The Vietnam War (1954 – 1975) is the second phase of war and is the most violent of The Indochina War (1945 – 1979). This is a war between Socialist Republic of South Vietnam with the United States and some ally such as Australia, New Zealand, South Korea, Thailand and Philippines to participate in a war; the other side is North Vietnam. North Vietnam got the help from Russia and China. This war name is Vietnam War but the truth name is the war of Indochina for all the countries nearby there, it also drew along Laos and Campuchia into the war. That’s why this war also has a name Indochina War 2. This war also known as: American War in Vietnam, Vietnam Conflict, Second Indochina War, War against the Americans to Save the Nation. In Vietnam, newspapers and books use the name Resistance against America to call this war.
The Vietnam War was the prolonged struggle between nationalist forces attempting to unify the country of Vietnam under a communist government and the United States (with the aid of the South Vietnamese) attempting to prevent the spread of communism. Engaged in a war that many viewed as having no way to win, U.S. leaders lost the American public's support for the war. Since the end of the war, the Vietnam War has become a benchmark for what not to do in all future U.S. foreign conflicts.
The Vietnam War occurred in present-day Vietnam, Southeast Asia. It represented a successful attempt on the part of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam, DRV) and the National Front for the Liberation of Vietnam (Viet Cong) to unite and impose a communist system over the entire nation. Opposing the DRV was the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam, RVN), backed by the United States. The war in Vietnam occurred during the Cold War, and is generally viewed as an indirect conflict between the United States and Soviet Union, with each nation and its allies supporting one side.
The Vietnam War first began in 1959, five years after the division of the country by the Geneva Accords. Vietnam had been split into two, with a communist government in the north under Ho Chi Minh and a democratic government in the south under Ngo Dinh Diem. Ho launched a guerilla campaign in South Vietnam, led by Viet Cong units, with the goal of uniting the country under communist rule. The United States, seeking to stop the spread of communism, trained the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) and provided military advisors to help combat the guerillas.
That’s kind of all the background about the Vietnam War. All the conflict, how the war began, why they were fighting, what were they looking for in the war, how it ends, which countries actually join this war and the side that wins. And here are the timeline for this war:
1858-1884 - France invades Vietnam and makes Vietnam colony.
October 1930 - Ho Chi Minh helps found the Indochinese Communist Party.
September 1940 - Japan invades Vietnam.
May 1941 - Ho Chi Minh establishes the Viet Minh (League for the Independence of Vietnam).
September 2, 1945 - Ho Chi Minh declares an independent Vietnam, called the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.
January 1950 - The Viet Minh receive military advisors and weapons from China.
July 1950 - The United States pledges $15 million worth of military aid to France to help them fight in Vietnam.
May 7, 1954 - The French suffer a decisive defeat at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu.
July 21, 1954 - The Geneva Accords creates a cease-fire for the peaceful withdrawal of the French from Vietnam and provides a temporary boundary between North and South Vietnam at the 17th parallel.
December 20, 1960 - The National Liberation Front (NLF), also called the Viet Cong, is established in South Vietnam.
November 2, 1963 - South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem is executed during a coup.
August 2 and 4, 1964 - North Vietnamese attack two U.S. destroyers sitting in international waters (the Gulf of Tonkin Incident).
August 7, 1964 - In response to the Gulf of Tonkin Incident, the U.S. Congress passes the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution.
March 2, 1965 - A sustained U.S. aerial bombing campaign of North Vietnam begins (Operation Rolling Thunder).
March 8, 1965 - The first U.S. combat troops arrive in Vietnam.
January 30, 1968 - The North Vietnamese join forces with the Viet Cong to launch the Tet Offensive, attacking approximately one hundred South Vietnamese cities and towns.
March 16, 1968 - U.S. soldiers kill hundreds of Vietnamese civilians in the town of Mai Lai.
July 1968 - General William Westmoreland, who had been in charge of the U.S. troops in Vietnam, is replaced by General Creighton Abrams.
December 1968 - U.S. troops in Vietnam reaches 540,000.
July 1969 - President Nixon orders the first of many U.S. troop withdrawals from Vietnam.
September 3, 1969 - Communist revolutionary leader Ho Chi Minh dies at age 79.
November 13, 1969 - The American public learns of the Mai Lai massacre.
April 30, 1970 - President Nixon announces that U.S. troops will attack enemy locations in Cambodia. This news sparks nationwide protests, especially on college campuses.
June 13, 1971 - Portions of the Pentagon Papers are published in The New York Times.
March 1972 - The North Vietnamese cross the demilitarized zone (DMZ) at the 17th parallel to attack South Vietnam in what became known as the Easter Offensive.
January 27, 1973 - The Paris Peace Accords are signed that provide a cease-fire.
March 29, 1973 - The last U.S. troops are withdrawn from Vietnam.
March 1975 - North Vietnam launches a massive assault on South Vietnam.
April 30, 1975 - South Vietnam surrenders to the communists.
July 2, 1976 - Vietnam is unified as a communist country, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
November 13, 1982 - The Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington D.C. is dedicated.
There were many movies in Vietnam and U.S which were made about this war. “We Were Soldiers” is an American war film which was made in 2002 about the battle of Ia Drang in Vietnam. This film was considered one of top ten Vietnam War films. The film was criticized for glorifying the war and specifically American soldiers.
This movie is made by Americans focusing on the battle of Ia Drang Vietnam War. It occurs on November 14, 1965. The film was produced by Randall Wallace director and the participation of Hollywood movie stars such as the famous U.S actor Mel Gibson (as Lt. Col. Hal Moore) and Vietnam actor Don Duong (as Lt. Col. Nguyen Huu An).
"We are moving into the Valley of the Shadow of Death where you will watch the back of the man next to you, as he will watch yours, and you won't care what color he is, or by what name he calls God. We are going into battle against a tough and determined enemy. I can't promise you that I will bring you all home alive. But this I swear. .. when we go into battle, I will be the first to step on the field and I will be the last to step off. And I will leave no one behind. .. dead or alive. We will all come home together. "
With these words, on the day before he was to lead his men off to war, Lieutenant Colonel Hal Moore addressed his soldiers and their families. Before him were young men, still innocent to war, and older men already bearing the scars and decorations of battle. And sitting among them listening to her husband's words, was Moore's own wife, Julie, who had seen him up late at night studying history books about various massacres, strategizing a better outcome for his men, the First Battalion of the Seventh Calvary. .. the same regiment as General George Armstrong Custer. On Sunday, November 14, 1965 at 10:48 a. m. , Lt. Col. Hal Moore and his young troopers touched down at Landing Zone X-Ray in the Ia Drang (pronounced: Eye Drang) Valley, a place in Vietnam known as "The Valley of Death. " A man of his word, Lt. Col. Moore set foot on the field of battle first only to find himself and approximately 400 of his men surrounded by roughly 2000 North Vietnamese soldiers. The ensuing battle was one of the most savage in U. S. history, and the first major encounter between the soldiers of North Vietnam and America. "We Were Soldiers" is a tribute to the nobility and uncommon valor of those men under fire. It honors their loyalty to their country and to each other, and it brings to light the heroism and unimaginable sacrifice of men and women both home and abroad.
In most respects We Were Soldiers is a war movie plain and simple. There are several moments when the film relates the war to the politics and social movements that swirled about it, and the near destruction of the 1st. Cav.'s 7th Battalion at Ia Drang clearly arises from the top brass' foolish decision to send the 7th into an obvious ambush. But the film is not so much interested in what was going on at home or at the army's top as it is in what was actually occurring on the ground. And in this it is extremely meticulous, detailed, and often horrifically successful. Anyone when watch this movie will be bored or dismissive of the film.
The movie seems to glorify the braveness and humanity of American soldiers in Vietnam War and shows the North Vietnamese Army’s brutalities. The film makers forgot what the American and their allies did in Vietnam. Millions of innocent lives were lost. It was not a war for righteousness in many American eyes.