Study Guide: Review the vocabulary in the chapter and be able to answer the following questions:
trade union – workers organization
strike – when union workers refuse to do their job until conditions change (way that northern workers tried to change conditions – form unions and strike!)
nativists – group of hateful Americans who were against immigrants – wanting to country to be native-born “white” citizens only, they help to form the Know-Nothing party who met secretly
antebellum – before the war
discrimination – a policy or attitude that denies equal rights to certain groups of people (existed in the South AND North)
emancipation – to release, or free
slavery – when a person is seen and treated as property, no legal rights, slavery is for life and follows the condition of the mother (if your mother was a slave then you automatically became a slave)
Cotton Gin – short for Cotton Engine – machine invented by Eli Whitney that cleaned cotton quickly
slave codes – laws created to keep try and keep slaves from rebelling or running away – Ex: cannot teach a slave to read or write, slaves cannot travel in groups of more than three, not allowed to leave plantation without a pass…
abolition – the movement to end slavery, abolitionists are reformers who work to end slavery
reform - to change society for the better
Underground Railroad – network of black and white abolitionists who secretly helped slaves escape to freedom in the North or Canada
Chapter 14: North and South
*Be able to make the distinction between slavery in Early American versus the Antebellum period
Began as indentured servants (black and white) at first – gradually becomes enslavement for life for blacks
Any child born to a slave mother is automatically a slave, regardless of the race of the father – lifelong enslavement
All 13 colonies legalized slavery
Emancipation in the north, slavery south of Mason-Dixon line
Most slaves worked on tobacco plantations, #’s declining
“King Cotton” – most slaves work on Cotton plantations in the Deep South
1.Where is the boundary between the “North” and the “South”? (Be able to label all the states so far and know which allow slavery and which have passed laws against it)
“Mason – Dixon” line – the southern boundary of Pennsylvania – free states include PA, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Iowa (and all states North of these) – slave states include Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, Kentucky, and Missouri (and all states South of these)
2.What industry dominates the Northern economy? How were the economies of the North and South connected?
Textile industry (cloth making) – they rely on the cotton grown, cleaned and shipped up from the South – they South provides the raw material that the North turns into fabric
3.What were factory conditions like in the North? How did workers try and fight back?
The factory system was brutal – people were worked like machines, long hours, low wages, dangerous conditions, very few breaks, mostly employed women and children. They tried to form labor unions and would strike – with limited success at this time…. (to be continued!)
4.What group made up the new labor force in the North? How did nativists react towards them?
Immigrants – mostly from Ireland and Germany “old immigration” – Nativists hated immigrants “No Irish Need Apply” and wanted them out of the country, they were discriminated against and violence was used against them
5.What was life like for African-Americans living in the North?
They also faced discrimination – could not vote, serve on a jury, serve in Congress, had trouble finding good jobs because of racism and discrimination, society strictly divided by “race”
6.How did the invention of the cotton gin contribute to the increase in slavery?
Cotton could be cleaned much faster – a single worker using a Cotton Gin could now do the work of 50 people cleaning by hand – planters could now grow cotton at a huge profit – profits were used to buy more slaves to cultivate even more cotton
7.What were the purpose of slave codes? Give some examples.
8.What was life like for slaves?
Field and house slaves had different conditions – both worked from sun up to sun down, harsh conditions, faced physical, mental and sexual abuse by their masters.
9.How did slaves resist? What were the most common forms of resistance?
Family and extended family offered support, used songs to motivate and resist (spirituals), religion offered hope, some tried to escape or used violence against slave masters. Most common resistance was passive or non-violent such as running away, burning crops, breaking tools, working slowly, stealing food.
10.What were the effects of Nat Turner’s rebellion?
Led to an increase in brutal violence against the black community (anyone not just those involved in rebellion) – additional harsh slave codes passed
11.Who was Frederick Douglass? How did he contribute to the abolition movement?
Enslaved man born in Maryland who learns to read and write and ends up escaping, goes on to become a passionate speaker and writer on slavery and abolition – he writes the first narrative published by a slave – “Narrative in the Life of Frederick Douglass” 1848 – he lectures across the United States and Britain and also publishes an antislavery newspaper The North Star
12.Who was Harriet Jacobs? How did slavery differ for a woman?
Enslaved woman born in North Carolina, also learns to read and write, escapes slavery but goes into hiding to stay near her children, spending almost 7 years in a cramped attic space – writes the first narrative published by a woman – “Incidents in the life of a slave girl”
Chapter 15.2 13.What is abolition? How did abolitionists vary in their approach?
The movement to end slavery. Some abolitionist lectured, some wrote books or pamphlets, others helped slaves escape along the Underground Railroad. Some abolitionists believed in peaceful resistance, others believe only violence would bring change
14.Where did the American Colonization Society want free African-Americans to go? Why was this not ideal for many?
Proposed to end slavery by setting up an independent colony in Africa for freed slaves – Liberia in Western Africa. Some did favor colonization, believing that even free African-American would never achieve equality in America. But nearly all slaves had been born in America at this time and wanted to stay in their homeland.
15.What was the Underground Railroad? Who was Harriet Tubman?
(see above) Harriet Tubman – the most infamous “conductor” (guided runaways) on the UR – she escaped slavery herself and returned to help others 19 times – leading more than 300 slaves to freedom, admirers called her the “Black Moses” after the Biblical leader that led the Israelites out of slavery in Egypt – slave owners offered $40,000 for her capture, but she was never caught – goes on to assist Union in Civil War