Voices of Revolution



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Fighting for Freedom


Many African Americans played important roles in the American Revolution. Some, like James Forten, a sail­maker from Philadelphia, fought at sea. Others served as soldiers or spies, or smuggled food through British lines. In all, more than 5000 black soldiers, both free and enslaved men, risked their lives for America's independence. Many fought to gain their own freedom as well.

<<was influential in the fight to free slaves.

<<< This Philadelphia school, which James Forten attended, was founded by Quakers, who were abolitionists . They wanted to get rid of slavery and assisted African Americans in getting an education and finding good jobs.

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<<privateer , a private ship used in naval conflict . James Forten also served on a privateer.

<<

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Meet the Author

Walter Dean Myers


Growing up in New York City, Walter Dean Myers read and wrote constantly, filling one notebook after another with stories and poems. In his twenties, Myers entered a contest for picture book writers. He won. Today, he has published more than thirty-five books for children and young adults. Now Is Your Time describes the important roles that African Americans played in our nation's history. "History has made me an African American," says Myers. "What we understand of our history is what we understand of ourselves."

Myers's novels about young people include Me, Mop, and the Moondance Kid, and Mop, Moondance, and the Nagasaki Knights.



Meet the Illustrator

Leonard Jenkins


Leonard Jenkins was born in Chicago, Illinois. By the time he was in high school, he was exhibiting his paintings and selling them to admirers.

Jenkins believes that talent and hard work are essential for an artist. But he adds, "Your art must go beyond how well you can paint. It has to go to the soul."



Internet

Find out more about Walter Dean Myers and Leonard Jenkins at Education Place. www.eduplace.com/kids

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Selection 3

JAMES FORTEN

From Now Is Your Time


By Walter Dean Myers Selection illustrated by Leonard lenkins

Strategy Focus

James Forten served on a ship during the Revolution. As you read, think of questions to discuss with class­mates about his experiences.

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It was early morning on Tuesday, September 2, 1766, in the city of Philadelphia. The roads into the city were already filling with farmers bring­ing in produce to sell. Windows in the city were coming alive with the glow of lamplight. Small factory owners trudged through the winding streets to small shops. Printers, shoemakers, blacksmiths, candle makers, bakers - all began the business of the day. For Philadelphia was indeed a city of business.



As day broke over the harbor, the masts of the ships loomed against the gray skies. The ships rocked at their moorings as if they, too, were ready for the new day.

Hundreds of free men of African descent lived in Philadelphia. The city

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was the home of a number of noted abolitionists - people who wanted to abolish, or do away with, the practice of slavery - including the Quakers, a powerful and influential religious group. More important was the fact that Africans could find work in Philadelphia.



Many of the Africans worked the docks, loading and unloading the ships that brought products to the colonies from all over the world. Others were tradesmen and seamstresses, cooks, barbers, and common laborers. All along the eastern seaboard, from Baltimore to New England, free Africans worked on boats, hauling loads, carrying passengers, and fishing. Many opened restaurants. Others bought their own boats and tried their luck on the brisk waterfronts.

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Thomas Forten, a free African, was employed by Robert Bridges, a sail­maker in Philadelphia. Sail making was a profitable but difficult job. Sewing the coarse cloth was brutal on the hands. The heavy thread had to be waxed and handled with dexteriry. A person trying to break the thread with his hands could see it cut through his flesh like a knife. But Forten appreciated his job. It paid reasonably well and the work was steady.

Forten helped in all aspects of sail making and assisted in installing the sails on the ships the firm serviced. With the income from his work he had purchased his wife's freedom. Now, on this early Tuesday morning, a new baby was due. The baby, born later that day, was James Forten.

Young James Forten's early life was not that different from that of other poor children living in Philadelphia. He played marbles and blindman's bluff, and he raced in the streets. When he was old enough, he would go down to the docks to see the ships.

Sometimes James went to the shop where his father worked and did odd jobs. Bridges liked him and let him work as much as he could, but he also encouraged Thomas Forten to make sure that his son learned to read and write.

The Fortens sent their son to the small school that had been created for African children by a Quaker, Anthony Benezet. He believed that the only way the Africans would ever take a meaningful place in the colonies would be through education.

Thomas Forten was working on a ship when he fell to his death. James Forten was only seven at the time. His mother was devastated, but still insisted that her son continue school. He did so for two more years, after which he took a job working in a small store.

What James wanted to do was to go to sea. He was fourteen in 1781 when his mother finally relented and gave her permission. America was fighting for its freedom, and James Forten would be fighting, too.

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He knew about the difficulties between the British and the American colonists. He had seen first British soldiers and then American soldiers marching through the streets of Philadelphia. Among the American soldiers were men of color.

A black child in Philadelphia in the 1700's had to be careful. There were stories of free Africans being kidnapped and sold into slavery. He had seen the captives on the ships. They looked like him: the same dark skin, the same wide nose; but there was a sadness about them that both touched his heart and frightened him. He had seen Africans in chains being

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marched through the streets, on their way to the South. He never forgot the sight of his people in bondage, or accepted it as natural that black people should be slaves.



But the black soldiers Forten saw were something special. Marching with muskets on their shoulders, they seemed taller and blacker than any men he had ever seen. And there were African sailors, too. He knew some of these men. They had been fishermen and haulers before the conflict with Great Britain; now they worked on privateers and navy ships. Sometimes he heard talk about naval battles, and he tried to imagine what they must have been like.

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In the summer of 1781, James Forten signed on to the privateer Royal Louis, commanded by Stephen Decatur, Sr. The colonies had few ships of their own to fight against the powerful British navy and issued "letters of marque" to private parties. These allowed the ships, under the flag of the United States, to attack British ships and to profit from the sale of any vessel captured.

The Royal Louis sailed out of Philadelphia in August and was quickly engaged by the British vessel Active, a heavy armed brig sent from England to protect its trade ships.

The Royal Louis's guns were loaded with gunpowder that was tamped down by an assistant gunner. Then the cannonball was put into the barrel and pushed against the powder. Then the powder would be ignited. The powder had to be kept belowdecks in case of a hit by an enemy ship.

Forten's job was to carry the powder from below to the guns. Up and down the stairs he raced with the powder as shots from the British ship whis­tled overhead. There were large holes in the sails and men screaming as they were hit with grapeshot that splintered the sides of the ship. The smell of gun­powder filled the air as Captain Decatur turned his ship to keep his broadside guns trained on the Active. Sailors all about Forten were falling, some dying even as others cried for more powder.

Again he went belowdecks, knowing that if a shot ripped through to the powder kegs, or if any of the burning planks fell down into the hold, he would be killed instantly in the explosion. Up he came again with as much powder as he could carry.

After what must have seemed forever with the two ships tacking about each other like angry cats, the Active lowered its flag. It had surrendered! Decatur brought his ship into Philadelphia, its guns still trained on the limping Active.

The crowd on the dock cheered wildly as they recognized the American flag on the Royal Louis. On board the victorious ship James Forten had mixed feelings as he saw so many of his comrades wounded, some mortally.

The Royal Louis turned its prisoners over to military authorities. On the 27th of September, the Active was sold; the proceeds were split among the owners of the Royal Louis and the crew.

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The sailors with the worst wounds were sent off to be cared for. The others, their own wounds treated, were soon about the business of repairing the ship. Forten must have been excited. Once the fear of the battle had subsided and the wounded were taken off, it was easy to think about the dangerous encounter in terms of adventure. And they had won.



The missing crew was replaced. The ship was checked carefully by its captain and found to be in fine fighting condition. The crew carried more ammunition aboard, more powder, and fresh provisions. Once more they sailed for open waters.

On the 16th of October, 1781, they sighted a ship, recognized it as British, and made for it instantly. As they neared, a second ship was spot­ted, and then a third. Decatur turned to escape the trap, but it was already too late. The three British ships, the Amphyon, the Nymph, and the sloop Pomona, closed in. It was soon clear that the Royal Louis had two choices: to surrender or to be sunk.

The Royal Louis lowered its flag. It had surrendered, and its crew were now prisoners. Forten was terrified. He had heard the stories of the British sending captured Africans to the West Indies to be sold into slavery. He

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knew the Pomona had sailed back and forth from the colonies to the island of Barbados, where many Africans already languished in bondage. It was a time for dread.

James was taken aboard the Amphyon with others from his crew. On board the British ship Captain Beasley inspected the prisoners. There were several boys among the American crew, and he separated them from the older men.

Captain Beasley's son looked over the boys who had been captured. Many of them were younger than he was. Although still prisoners, the boys were given more freedom than the men, and Beasley's son saw the Americans playing marbles. He joined in the game, and it was during this playing that he befriended Forten.

The result of this tentative friendship was that Captain Beasley did not, as he might have done, send Forten to a ship bound for the West Indies and slavery. Instead he was treated as a regular prisoner of war and sent to the prison ship the Jersey.

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Dark and forbidding, the jersey was a sixty-gunner anchored off Long Island, in New York. It had been too old to use in the war and had been refitted first as a hospital ship and then as a ship for prisoners. The port holes had been sealed and twenty-inch squares carved into her sides. Across these squares iron bars were placed.



The captain of the jersey greeted the prisoners with a sneer. All were searched under the watchful eyes of British marines. The wounded were unattended, the sick ignored. The pitiful cries of other prisoners came from belowdecks. A few pale, sickly prisoners, covered with sores, were huddled around a water cask. Then came the cry that some would hear for months, others for years.

"Down, Rebels, down!"

They were rebels against the king, to be despised, perhaps to be hanged. Traitors, they were being called, not soldiers of America. James was pushed into a line on deck. The line shuffled toward the water cask, where each man could fill a canteen with a pint of water. Then they were pushed roughly belowdecks.

The hold of the ship was dark. What little light there was came from the small squares along the hull. The air was dank as men relieved them­selves where they lay. Some of the prisoners were moaning. Others manned pumps to remove the water from the bottom of the boat.

Sleep was hard coming, and James wasn't sure if he wouldn't still be sold into slavery. Beasley's son had liked him, he remembered, and the boy had offered to persuade his father to take James to England. It would have been better than the hold of the jersey.

In the morning the first thing the crew did was to check to see how many prisoners had died during the night. Many of the prisoners were sick with yellow fever. For these death would be just a matter of time.

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Forten later claimed that the game of marbles with Beasley's son had saved him from a life of slavery in the West Indies. But on November 1, two weeks after the capture of the Royal Louis, the news reached New York that Brigadier General Charles Cornwallis, commander of the British army in Virginia, had surrendered to George Washington. Washington had strongly protested the British practice of sending prisoners to the West Indies. It was probably the news of his victory, more than the game of mar­bles, that saved the young sailor.



James Forten was not a hero. He did not single-handedly defeat the British, or sink a ship. But he fought, like so many other Africans, for the freedom of America, and he fought well. He was only one of thousands of Africans who helped to create the country known as the United States of America.

In Philadelphia, after the war, James Forten became an apprentice to the man his father had worked for, Robert Bridges. Like his father, James was a hard worker. Eventually he would run the business for Robert Bridges, and by 1798 he owned it. At its height the business employed forty workers, both black and white. Forten became one of the wealthiest men in Philadelphia. He married and raised a family, passing on to them the values of hard work he had learned from his father. Forten made several major contributions to the sail-making business, among them a method of han­dling the huge sails in a shop, which allowed sails to be repaired much faster and saved precious time for ship owners. In the coming years he would use his great wealth to support both antislavery groups and the right of women to vote - at a time when over 90 percent of all Africans in America were still in a state of enslavement.

James Forten became one of the most influential of the African aboli­tionists. He spent much of his life pleading for the freedom of his people in the country his people had helped to create.

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