Us history Top 200ish – 1215 to 1870’s Definitions, Examples, & Meanings Study Guide for 2012 staar. Prepared by Fort Burrows 1



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203. John

Quincy

Adams

(1767-1848) He served as the 6th President of the United States and interestingly, was the eldest son of the 2nd President, John Adams. A Harvard man. Spoke several languages. Minister to the Netherlands and to Russia. His political career was marked by two words, which summed up his passion: Independence and Union. He helped negotiate the Admas-Onis Treaty of 1819. He served as member of Congress, as a US Senator, the US Secretary of State, and he helped formulate the Monroe Doctrine of 1823. He favored a strong nationalism against states' rights and spoke out against the pro-slavery messages of John C. Calhoun. Adams considered himself "bonded" by the Constitution to work for emancipation. He is the only President to be elected a Congressman after serving as US President. He argued before the Supreme Court on behalf of slaves from the ship Amistad, which mutinied during the journey from Africa. His election in 1824 against Jackson was tainted by the alleged “Corrupt Bargain” and he was easily defeated in his re-election run of 1828 against Jackson.




Group 25 – c. JuliannE – Nathan P – Brit

204. Jefferson

Davis

Inaugural Address

In early 1861 representatives of the states seceding from the United States elected Jefferson Davis as president of their provisional government, and his selection as president of the Confederate States of America required that he deliver an inaugural address. Jefferson Davis's Inaugural Address, delivered on February 18, 1861, pointed toward a tentative plan for the seceding states’ future. Contemporary observers had anticipated that South Carolina would lead the way to secession and drag along other Deep South states. They were correct. South Carolina's secession on December 20, 1860, created a chain reaction, as one Deep South state after another passed ordinances of secession. When Davis delivered his Inaugural Address, the six additional Deep South states (Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas) had followed the lead of South Carolina and withdrawn from the Union.


205. Hiram

Rhodes Revel

(1822-1901) American clergyman and educator who became the first black citizen to be elected to the U.S. Senate (1870–71), during Reconstruction, representing Mississippi. Revels was a Republican and he was anxious not to encourage race friction with white Southerners; he therefore supported legislation that would have restored the power to vote and to hold office to disenfranchised members of the former Confederacy. In January 1870 he was elected to the U.S. Senate to fill the unexpired term of the former Confederate president, Jefferson Davis. He performed competently in office, advocating desegregation in the schools and on the railroads. Though serving only one term, he was consistently praised in the papers for his oratorical skills, quoted often about the need for moderation and compromise. While Radical Republicans called for continued punishment of ex-Confederates, he argued for amnesty and a restoration of full citizenship.


206. Concord

April 18, 1775, British troops left Boston for Concord. The Sons of Liberty watched this happen and placed two lanterns in the church tower to signal Paul Revere to tell everyone that the British were coming. In the end, the British did not find any fire arms. So they went back to Boston but not without any fighting. The British had to retreat

207. Banking

System

There are two banks at the time, The Bank of the United States and State Banks. The Bank of the United States was created by the government and been disputed for a long time. It was powerful because it controlled the loans made by state banks. Whenever they thought the State Banks were making too many loans they would limit it. This changes merchants and farmers because they got their loans from the State Banks. The Bank of the United States was run by private banks. The Bank of the United States has to send in a charter for the president to approve it and continue funding it. The Bank of the United States closed in 1836, so instead of putting money in the bank they gave it to state banks. The band became known as pet banks because Toney and his friends control many of them.

208. John Jay

John went with Benjamin Franklin then Adams, Henry Laurens to Paris for talks about treaty’s since we beat Britain in the war. Since Britain was eager to end the war we mostly got what we wanted. This was called the Treaty of Paris. He also helped write the federalists papers. It was a series for essays. Then he became the first Chief Justice of the U.S. Then when America was struggling to stay neutral John had to go to Britain for treaty talks. He made Britain pay for damages for the seized American ships, but Americans have to pay their old debts to British merchants. So British had to give up its forts in the west. This was called Jay’s Treaty approved in 1795.

209. Executive

Branch

The Executive Branch of the Government has the President, Vice President, and all the cabinet members. The President is allowed to pass or veto a bill that the legislature sends him. The Executive branch is the branch of the United States government that is responsible for carrying out the laws. The Executive Branch contains 15 Departments, such as the Departments of Labor, Homeland Security and Education. These Departments help the President protect the public or enforce federal laws. Those 15 Departments, along with the Vice President, make-up the President's Cabinet.

210. Legislative

Branch

The Legislative Branch writes the laws. This branch is made up of the House of Representatives, which has 435 members elected proportionally from each state, and the Senate, which has two members from each state, 100 members all together. Their purpose is to make laws. Each chamber needs to approve of the law before it is sent off to the President for approved. However, it's a long process. An example of the Legislative Branch would be congress.

211. Judicial

Branch

The Judiciary explains and applies the laws. This branch does this by hearing and eventually making decisions on various legal cases. The Judicial Branch is in charge of the court system. There are three different kinds of courts found in the federal court system. The lowest level is the district courts. The 2nd level is the court of appeals. The top level is the Supreme Court.

212. XYZ Affair




213. Temperance

Movement







US History Top 200ish

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