Virginia Standards of Learning Workbook Virginia and United States History 



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Virginia Standards of Learning Workbook – Virginia and United States History





Standard VUS.13a SUMMARY

Demonstrate knowledge of United States foreign policy since World War II by describing outcomes of World War II, including political boundary changes, the formation of the United Nations, and the Marshall Plan.

Essential Understandings

Wars have political, economic, and social consequences.

Essential Knowledge

Postwar outcomes

  • The end of World War II found Soviet forces occupying most of Eastern Europe and Central Europe and the eastern portion of Germany.




  • Germany was partitioned into East and West Germany. West Germany became democratic and resumed self-government after a few years of American, British, and French occupation. East Germany remained under the domination of the Soviet Union and did not adopt democratic institutions.




  • Following its defeat, Japan was occupied by American forces. It soon adopted a democratic form of government, resumed self-government, and became a strong ally of the United States.




  • Europe lay in ruins, and the United States launched the Marshall Plan, which provided massive financial aid to rebuild European economies and prevent the spread of communism.




  • The United Nations was formed near the end of World War II to create a body for the nations of the world to try to prevent future global wars.




Standard VUS.13a ESSENTIAL QUESTION

Directions: Answer the following question to check your understanding of the content of standard VUS.13a.

1.

What were the political, economic, and social consequences of World War II?

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________







Standard VUS.13b SUMMARY

Demonstrate knowledge of United States foreign policy since World War II by explaining the origins of the Cold War, the Truman Doctrine and the policy of containment of communism, the American role in wars in Korea and Vietnam, and the role of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in Europe.

Essential Understandings

The Cold War set the framework for global politics for 45 years after the end of World War II. It also influenced American domestic politics, the conduct of foreign affairs, and the role of the government in the economy after 1945.
The Cold War was essentially a competition between two very different ways of organizing government, society, and the economy: the American-led western nations’ belief in democracy, individual freedom and a market economy, and the Soviet belief in a totalitarian state and socialism.
The U.S. government’s anti-Communist strategy of containment in Asia led to America’s involvement in the Korean and Vietnamese Wars. The Vietnam War demonstrated the power of American public opinion in reversing foreign policy. It tested the democratic system to its limits, left scars on American society that have not yet been erased, and made many Americans deeply skeptical of future military or even peacekeeping interventions.

Essential Knowledge

Origins of the Cold War

  • The Cold War lasted from the end of World War II until the collapse of the Soviet Union.




  • The United States and the Soviet Union represented starkly different fundamental values. The United States represented democratic political institutions and a generally free market economic system. The Soviet Union was a totalitarian government with a communist (socialist) economic system.




  • The Truman Doctrine of “containment of communism” was a guiding principle of American foreign policy throughout the Cold War, not to roll it back but to keep it from spreading and to resist communist aggression into other countries.




  • The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was formed as a defensive alliance among the United States and western European countries to prevent a Soviet invasion of Western Europe. Soviet allies in eastern Europe formed the Warsaw Pact and for nearly 50 years both sides maintained large military forces facing each other in Europe.




  • The communist takeover in China shortly after World War II increased American fears of communist domination of most of the world. Rather than strong allies, however, the communist nations of China and the Soviet Union eventually became rivals for territory and diplomatic influence, a split which American foreign policy under Nixon in the 1970s exploited.




  • After the Soviet Union matched the United States in nuclear weaponry in the 1950s, the threat of a nuclear war that would destroy countries was ever-present throughout the Cold War. America, under President Eisenhower, adopted a policy of “massive retaliation” to deter any nuclear strike by the Soviets.

The Korean War

  • American involvement in the Korean War in the early 1950s reflected the American policy of containment of communism.




  • After communist North Korea invaded South Korea, American military forces led a United States counterattack that drove deep into North Korea itself. Communist Chinese forces came into the war on the side of North Korea and the war threatened to widen, but eventually ended in a stalemate with South Korea free of communist occupation.

The Vietnam War

  • American involvement in Vietnam also reflected the Cold War policy of containment of communism.




  • Beginning in the 1950s and continuing into the early 1960s, the communist government of North Vietnam attempted to install through force a communist government in South Vietnam. The United States helped South Vietnam resist.




  • The American military buildup in Vietnam began under President John Kennedy. After Kennedy’s assassination in 1963, the buildup was intensified under President Lyndon Johnson.




  • The scale of combat in Vietnam grew larger over the course of the 1960s. American military forces repeatedly defeated the North Vietnamese forces in the field, but could not force an end to the war on favorable terms by fighting a limited war.







  • After Johnson declined to seek re-election, President Nixon was elected on a pledge to bring the war to an honorable end. He instituted a policy of “Vietnamization,” withdrawing American troops and replacing them with South Vietnamese forces while maintaining military aid to the South Vietnamese.




  • Ultimately, “Vietnamization” failed when South Vietnamese troops proved unable to resist invasion by the Soviet-supplied North Vietnamese Army, and President Nixon was forced from office by the Watergate scandal. In 1975, both North and South Vietnam were merged under communist rule.

Cuba

  • Cuba was also a site of Cold War confrontations.




  • Fidel Castro led a communist revolution that took over Cuba in the late 1950s. Many Cubans fled to Florida and later attempted to invade Cuba and overthrow Castro. This “Bay of Pigs” invasion failed.




  • In 1962, the Soviet Union stationed missiles in Cuba, instigating the Cuban Missile Crisis. President Kennedy ordered the Soviets to remove their missiles and for several days the world was on the brink of nuclear war. Eventually, the Soviet leadership “blinked” and removed their missiles.

Impact of the Cold War at home

  • The fear of communism and the threat of nuclear war affected American life throughout the Cold War.




  • During the 1950s and 1960s, American schools regularly held drills to train children what to do in case of a nuclear attack, and American citizens were urged by the government to build bomb shelters in their own basements.




  • The convictions of Alger Hiss and Julius and Ethel Rosenberg for spying for the Soviet Union, and the construction of nuclear weapons by the Soviets using technical secrets obtained through spying, increased domestic fears of communism.




  • Senator Joseph McCarthy played on American fears of communism by recklessly accusing many American governmental officials and citizens of being communists based on flimsy or no evidence. This led to the coining of the term McCarthyism, or the making of false accusations based on rumor or guilt by association.




  • The Cold War made foreign policy a major issue in every presidential election during the period.




  • The heavy military expenditures throughout the Cold War benefited Virginia’s economy proportionately more than any other state, especially in Hampton Roads, home to several large naval and air bases, and Northern Virginia, home to the Pentagon and numerous private companies that contract with the military.




Standard VUS.13b ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS

Directions: Answer the following questions to check your understanding of the content of standard VUS.13b.

1.

How did the U.S. respond to the threat of communist expansion?

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________



2


What are the origins of the Cold War?

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________



3

What events characterize the early events of the Cold War?

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________



4

What was the impact of the Cold War on Americans at home?

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________



5

What was the impact of the Vietnam War on Americans at home?

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________







Standard VUS.13c SUMMARY

Demonstrate knowledge of United States foreign policy since World War II by explaining the role of America’s military and veterans in defending freedom during the Cold War.

Essential Understandings

A strong military was the key to America’s victory over the Soviet Union in the Cold War.
Millions of Americans served in the military during the Cold War. Their service was often at great personal and family sacrifice, yet they did their duty.

Essential Knowledge

American military forces during the Cold War

  • In President John Kennedy’s inaugural address, he pledged that the United States would “pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, in order to assure the survival and the success of liberty.” In the same address, he also said, “Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country.”




  • During the Cold War era, millions of Americans served in the military, defending freedom in wars and conflicts that were not always popular. Many were killed or wounded. As a result of their service, the United States and American ideals of democracy and freedom ultimately prevailed in the Cold War with Soviet communism.




  • President Kennedy, a World War II veteran, was assassinated in 1963 in Dallas, Texas, in an event that shook the nation’s confidence and began a period of internal strife and divisiveness, especially spurred by divisions over U.S. involvement in Vietnam.




  • Unlike veterans of World War II, who returned to a grateful and supportive nation, Vietnam veterans returned often to face indifference or outright hostility from some who opposed the war.




  • It was not until several years after the end of the war that the wounds of the war began to heal in America, and Vietnam veterans were recognized and honored for their service and sacrifices.




Standard VUS.13c ESSENTIAL QUESTION

Directions: Answer the following question to check your understanding of the content of standard VUS.13c.

1.

How did America’s military forces defend freedom during the Cold War?

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________







Standard VUS.13d SUMMARY

Demonstrate knowledge of United States foreign policy since World War II by explaining the collapse of communism and the end of the Cold War, including the role of Ronald Reagan in making foreign policy.

Essential Understandings

Both internal and external pressures caused the collapse of the Soviet Union.

Essential Knowledge

Internal problems of the Soviet Union

Role of President Reagan

  • Increasing Soviet military expenses to compete with the United States




  • Rising nationalism in Soviet republics




  • Fast-paced reforms (market economy)




  • Economic inefficiency




  • Gorbachev “glasnost” and “perestroika” (openness and economic restructuring)

  • Challenged moral legitimacy of the Soviet Union; for example, speech at Berlin Wall (“Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall”)







Standard VUS.13d ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS

Directions: Answer the following questions to check your understanding of the content of standard VUS.13d.

1.

How did internal problems affect the collapse of the Soviet Union?

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________



2

What was President Ronald Reagan’s role in the collapse of the Soviet Union?

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________







Standard VUS.13e SUMMARY

Demonstrate knowledge of United States foreign policy since World War II by explaining the impact of presidents of the United States since 1988 on foreign policy.

Essential Understandings

With the end of the Cold War, the United States changed its goals and policies.
Involvement in conflicts in other areas of the world has been an integral part of United States foreign policy in the modern era.

Essential Knowledge

Selected post-Cold War era goals and policies

George H.W. Bush, 1989-1993

  • Foreign aid




  • Humanitarian aid




  • Support human rights

  • Fall of Communism in Eastern Europe

- Reunification of Germany

- Collapse of Yugoslavia

- Breakup of the Soviet state


  • Persian Gulf War 1990-1991

- First war where American women served in a combat role

- Operation Desert Storm



William J. Clinton, 1993-2001

George W. Bush, 2001-2009

  • North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)




  • Full diplomatic relations with Vietnam




  • Lifted economic sanctions against South Africa when its government ended the policy of apartheid




  • NATO action in former Yugoslavia

  • Terrorists attacks on United States soil (9/11/2001)




  • War in Afghanistan




  • War in Iraq




Standard VUS.13e ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS

Directions: Answer the following questions to check your understanding of the content of standard VUS.13e.

1.

How did the United States redirect its goals and policies in the post-Cold War era?

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________



2

How have presidents shaped American policy since 1988?

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________







Standards VUS.13a, 13b REVIEW

Directions: Complete each sentence below with a term from the word bank. Write the letter of the term in the blank.




Word Bank

a.

nuclear war

n.

East and West

b.

Asia

o.

values

c.

free market

p.

Nixon

d.

containment

q.

Japan

e.

domination

r.

China

f.

United Nations

s.

individual freedom

g.

Eisenhower

t.

Cold War

h.

totalitarian

u.

World War II

i.

defensive

v.

foreign affairs

j.

economic

w.

self-government

k.

peacekeeping interventions

x.

Soviet

l.

Warsaw Pact

y.

democratic

m.

Marshall Plan

z.

Vietnam War



____

1.

Wars have political, _______________, and social consequences.

____

2.

The end of World War II found ____________ forces occupying most of Eastern and Central Europe and the eastern portion of Germany.

____

3.

Germany was partitioned into _______________ Germany.

____

4.

West Germany became _______________ and resumed self-government after a few years of American, British, and French occupation.

____

5.

East Germany remained under the _____________ of the Soviet Union and did not adopt democratic institutions.

____

6.

Following its defeat, _________ was occupied by American forces.

____

7.

Japan soon adopted a democratic form of government, resumed _________________________, and became a strong ally of the United States.

____

8.

Europe lay in ruins, and the United States launched the _________________ which provided massive financial aid to rebuild European economies and prevent the spread of communism.

____

9.

The __________________ was formed near the end of World War II to create a body for the nations of the world to try to prevent future global wars.

____

10.

The _____________ set the framework for global politics for 45 years after the end of World War II.

____

11.

The Cold War influenced American domestic politics, the conduct of _______________, and the role of the government in the economy after 1945.

____

12.

The Cold War was essentially a competition between two very different ways of organizing government, society, and the economy: the American-led western nations’ belief in democracy, ______________________, and a market economy, and the Soviet belief in a totalitarian state and socialism.

____

13.

The U.S. government’s anti-Communist strategy of containment in _______ led to America’s involvement in the Korean War and the Vietnam War.

____

14.

The _____________________ demonstrated the power of American public opinion in reversing foreign policy.

____

15.

The Vietnam War tested the democratic system to its limits, left scars on American society that have not yet been erased, and made many Americans deeply skeptical of future military ___________________________.

____

16.

The Cold War lasted from the end of ____________________ until the collapse of the Soviet Union.

____

17.

The United States and the Soviet Union represented starkly different fundamental _____________.

____

18.

The United States represented democratic political institutions and a generally ________________________ economic system.

____

19.

The Soviet Union was a ___________________ government with a communist (socialist) economic system.

____

20.

The Truman Doctrine of “_______________ of communism” was a guiding principle of American foreign policy during the Cold War, not to roll it back but to keep it from spreading and to resist aggression into other countries.

____

21.

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was formed as a ____________________ alliance among the United States and western European countries to prevent a Soviet invasion of Western Europe.

____

22.

Soviet allies in eastern Europe formed the _____________ and for nearly 50 years both sides maintained large military forces facing each other in Europe.

____

23.

The communist takeover in ___________ shortly after World War II increased American fears of communist domination of most of the world.

____

24.

Rather than strong allies, however, the communist nations of China and the Soviet Union eventually became rivals for territory and diplomatic influence, a split which American foreign policy under President ________ in the 1970s exploited.

____

25.

After the Soviet Union matched the United States in nuclear weaponry in the 1950s, the threat of __________________ that would destroy both countries was ever-present throughout the Cold War.

____

26.

The U.S., under President __________________, adopted a policy of “massive retaliation” to deter any nuclear strike by the Soviets.





Standard VUS.13b REVIEW

Directions: Complete each sentence below with a term from the word bank. Write the letter of the term in the blank.




Word Bank

a.

spying

n.

resist

b.

removed

o.

stalemate

c.

economy

p.

limited war

d.

divided

q.

McCarthyism

e.

South Vietnam

r.

Florida

f.

nuclear war

s.

bomb shelters

g.

containment

t.

John Kennedy

h.

Joseph McCarthy

u.

college campuses

i.

“Vietnamization”

v.

Vietnam

j.

“Bay of Pigs”

w.

Fidel Castro

k.

North Korea

x.

Cuban Missile Crisis

l.

threat

y.

grew larger

m.

merged

z.

assassination



____

1.

American involvement in the Korean War in the early 1950s reflected the American policy of __________________ of communism.

____

2.

After communist ________________ invaded South Korea, American military forces led a United Nations counterattack that drove deep into North Korea itself.

____

3.

Communist Chinese forces came into the war on the side of North Korea and the war threatened to widen, but eventually ended in a ____________ with South Korea free of communist occupation.

____

4.

American involvement in ________________ also reflected the Cold War policy of containment of communism.

____

5.

Beginning in the 1950s and continuing into the early 1960s, the communist government of North Vietnam opposed the democratic government of _______________.

____

6.

The U.S. helped South Vietnam _________ North Vietnam.

____

7.

The American military buildup in Vietnam began under President _________________.

____

8.

After Kennedy’s ______________________ in 1963, the buildup was intensified under President Lyndon Johnson.

____

9.

The scale of combat in Vietnam __________ over the course of the 1960s.

____

10.

American military forces repeatedly defeated the North Vietnamese forces in the field, but could not force an end to the war on favorable terms by fighting a __________________.

____

11.

The U.S. became bitterly ____________ over the war in Vietnam.

____

12.

While there was support for the American military and conduct of the war among many Americans, others opposed the war and active opposition to the war mounted, especially on _______________________.

____

13.

Ultimately _____________________ failed when South Vietnamese troops proved unable to resist invasion by the Soviet-supplied North Vietnamese Army, and President Nixon was forced from office by the Watergate scandal.

____

14.

In 1975, both North and South Vietnam were __________ under communist control.

____

15.

Cuba was also a site of Cold War confrontations. _________________ led a communist revolution that took over Cuba in the late 1950s.

____

16.

Many Cubans fled to _____________ and later attempted to overthrow Castro.

____

17.

This _____________________ invasion failed.

____

18.

In 1962, the Soviet Union stationed missiles in Cuba, instigating the __________________.

____

19.

President Kennedy ordered the Soviets to remove their missiles and for several days the world was on the brink of __________________.

____

20.

Eventually, the Soviet leadership “blinked” and _______________ their missiles.

____

21.

The fear of communism and the __________ of nuclear war affected American life throughout the Cold War.

____

22.

During the 1950s and 1960s, American schools held drills to train children what to do in case of a nuclear attack, and American citizens were urged by government to build __________________ in their own basements.

____

23.

The convictions of Alger Hiss and Julius and Ethel Rosenberg for _________ for the Soviet Union, and the construction of nuclear weapons by the Soviets using technical secrets obtained through spying, increased domestic fears of communism.

____

24.

Senator _________________ played on American fears of communism by recklessly accusing many American officials and citizens of being communists based on flimsy or no evidence.

____

25.

This led to the coining of the term ______________, or the making of false accusations based on rumor or guilt by association.

____

26.

The Cold War made foreign policy a major issue in every presidential election during the period. The heavy military expenditures throughout the Cold War benefited Virginia’s ________________ proportionately more than any other state, especially Hampton Roads, home to several large naval and air bases, and Northern Virginia, home to the Pentagon and numerous companies that contract with the military.





Standards VUS.13c, 13d, 13e REVIEW

Directions: Complete each sentence below with a term from the word bank. Write the letter of the term in the blank.




Word Bank

a.

Persian Gulf

n.

economic

b.

economic restructuring

o.

military

c.

terrorists

p.

collapse

d.

sacrifice

q.

Vietnam

e.

policies

r.

humanitarian aid

f.

liberty

s.

William J. Clinton

g.

apartheid

t.

popular

h.

modern

u.

expenses

i.

hostility

v.

George H. W. Bush

j.

Berlin Wall

w.

democracy

k.

assassinated

x.

Operation Desert Storm

l.

Ronald Reagan

y.

country

m.

honored for their service

z.

Yugoslavia



____

1.

A strong ____________ was the key to America’s victory over the Soviet Union in the Cold War.

____

2.

Millions of Americans served in the military during the Cold War. Their service was often at great personal and family ______________, yet they did their duty.

____

3.

In President John Kennedy’s inaugural address, he pledged that the United States would “pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, oppose any foe, in order to assure the survival and success of _______________.

____

4.

In the same address, he also said, “Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your ___________________.”

____

5.

During the Cold War era, millions of Americans served in the military, defending freedom in wars and conflicts that were not always ___________.

____

6.

Many were killed or wounded. As a result of their service, the United States and American ideals of ________________ and freedom ultimately prevailed in the Cold War struggle with Soviet communism.

____

7.

President Kennedy, a World War II veteran, was __________________ in 1963 in Dallas, Texas, in an event that shook the nation’s confidence and began a period of internal strife and divisiveness, especially spurred by division over U.S. involvement in Vietnam.

____

8.

Unlike veterans of World War II, who returned to a grateful and supportive nation, Vietnam veterans returned often to face indifference or outright ________________ from some who opposed the war.

____

9.

It was not until several years after the end of the war that the wounds of the war began to heal in America, and Vietnam veterans were recognized and _____________________________ and sacrifices.

____

10.

Both internal and external pressures caused the ___________ of the Soviet Union.

____

11.

Increasing Soviet military ________________ to compete with the U.S., along with rising nationalism in Soviet republics, fast-paced reforms toward a market economy, and economic inefficiency were among the internal problems of the Soviet Union.

____

12.

Gorbachev’s programs of “glasnost” and “perestroika” (openness and _______________________) helped to bring about the collapse of the Soviet Union.

____

13.

President ______________ challenged the moral legitimacy of the Soviet Union, such as when, in a speech at the Berlin Wall, he said “Mr. Gorbachev, “tear down this wall!”

____

14.

President Reagan also increased U.S. military and _______________ pressure on the Soviet Union.

____

15.

With the end of the Cold War, the United States changed its goals and ________________.

____

16.

Involvement in conflicts in other areas of the world has been an integral part of United States foreign policy in the ___________ era.

____

17.

U.S. post-Cold War era goals and policies have included foreign aid, __________________________, and support for human rights.

____

18.

President ____________ (1989-1993) served as President when communism collapsed in Eastern Europe.

____

19.

Germany was reunified after the _______________ came down.

____

20.

Also while George H.W. Bush was President, ___________________ collapsed, and the Soviet state broke apart.

____

21.

In the _____________ War (1990-1991), American women served in combat roles for the first time.

____

22.

In the Persian Gulf War, the name of the U.S. military effort was _________________________.

____

23.

During the presidency of _____________ (1993-2001) the United States entered into the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).

____

24.

Also during Clinton’s presidency, the U.S. and _______________ opened full diplomatic relations with each other.

____

25.

The U.S. lifted economic sanctions against South Africa when its government ended the policy of ________________. Also during Clinton’s presidency, NATO took action in former Yugoslavia.

____

26.

During the presidency of George W. Bush (2001-2009), _____________ attacked the U.S. on United States soil (9/11/2001). Also notable from Bush’s presidency were the War in Afghanistan, and the War in Iraq.




Standard VUS.13 - -


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