Us history Top 200ish – 1215 to 1870’s Definitions, Examples, & Meanings Study Guide for 2012 staar. Prepared by Fort Burrows 1



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US History

Fort Burrows

US History Top 200ish – 1215 to 1870’s - Definitions, Examples, & Meanings

Study Guide for 2012 STAAR.

Prepared by Fort Burrows 1st – 2nd – 3rd periods March 2012





1st Period Group 1 – c. Skate – Gretta – Hayley

1. Share

Cropping

To rent a piece of land and use it to grow crops. In exchange for letting them use the land, the owner collects a share of the crops as rent.

2. Black

Codes

laws in the United States after the Civil War with the effect of limiting the basic human rights and civil liberties of blacks.

3. Ku Klux

Klan

KKK

An organization in the United States, which advocate extremist reactionary - such as white supremacy and white nationalism. They went to extreme measures to make sure that blacks had no rights.

4. Homestead

Act

one of three United States federal laws that gave an applicant ownership at no cost of farmland called a "homestead" – typically 160 acres

5. Morrill Act

An act of Congress in 1862 granting each state 30,000 acres of land for each member it had in Congress, 90% of the gross proceeds of which were to be used for the ability and maintenance of colleges and universities teaching agricultural and mechanical arts and other subjects.

6. Dawes Act

A federal law intended to turn Native Americans into farmers and landowners by providing cooperating families with 160 acres of reservation land for farming or 320 acres for grazing.

7. Primary

Source

A direct resource. Including a journal, dairy, or spoken word from an actual participant, a person that is involved in what is going on with people or events.

8. Secondary

Source

A person that receives information about people or events and is told by someone that is a primary source. Includes – historians, child or grand-children.

9. Point of

View

One’s personal view of an object or person. A thought or a personal opinion.




Group 2 –c. Barbie – SamE – Capt. Jack

10. 1861-1865

The years of the civil war between the Northerners and Southerners of the U.S. Two issues – States Rights and Slavery. The bloodiest war in Americas’ history. The separation and rejoining of the (11) Confederates States of America.

11. 1803

Year that the U.S bought the Louisiana Purchase from France, dictator Napoleon Bonaparte, which caused the doubling of size in land of the U.S. and New Orleans to become a leading Port in the U.S.

12. 1607

Jamestown, Virginia, which was the first permanent English settlement on the Eastern Coastline, next to the Atlantic Ocean.

13. 1620

The year the pilgrims at Plymouth, Massachusetts wrote the Mayflower Compact, which established a “civil body politic” or government for the colony

14. 1787

Year that the U.S. constitution was written. This was the document that set out the laws, principles, organization, and process for the government of the nation.

15. 1776

Declaration

of Independence

1. Natural Rights - Rights that belong to all people from birth. The declaration states that if the government fails to protect the rights of the citizens then it is the people’s right to throw off the government.

2. British Wrongs - Second part of the declaration that listed the wrongs that led the Americans to break apart from Britain.

3. Independence - Last part of the declaration that states the colonies are now the U.S.A. They are now a free, independent nation, and all ties with Britain have been cut.


16. Treaty of

Paris 1783

This ended the American Revolutionary war between Great Britain and the U.S. The U.S. is now its own country and is no longer under British rule.




Group 3 – c. VikAman – RaaZoo – the Bomb

17. Article

of

Confederation

The first American Constitution which was passed out in 1777, called for more state’s rights, with not much power for the federal government. This was eventually considered too weak to control the nation. Very Limited Power. Created a ‘Loose Alliance’ between the Original 13 States

18. Federalist

Citizens who favored the constitution and a strong national government.
Example: Alexander Hamilton

19. Anti-

Federalist

Citizens who opposed the constitution and a strong national government and they wanted to write down the rights of the citizens. It led to The Bill of Rights.
Example: Thomas Jefferson

20. Limited

Government

A principle of the constitution stating that a government only has the right the constitution gives it Example: Separation of Powers, Checks and Balances; each branch of the government work in unison to make sure that other branches do not abuse their power

21.

Republicanism

A form of government in which leaders are elected for a specific period by the citizens
The true republic: men, their rights and nothing more; women, their rights and nothing less. -- Susan B. Anthony

22. Federalism

The division of power between the federal government and the states. National and States Government. Ex. Federal power – coin money, declare wars, regulate trade interstate (going across state borders). States power – regulate trade intrastate (within their own borders), state elections, public schools

23. Separation

of

Powers

The powers of the government are divided among the separate branches. The legislative branch passes the law. The executive branch interprets the law. The judicial branch makes sure the laws are being carried out.

24. Check

and

Balances

Gave the branch of government the power to check the other branches.
Example: Congress can pass a law but the executive branch (the president can veto it).
A form of abuse on this one was when Andrew Jackson overridden the Supreme Court’s ruling that what Georgia was doing to the Indians was unconstitutional.

25. Popular

Sovereignty

States that people got the right to create, and change the government. Vote for it.
Example: Slavery still existed, different territories had different opinions so, they let each territory decide if they wanted slavery or not.



Group 4 – c. Sharkey – MariOnnE – Jennifer

26. Individual

Rights

In the constitution, Individual Right's protect the freedom of speech, freedom of religion, and the right to trial by jury.

27. Bill

of

Rights

These 10 amendments became the Bill of Rights

  1. Freedom of religion, speech, assembly, and petition

  2. Right to bear arms

  3. Lodging troops in private homes

  4. Search and seizure

  5. Right’s to be accused

  6. Right to speedy trial by jury

  7. Jury trial in civil cases

  8. Bail and punishment

  9. Powers reserved to the people

  10. Powers reserved to the states




28. Amending

Constitution

Amending the Constitution is when you are changing or adding something (laws) to our current Constitution. The amending of our Constitution can be by - ratified by three-fourths of the states or 2/3 of the legislatures.

29. Alexander

Hamilton

(1755-1804) Hamilton devised a financial system which stabilized the national economy after the American Revolution, and restructured national debt so it functioned as a political asset rather than a liability. Born on Nevis in the British West Indies, Hamilton was intelligent and decisive, characteristics which earned him the support of patrons who sent him to the American colonies for his education. He became involved in the Revolution and enlisted in the New York militia in 1776, becoming Washington's aide-de-camp. He married into one of New York's wealthiest families, practiced law, served as a delegate to four Continental Congresses, and represented New York in the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia of 1787. Hamilton was one of the leading federalists; he favored a strong central government and helped write The Federalist papers. As the first secretary of the treasury, he convinced Congress to assume the debts states incurred during the Revolution, supported foreign trade and tariffs to provide revenue to the nation, established a mint, and developed a national bank, the Bank of the United States. Hamilton believed that as the federal government assumed states' debts, financial leaders would turn their allegiance from the states toward the nation. This was part of his plan to strengthen the central government. He also believed creditors to the nation were more apt to support the central government if it owed them money. Thus, the debt generated political support. The Federalist party developed in support of his approach to government. Regarding the bank charter, Hamilton and Jefferson clashed over interpretation of the Constitution and the extent government could exercise powers not expressly permitted. Jefferson argued that the U.S. Constitution did not confer power to the central government to create a national bank. As a result, states reserved the right to charter banks. Hamilton believed in a loose interpretation: that the U.S. Constitution permitted what it did not forbid, and that government was justified in establishing a bank to support trade. The bank was chartered for 20 years, in 1791. 

30. Foreign

policy of:

George

Washington

In George Washington's farewell speech, he warned the US to remain out of other nation's business, to remain neutral, making this the last precedents of 6 that GW set for the rest of the presidents

31. Foreign

policy of:

John Adams

Followed the example set by George Washington, Made peace with Britain,

Strengthened the US Navy



32. Foreign

policy of:

Thomas
Jefferson


Not to get involved with other countries. In 1807 congress passed the embargo act, Thomas Jefferson never wanted war but he stopped trading with Britain and France hoping it would hurt their economy but instead it hurt America's economy more than France and Britain economy.

33. Foreign

policy of:

James Madison

Wanted to stay Neutral concerning affairs of Europe. Pressured by Britain - the War of 1812 and the burning of the White House.

34. Foreign

policy of:

James Monroe

The best example of James Monroe’s foreign policy was the Monroe Doctrine. The Monroe Doctrine said that the Western Hemisphere was not to be further colonized by European countries. Also to warn Europe to stay out of the ‘newly’ Independent Latin and South American countries. He wrote it because he was scared Spain and England would come and take over.





Group 5 – c. Jenna – Star C – Sausage

35. Suffrage

The right to vote. Suffrage increased with white men during the 1800’s. More white men were given the right to vote because they no longer had to own land in order to vote. During this time African Americans were losing suffrage.

36. Santa

Fe

Trail

a major trading place where people could come and trade with other countries and this was the trail that leads Americans to be able to trade with other countries that they had always wanted to trade with like China.

37. Oregon

Trail

These trails lead Americans into the Oregon Territory. The trails were bumpy and along this trail and any other trail many people died because of disease and other things. Missionaries were some of the first people to use these trails to settle the Oregon Territory. The trails were also used by trappers.

38. Mormon

Trail

Joseph Smith created the Mormon religion and in the cities he and other Mormons went to, they were always driven out of the city. Eventually they traveled west and came to a valley in present day Utah. This was a place where they were far enough from Catholics, Baptists, and other religions. The Mormons settled the valley and it the city is Salt

Lake City. The path they made west became the Mormon Trail and other white people used this trail to travel west to get to California, Washington, and Oregon.



39. Mercantilism

This was the theory of trade that the country would export more than it imported. In this theory the country would gain gold to make up the difference.

40. Stamp Act

Part of the 4 Intolerable Acts. Passed in 1765 by the British parliament. The new tax was put on any piece of printed paper like legal documents, newspapers, playing cards, etc.

41. Boycott

A with draw from commercial or social relations as a punishment or protest. When people Unite for a common cause to Protest in hopes of a change.

42. Patriot

A person that supports their country and is ready to defend it against enemies. A person who fought in the American Revolution to make it a better country.

43. King

George III

(1738-1820) George III became King of England in 1760, determined to re-assert the constitutional power of the monarchy. He was conservative and moral, and his reign of more than 40 years oversaw considerable political, economic, social, and cultural change. When he was crowned king, Britain was involved in the Seven Years' War (1756-1763). England acquired a large amount of territory in North America and India when the peace treaty was signed with France and Spain. The American Revolution concerned George III and his followers because they feared that the loss of one group of colonies would lead to the loss of others and the eventual decline of the empire. To prevent this, the Crown maintained an aggressive policy against colonial resistance. George III struggled to enforce royal authority throughout his reign. After his first attack of mental illness in 1788 he became increasingly dependent on parliament. By 1811 he was permanently insane and his son, the Prince of Wales, acted as regent. Upon George III's death in 1820, his eldest son, George IV, assumed the throne. 




Group 6 – c. Chicky – Bean II – Chuck

44. Four

Intolerable

Acts

The Acts were passed by Britain to punish the Colonist for their actions at the Boston Tea Party.

1. - shut down Boston port as to control the and regulate the colonist trade

2. - town meetings allowed only once a year unless governor approves, otherwise to control and reduce the possibility of creating a self-governing body

3. - British officials accused of crimes would be tried in England or Canada, away from the victims/colonists

4. - colonial citizens would have to house, feed, and furnish drink for any and all British soldiers, with or without their consent

45. William

Blackstone

(1723-1780) A British judge, he gave the first university lectures on English common law. His classic Commentaries on the Laws of England (1765 – 69) are the best-known description of the doctrines of English law; it became the basis of university legal education in England and North America. Providing a complete overview of English law, the 4-volume work influenced the thought of such Americans as John Jay, John Adams, John Marshall, and even Lincoln. The work continues to be cited in Supreme Court decisions even today.

46. Crispus

Attucks

(1723?-1770) Crispus Attucks is remembered as the first American to die in the colonists' fight for freedom from Britain. Attucks was an escaped slave of African and Native American descent, but not much else is known about him. He was part of an angry mob that surrounded eight British soldiers on 5 March 1770 outside the Boston customs house. The soldiers fired on the crowd and Attucks was killed, along with four others. The shootings were quickly dubbed the "Boston Massacre"

47. Samuel

Adams

(1722-1803) Born into a Boston family with a heritage of municipal involvement, Samuel Adams naturally became involved in local politics. Cousin of President John Adams. He was opposed to British taxation in the colonies and believed that the colonial government was capable of self-rule without intrusion by the British monarchy. Adams encouraged cooperation among the colonies by generating and circulating correspondence as the clerk of the Massachusetts General Assembly. He published British documents and decrees for the edification of the colonists. Adams played a role in many of the events which contributed to the Revolution including organized opposition to the Stamp Act, protests waged by the Sons of Liberty, and the Boston Massacre. He participated in the First Continental Congress and supported the Constitution subject to the addition of the Bill of Rights. He was a Congressman, the Lieutenant Governor and Governor of Massachusetts.

48. Abigail

Adams

(1744-1818) Born in Massachusetts in 1744. Wife of the 2nd President of the United States and mother of John Quincy Adams the 6th President. Abigail Adams is an example of one kind of life lived by women in colonial, Revolutionary and early post-Revolutionary America. While she's perhaps best known simply as an early First Lady (before the term was used), and perhaps known for the stance she took for women's rights in letters to her husband. Her letters have become a valuable primary source for us to learn about life in early and during the American Revolution. In her most famous letter to her husband, she wrote, ‘Remember the Ladies’, pressing for equal status of women to men when he was forming the new government. Abigail Adams should also be known as a competent farm manager and financial manager.
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