Us history to 1877 Civil War Flashcards



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US History to 1877 - Civil War Flashcards

The North and South disagreed over many things, but the biggest issue  dividing the nation and leading to the Civil War was:

slavery

The North was mainly an _____ society in which people held jobs.

urban

The South was primarily an __________ society in which people lived in small villages and on farms and plantations.

 agricultural

What are tariffs?

Taxes on imported goods

Who wanted tariffs, the North or the South?

The North

Why did the North want tariffs on imported goods?

To protect factory owners and workers from foreign competition

Why did the South oppose tariffs?

Tariffs would cause prices of goods to increase. 

Another major conflict between the North and South was the issue of states’ rights vs. _____.

strong central government

Name 3 issues that divided the North and the South?



1. slavery;
2. tariffs;
3. cultural differences (urban society vs. agricultural society);
4. states' rights vs. strong central government


The North believed that the nation was a union and:

could not be divided.

Southerners believed that they had the power to declare any national law _______.

 illegal

Northerners believed that the national government’s power was:

supreme over that of the states

Southerners felt that the abolition of slavery would destroy their region's:

agricultural economy

Northerners believed that slavery should be abolished because it was:

 morally wrong.

Name 3 compromises that attempted to resolve differences over slavery in new states joining the Union.

Missouri Compromise (1820);
Compromise of l850;
Kansas-Nebraska Act


What was the result of the Missouri Compromise (1820)?

Missouri entered the Union as a slave state; Maine, as a free state.

What was the result of the Compromise of l850?

California would be a free state. The Southwest territories would decide about slavery themselves.

What was the result of the Kansas-Nebraska Act?

People in these territories would decide the slavery issue by popular vote ("popular sovereignty").

The purpose of the 3 compromises was :

to keep the number of slave and free states equal so neither side would gain control of Congress.

What happened after Lincoln became president?

The southern states seceded from the Union

 What event marked the beginning of the Civil War?

Confederate forces attacked Fort Sumter, in South Carolina

Lincoln and many Northerners believed that the United States was one nation that could not be:

separated or divided

Most Southerners believed that states had freely created and joined the union,  and could therefore:

freely leave it

The states that seceded from the Union favored slavery because they were:

dependent upon labor-intensive cash crops

Alabama; Arkansas; Florida; Georgia; Louisiana; Mississippi; North Carolina; South Carolina; Tennessee; Texas; Virginia
What did these states do?

They seceded from the Union

Which four slave states stayed in the Union?

Delaware
Kentucky
Maryland
Missouri


The four slave states that stayed in the Union were called:

Border states

Western counties of Virginia that refused to secede from the Union formed:

the state of West Virginia

During the Civil war, Abraham Lincoln was:

President

Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation to:

free the slaves

Lincoln was determined to ________, by force if necessary.

 


preserve the Union

Lincoln believed the United States was one nation, not a:

collection of independent states

Who wrote the Gettysburg Address?

Lincoln

In the Gettysburg Address, Lincoln said that said the Civil War was being fought to preserve a government:

of the people, by the people, and for the people.”

Who was president of the Confederate States of America?

Jefferson Davis

Who was general of the Union army that defeated Lee?

Ulysses S. Grant

Who was leader of the Army of Northern Virginia?

Robert E. Lee

Who was offered command of the Union forces at the beginning of the war but chose not to fight against Virginia?

Robert E. Lee

At the end of the war, what did Lee urge Southerners to do?

Lee urged Southerners to accept defeat and reunite as Americans, even though some Southerners wanted to keep fighting.

How were Lincoln and Lee's views about the Union the same and how did they differ?

Both wanted to preserve the Union, but Lincoln was willing to do it by force, and Lee did not think the Union should be held together by force.

Who was Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson?

A skilled Confederate general from Virginia who played a big role in the First Battle of Bull Run.

Who was Frederick Douglass?

A former slave who escaped to the North and became an abolitionist

What event began the Civil War?

The firing on Fort Sumter, S.C.

What was the first major battle of the Civil War?

 The first Battle of Manassas (Bull Run)

What was an important result of the signing of the Emancipation Proclamation?

It made “freeing the slaves” the new focus of the war.  Many freed slaves joined the Union army.

What was the result of the  Battle of Vicksburg?

The North got control of the Mississippi River.   This divided the South in two parts.

What battle was considered the turning point of the war?

The Battle of Gettysburg, where the North repelled Lee’s invasion.

What happened at Appomattox Court House in 1865?

Lee’s surrender to Grant ended the war

Describe life and conditions on the battlefield?

Extremely harsh; many died from disease and exposure.

What hardships were experienced during the Civil War?

·     Families and friends were often pitted against one another.

·     Disease was a major killer.


·     Combat was brutal and often man-to-man.


What was women's role in the war?

Women were left to run businesses in the North and farms and plantations in the South.

Who was the Civil War nurse, who created the American Red Cross?

Clara Barton

What was the condition of the South at the end of the war?

Much of the South was destroyed by the end of the war. Richmond and Atlanta had were burned.
Confederate money was worthless.


What was the role of African Americans in the Civil War?

They fought in both the Confederate and Union armies.
 


How were African American Soldiers treated?

African American soldiers were paid less than white soldiers.
• African American soldiers were discriminated against and served in segregated units under the command of white officers.


A brave and heroic  African American sailor and later a Union naval captain who became a Congressman after the Civil War was:

Robert Smalls

 Which amendments were added to the  Constitution after the war to address the issues of slavery and guarantee equal protection under the law for all citizens?

The 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments

Which amendment banned slavery?

The 13th Amendment

Which amendment granted citizenship to all persons born in the United States and guaranteed them equal protection under the law?

The 14th Amendment

Which amendment insured all citizens the right to vote regardless of race or color or previous condition of servitude?

The 15th Amendment

What do the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments do?

They guarantee equal protection under the law for all citizens.

The period after the Civil War is called:

Reconstruction

What were some Reconstruction policies?

Northern soldiers supervised the South and Southern military leaders could not hold office.

African Americans gained equal rights and some held public office.



What was the purpose of Civil Rights Act of 1866?

It gave equal rights to African Americans

What were some of the problems created by Reconstruction policies?

The Reconstruction policies were harsh and created resentment.

Southerners resented northern “carpetbaggers"






 





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