the war, but young people stood out.

  • Early campus protests at Berkeley centered on students’ rights to free speech. Many felt that the university had become a faceless bureaucratic machine.

  • In 1967, San Francisco attracted thousands of young people for the “Summer of Love.”

  • Events like the Woodstock festival spoke to many young Americans’ desires to create a new sense of community or counterculture.

  • Campus Protest in Global Perspective

  • Map: Antiwar Protests

  • College students organized protests that questioned the war effort and universities’ roles in war-related research.

  • Student strikes merged opposition to the war and other community issues.

  • Public opinion polarized.

  • Massive anti and prowar rallies occurred.

  • Nonviolent and violent protests erupted at draft boards.

  • Teenage Soldiers

  • The cultural attitudes of protesters were even found among their equally young GI counterparts.

  • Working-class Latinos and African-American young men made up a disproportionate share of the soldiers.

  • Many soldiers grew increasingly bitter over government lies about their alleged victories and the inability of society to accept them once they returned home.

  • Part Five:

  • Wars on Poverty

  • An American Profile: Life Expectancy

  • A racial divide existed on life expectancy.

  • Poverty helped create a racial divide on infant mortality

  • An American Profile: Poverty

  • Spurred by books like Michael Harrington’s The Other America, American awareness of the problems of poverty greatly increased.

  • LBJ called for “an unconditional war on poverty.”

  • Chart: Percentage of Population Below Poverty Level

  • Johnson established the Office of Economic Opportunity to lead the war on poverty.

  • The Job Corps failed, but agencies focusing on education were more successful.

  • Community Action Agencies threatened to become a new political force that challenged those in power. The Legal Service Program and Head Start made differences in the lives of the poor.

  • The Great Society was opposed to income redistribution.

  • Most social spending went to the nonpoor through Medicare.

  • A 1970 study concluded the war on poverty had barely scratched the surface.

  • Crisis in the Cities

  • Cities became segregated centers of poverty and pollution with large minority populations.

  • Urban black frustrations resulted in over 100 riots in northern cities between 1964 and 1968.

  • Urban Uprisings

  • A presidential commission blamed the rioting on white racism, poverty, and police brutality, and recommended massive social reforms.

  • Part Six:

  • 1968

  • The Tet Offensive

  • On January 30, 1968 the North Vietnamese launched the Tet Offensive, shattering the credibility of American officials who had been predicting a quick victory.

  • Despite the military victory, media reports triggered antiwar protests.

  • LBJ declared a bombing halt and announced he would not seek reelection.

  • Martin Luther King, Jr.

  • By 1968, Martin Luther King had broken with LBJ on Vietnam and had announced a massive Poor People’s Campaign.

  • He was assassinated in Memphis. Rioting broke out in over 100 cities.

  • Polarization split the Democratic Party. Robert Kennedy and Eugene McCarthy both sought the anti-war vote.

  • Kennedy appeared unbeatable, but was assassinated.

  • Hubert Humphrey won the nomination from a bitterly divided party.

  • The Democratic convention was the scene of a major confrontation between protesters and police.

  • Part Seven:

  • The Politics of Identity

  • Black Power

  • Generational divisions marked the civil rights movement as younger African Americans turned to Black Power.

  • Groups like the Black Panthers reflected the growing militancy and the calls for community autonomy.

  • Racial pride grew during the late 1960s, affecting numerous segments of the African-American community.

  • A renewed interest in African heritage and customs arose.

  • Sisterhood is Powerful

  • During the early 1960s, many women began to demand equal rights.

  • By the late sixties, the influence of civil rights and the New Left appeared as women identified their movement as one of liberation.

  • In thousands of communities, women formed small consciousness-raising groups to examine the power dynamics in their own lives.

  • A diverse and comprehensive women’s rights agenda emerged, though the movement remained a bastion of white middle-class women.

  • Gay Liberation

  • The gay community had gained visibility during WWII and several openly gay organizations had emerged.

  • The Stonewall Riot in New York City in 1968 galvanized a Gay Liberation Front.

  • Gradually, changes in public opinion led to more accepting attitudes and a large minority of homosexuals “came out” of the closet.

  • Mexican Americans articulated a sense of Chicano pride and nationalism, initiating a series of protests.

  • Throughout the Southwest, Mexican Americans organized to push for land and social reforms as well as political power.

  • Cesar Chavez successfully organized Chicano agricultural workers into the United Farm Workers.

  • Red Power

  • Map: Major Indian Reservations

  • Indian activists, led by the American Indian Movement, organized protests such as taking over Wounded Knee.

  • An Indian Renaissance led to many new books about Indian life.

  • The Asian American Movement

  • Like Black Power and Latino activists, Asian Americans embraced a nationalism that emphasized ethnic pride and cultural survival.

  • Part Eight:

  • The Election of 1968

  • Map: The Election of 1968, p. 929

  • In 1968, Richard Nixon’s campaign:

    • appealed to voters who were hostile to the protests and counterculture of the young

    • pledged to undercut liberal programs and roll back the Great Society

  • Nixon narrowly defeated Hubert Humphrey and George Wallace.

  • Nixon’s War

  • Nixon promised to bring “peace with honor” to Vietnam.

  • Nixon and National Security Advisor, Henry Kissinger, believed that a military defeat would destroy U.S. global leadership.

  • Nixon spoke of a phased withdrawal of American troops, but widened the war by invading Cambodia.

  • Massive protests led to four deaths at Kent State and two at Jackson State.

  • Nixon accepted a peace settlement that led to the fall of South Vietnam.

  • Chart: U.S. Military Forces and Casualties

  • Foreign Relations

  • Nixon opened relations with the Communist government in China.

  • Relations with the Soviet Union improved as he negotiated a grain deal and signed an arms control agreement.

  • Nixon’s last diplomatic effort was to send Kissinger to the Middle East where he negotiated a temporary lull in the ongoing war.

  • Despite his conservatism, Nixon:

    • supported a guaranteed income to replace welfare

    • imposed a wage and price freeze to hold down inflation

  • He appealed to conservatives in his opposition to school busing and Supreme Court appointments.

  • Part Nine:

  • Watergate

  • Nixon’s foreign policy included a wide range of secret interventions that propped up or destabilized regimes in Asia, Africa, and Latin America.

  • Domestically, Nixon formed an inner circle to keep information from the public and to plug leaks.

  • In 1972, Democrats nominated George McGovern, representing the liberal wing of the party.

  • The Nixon reelection committee ran a dirty-tricks campaign to confuse the Democrats, including a break-in at the Democratic headquarters at the Watergate apartment complex.

  • The White House tried to cover up its Watergate involvement, but two reporters followed the evidence back to the Oval Office.

  • Nixon fired the special prosecutor who sought secret tapes Nixon had made of White House conversations.

  • After a congressional investigation, Nixon finally resigned to avoid impeachment.

  • Part Ten:

  • Conclusion

  • War Abroad, War at Home


The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2016
send message

    Main page