US History Super STAAR 131 Facts!
Super STAAR 131 Facts!
1. ___________________ is an economic system in which the mother country controls the trade of its colonies.
2. The following colonies were established for religious freedom:
· ___________________ – John Winthrop (Puritans)
· ___________________ – William Penn (Quakers)
· ___________________ – Roger Williams (exiled by Puritans for dissention)
· ___________________ – Cecillius Calvert (Catholics)
3. _________________, the first permanent English settlement, was founded in _______ for economic reasons.
4. The ______________________________________was started due to labor shortages in Virginia, resulting in the first slaves being brought to the Southern colonies.
5. The ___________________- an agreement signed in _______ by the Pilgrims in Plymouth. It is the 1st attempt at self-government in America.
6. The ______________________________________was the first representative assembly in the new world.
7. ___________________wrote the ______________________________________,
the first written Constitution in America. It is one of the first examples of a representative democracy (self government).
8. The 13 colonies were divided into 3 regions: ___________________, ___________________, and ___________________ Colonies.
9. ___________________involved England and the 13 colonies fighting against France and the Native Americans for control of the Ohio River Valley. It resulted in increased taxation and violation of certain rights.
10. The ___________________ended the French and Indian War. The debt from the war led to increased British taxation of the colonies.
11. ___________________wrote the Albany Plan of Union – “Join or Die!” encouraging the colonies to unite against the French during the French & Indian War.
12. ____________________________limited the colonies from expanding west of the Appalachian Mountains.
13. These Acts following the French & Indian War ticked off the Colonies and eventually led to the Revolution! ___________________, ___________________, ___________________, ___________________, and ___________________.
14. ___________________of England: He offended the colonies with his taxes and abuses of our rights as Englishmen.
15. The ___________________organized the Boston Tea Party to protest the Tea Act. In response, England passed the Intolerable Acts as punishment.
16. Important American Revolution minorities:
· ___________________– African American killed at the Boston massacre who was the 1st colonist to die for American independence
· ___________________– 1st African American double spy whose information helped defeat the British at the Battle of Yorktown
· ___________________– Jewish immigrant and American spy who helped finance the American
· ___________________– woman who wrote plays such as The Group and The Blockheads which were critical of the British government’s actions
· ___________________– Spanish governor of Louisiana and General who won many battles against the British in present day southeastern U.S
· ___________________– commander of the French forces in the 13 colonies, instrumental in
American victory at Yorktown
17. ___________________was the 2nd president of the U.S., 1st vice president, signed the Declaration of
Independence, and served as Ambassador to England during the Revolutionary War.
His wife, ___________________, was a pioneer for women’s rights
18. ___________________, a member of the Sons of Liberty and leader of the Boston Tea Party, stirred public support or American independence.
19. The first battle of the American Revolution was at ______________________________________in April 1775.
20. ___________________- a pamphlet by _______________________that convinced many colonists to support independence from Great Britain.
21. The fiery orator, patriot and Anti-Federalist ___________________called for American independence and later opposed the Constitution because it did not protect individual liberties.
22. ___________________was the leader of the Continental Army who later became the first President of the United States.
23. A ___________________is someone who supported American independence during the Revolution.
24. A ___________________ is someone who supported maintaining British rule over the colonies during the Revolution.
25. The ___________________- a list of grievances against King George III - was written by Thomas Jefferson-July 4, 1776 in Philadelphia. It declared the colonies independent from England.
26. ___________________are rights that cannot be given up, taken away or transferred. Life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness, are some of those rights.
27. The ___________________was the turning point of the American Revolution (French entered the war).
28. ___________________was where George Washington’s troops camped during the winter of 1777. More than 1/5 of his soldiers died of disease and malnutrition.
29. The British were defeated in 1781 at ___________________by George Washington’s troops signaled the end of the American Revolution.
30. The ___________________ended the American Revolution and forced Britain to recognize the United States as an independent nation.
31. The ___________________, signed in 1215 by King John, was the first document that limited power of the ruler. Idea of “Trial by jury” used in Bill of Rights.
32. The ______________________________________protected the rights of English citizens and became the basis for the U.S. Bill of Rights.
33. Early government was influenced by the works of European philosophers such as:
· ___________________ from ___________________ – “separation of powers” and 3 branches
· ___________________ from ___________________ – “unalienable rights”
· ___________________ from ___________________ – “natural rights” and Bill of Rights
34. The ___________________– Our 1st National government with one branch (legislative).
The states have most of the power. It would be replaced by the Constitution in 1787.
35. The ___________________of 1787 established the procedures for the expansion of the United States and explains that new states are admitted to the Union equal to existing states.
36. A ___________________ is a tax on imported goods (goods brought into a country) designed to protect home industries.
37. ___________________highlighted the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation & convinced many Founders of the need for a stronger national government.
38. The ___________________created a bi-cameral (2 House) Legislature we call Congress. Representation in the House of Representatives: population; the Senate: each state gets 2.
39. The ___________________settled the issue of how slaves would count for representation and taxation in Congress. Each slave would count as 3/5 of a person.
40. ___________________is a system set up by the Constitution in which each branch of the federal government has the power to check, or control, the actions of the other branches.
41. ___________________: system in which each branch of government has its own powers.
42. ___________________is a system of representative government in which voters elect representatives to make laws for them.
43. ___________________ is the sharing of power between the states and the national government.
44. ___________________ were supporters of the Constitution who favored a strong national government and the Bank of the United States.
45. ___________________ were people opposed to the Constitution, preferring more power be given to the state governments than to the national government. Against the Bank of the U.S. Thomas Jefferson and George Mason were leading Anti-Federalists.
46. The ___________________ - a series of essays written by James Madison, John Jay, and Alexander Hamilton defending the Constitution and the principles on which the government of the United States was founded.
47. The ___________________ Branch makes the laws. The ___________________ Branch enforces the laws. The ___________________ Branch interprets the meaning of the laws.
48. ___________________ - system of limited government where elected officials represent the people and must govern according to the laws of the Constitution.
49. The ___________________ (our written plan of government) - Created: Philadelphia, in _________. Provides a strong national government with power balanced between the 3 branches.
50. ___________________is considered to be the “___________________”.
51. ___________________ means to approve by vote.
52. ___________________ means to change.
53. ___________________is passed when 2/3 of Congress (House & Senate) and ¾ of the state legislatures vote in favor of that amendment.
54. The ___________________- 1st ten amendments to the Constitution --designed to protect our individual liberties.
55. The First Amendment protects freedom of ___________________, ___________________, ___________________,___________________, ___________________.
56. The ___________________– “A well-regulated Militia being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.”
57. The ___________________- "No soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law."
58. ___________________– how laws are enforced fairly… For example… Amendments 4-8
59. The ___________________- “The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.” (We get more rights than what is in the Constitution)
60. The ___________________– “The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.” Meaning… FEDERALISM
61. George Washington’s service as president of the U.S. was an example of___________________.
Because he accepted the presidency because he felt it was his duty to serve the people, rather than retire to his plantation.
62. ___________________: a leader of the Federalists, first Treasurer of the United States, and creator of the Bank of the U.S. - killed in a duel by the V. P. of the U. S. ___________________
63. The following Supreme Court cases, ruled by Chief Justice John Marshall, helped to strengthen the power of the federal government over the states.
· ______________________________ (1819) Use of the elastic clause
· _______________________________ (1824) Federal government regulates interstate trade
64. ___________________is an economic system where citizens are free to choose how to make a living, with very little government intrusion.
65. President Washington demonstrated the increased power of the ___________________by sending the army to stop the Whiskey Rebellion.
66. The first ___________________were formed as a result of disagreements over the power of the federal government between Hamilton and Jefferson.
67. ______________________________________advised the United States to stay “neutral in its relations with other nations” and to avoid “entangling alliances”.
68. President Thomas Jefferson purchased the ___________________from France in _______.
69. ___________________wrote the Declaration of Independence, became the 3rd President of the United States and purchased the Louisiana territory, doubling the size of the United States.
70. ___________________was the 1803 Court decision that gave the Supreme Court the power of ___________________ - the right to determine whether a law violates the Constitution.
John Marshall’s ruling established judicial review.
71. ___________________ (forcing people to serve in a foreign country’s army or navy) resulted in the Embargo Act, which banned trade with all foreign countries and hurt the U.S. economy.
72. The ___________________was fought between the United States and England. Causes of the war included impressment, seizing of American ships, and British encouragement of Indian attacks.
73. ___________________was the hero of the Battle of New Orleans during the War of 1812, and later became the 7th president of the United States.
74. ___________________: 5th President & author of the Monroe Doctrine, which shut down the Western Hemisphere to European expansion or interference.
75. ___________________: industry changed from the production of goods at home (cottage industry) to factory production using powered machinery.
76. ___________________ steamboat improved transportation of goods and people during the Industrial Revolution.
77. The ___________________, invented in 1835 by ___________________ (Morse code), made communication more efficient across great distances. It would become an important tool in the North, during the Civil War.
78. ___________________, - Thief: ___________________Importance: Led to large-scale factory production of cloth through the use of power looms. Provided new job opportunities for young women.
79. ___________________, Inventor: ___________________Importance: Allowed factories to make products faster & cheaper. Parts could be replaced easily if broken.
80. ___________________– 1793 Inventor: ___________________Importance: Allowed for fast separation of cotton from seeds, greatly increasing profitability of cotton. This made the use of slavery on plantations essential to cotton farmers in the South.
81. The ______________________________made slavery illegal North of the 36° 30’ line. From 1820 to 1850, newly admitted states above the line would be Free states, while new states below the line would be slave states.
82. ___________________, son of John Adams, was the 6th president of the United States, and the only one to serve in Congress after being president. He was best known for opposing the spread of slavery.
83. ___________________was a self-made man & founder of the modern Democratic Party. He was responsible for the Trail of Tears and he supported the Union during the Nullification Crisis.
84. Andrew Jackson’s election in 1828 as president led to increased ___________________ for white men in the United States.
85. ___________________ also known as the Indian Removal Act, forced the Indians in the southeastern U.S. to move west of the Mississippi River.
86. ___________________ is the idea of a state declaring a federal law unconstitutional or not in force in that state.
87. ___________________- a Massachusetts Congressman and Senator who spoke for the North and the preservation of the Union.
88. ___________________was a South Carolina Congressman and Senator who spoke for the South before and during the Civil War.
89. ___________________, nicknamed the Great Compromiser, was a powerful Kentucky Congressman and Senator who proposed the Compromise of 1850, and the American System.
90. ___________________- the practice of having the authority to make decisions for oneself.
91. ___________________is the belief that the United States should own all of the land between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
92. ___________________- Label the Oregon Trail, Santa Fe Trail, Mormon Trail, and California Trail.
93. ___________________- sped up the process of Westward Expansion as settlements and towns grew along the railroads.
94. ___________________- man made waterway that allowed for more efficient movement of manufactured goods and raw materials from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes.
95. The annexation of ___________________ created tension between the U.S. and Mexico, resulting in the ___________________. The U.S. victory resulted in the acquisition of land known as the Mexican Cession.
96. Public education promotes knowledge and skills that open the doors to opportunity. ___________________.
97. _______________________________organized the Seneca Falls Convention, creating the Women’s Rights Movement in the United States.
98. The ___________________was a campaign against the sale or drinking of alcohol.
99. An ___________________ was a person who wanted to end slavery in the United States.
100. ___________________would try to solve the divisions between free and slave states or territories.
101. ___________________ is a strong sense of loyalty to a state or section instead of to the whole country.
102. ___________________was a former slave who became a well-known abolitionist in the country.
103. ___________________, an Anti-slavery novel written by _______________________________, created widespread abolitionist support among Northerners.
104. ______________________________ in _______ was the Supreme Court decision that said slaves were property and not citizens and thus can’t sue in court. It would find the Missouri Compromise of 1820 to be unconstitutional and aggravated sectional tensions between North and South.
105. In 1859 ___________________, An ___________________ who believed armed resistance to slavery was necessary, seized a federal arsenal in Harper’s Ferry, Virginia, in an attempt to begin a slave rebellion. He was captured and later executed.
106. The Civil War was fought the years of ________--___________.
107. The 3 causes of the Civil War were: ___________________, ___________________, and___________________.
108. ___________________16th President of the United States (Union); served during the Civil War.
109. ___________________was the President of the Confederacy during the Civil War.
110. ___________________was the General of the Union Army and accepted Lee’s surrender at Appomattox Court House, ending the Civil War.
111. ___________________was the General of the Confederate Army. His defeat at Gettysburg would be a turning point in the Civil War.
112. _______________________________was the 2nd best General of the Confederate Army.
His accidental death in 1863, was a huge loss for Robert E. Lee’s Army.
113. During the Civil War, the Southern economy’s dependence on ___________________, led to a lack of: factories and railroads in the South.
114. _________________________________stated that, “no state…can lawfully get out of the Union”, but pledged there would be no war unless the South started it.
115. The first shots of the Civil War were fired at ___________________- Charleston, South Carolina.
116. The ___________________, with 23,000 casualties, was the bloodiest single day battle of the Civil War (and all of U.S. History) September 17, 1862
117. Abraham Lincoln issued the ___________________________on January 1, 1863, setting all slaves in the Confederate states free.
118. The ___________________, July1-3, 1863, was the turning point in the Civil War where Lee’s army is defeated.
119. The _________________________________- speech given by Lincoln dedicating a cemetery for soldiers who died at the Battle of Gettysburg. It is considered to be a profound statement of American ideals.
120. The capture of ___________________________by the North in 1863, was important because it gave the Union Army control of the Mississippi River.
121. ______________________________________, Virginia is where Robert E. Lee surrendered the Confederate Army to Ulysses S. Grant, ending the Civil War.
122. ______________________________________was meant to help heal and restore the country after four years of Civil War. It stated the South should be treated fairly. “With Malice toward none…”
123. John Wilkes Booth’s assassination of __________________________in 1865, led to increased tension
between the North and South and strict requirements for Southern states to meet in order to regain representation in Congress after the Civil War.
124. Both of the following men were awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for their heroism during the Civil War. _______________________& ________________________
125. ___________________from Mississippi, was the first African American elected to Congress in 1870.
126. ___________________ “Slavery…shall (not) exist within the United States...”
127. The ___________________– Defined the rights of citizenship & prevented states from interfering with the rights of citizens.
128. The ___________________– “The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged … on account of race”
129. The ___________________– “The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied …on account of sex.”
130. ___________________are the original records of an event. They include eyewitness reports, records created at the time of an event, speeches, and letters by people involved in the event, photographs and artifacts.
131. ___________________are the later writings and interpretations of historians and writers. Often secondary sources, like textbooks and articles, provide summaries of information found in primary sources.
of 131 STAAR Review Questions