Review Chapter 13 with Yellow Answers
Oregon Country – region west of the Rocky Mountains; including present day Oregon, Washington, Idaho, parts of Wyoming, Montana and Canada
mountain man – trapper who explored and hunted in Oregon in the early 1800s
rugged individualist – person who follows his or her own independent course in life
rendezvous – French word meaning “get together”; yearly meeting where mountain men traded furs
Oregon Trail – route to Oregon used by wagon trains in the 1800s
region – separate or different area of a country
hardy – being able to survive harsh and dangerous conditions
touched – started; begin
correlated – to have a mutual relationship in which one thing effects the other
proxy– power or authority that’s given to allow a person to act for someone else
dictator – ruler with absolute power and authority
Tejano – person of Mexican descent, born in Texas
Alamo – an old Spanish mission in Texas where Mexican forces under Santa Anna besieged American rebels, who were fighting to make Texas independent of Mexico in 1836
siege – military blockade or bombardment of an enemy town or position in order to force it to surrender
Battle of San Jacinto – 1836 battle between Texans and Mexicans during the Texas
war for independence from Mexico
Lone Star Republic – nickname for Texas after it won independence from Mexico in 1836
annex – to add on
assert – to say or do something with force
inspired – encouraged by someone or something
equipped – to have something you need
bombardment – continuous attack with bombs or guns
bankrupt – not able to pay back a debt
prosper – to succeed financially
New Mexico Territory – huge region in the Southwest owned by Mexico in the 1800s
Santa Fe Trail – route to Santa Fe, New Mexico, that was used by traders in the 1800s
self-sufficient – able to produce enough for one’s own needs
vaquero – Indian or Mexican cowhand
Manifest Destiny – belief held in the 1800s that Americans had the right and the duty to spread across the continent all the way to the Pacific Ocean
accommodate – to make room for
diverse – displaying variety
irrigation – method of using ditches, streams, or pipes to bring water to dry land
persecution – unfair treatment of people often due to their religion or political beliefs
Bear Flag Republic – nickname for California after it declared independence from Mexico in 1846
Mormons - members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (LDS) founded by
Joseph Smith in 1830
Nauvoo - Mormon community built on the banks of the Mississippi River in Illinois in the 1840s
( from Isaiah 52:7 Hebrew – ‘to be beautiful’ )
refuge - a place to be safe from persecution
Sutter’s Mill - location where gold was discovered in California in 1848; setting off the gold rush
forty-niner - one of the more than 80,000 people who joined the gold rush to California in 1849
vigilante - self appointed enforcers of the law
lynch - to hang without a legal trial
Chapultepec – fort outside of Mexico City that was the site of an 1847 battle between the US and Mexico during the Mexican War
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo – an 1848 treaty in which Mexico gave up California and
New Mexico to the US for $15 million
cede – to give up
Mexican Cession – Mexican territory of California and New Mexico given to the US in 1848
Gadsden Purchase – a strip of land in present-day Arizona and New Mexico for which
the US paid Mexico $10 million in 1853
1. What United States belief caused war between the US and Mexico…?
2. Describe mountain men ?
( NOT ? answer ) they were the first white Americans to settle permanently in Oregon
a. they showed Indian trails to settlers who headed west
b. they led journeys up major rivers
c. they discovered mountain passes that later became major routes to the West
3. Who would have been a strong believer in Manifest Destiny ?
a farmer wanting to obtain new land
4. Which white Americans 1st made permanent homes in Oregon Country ? missionaries
1803 – Louisiana Purchase
1806 – Zebulon Pike’s expedition to the Rocky Mountains
1821 – Santa Fe Trail opens
1835 – Texas revolts against Mexico
1843 – John C. Fremont maps trails to Oregon and California
1845 – United States annexes Texas
1849 – California Gold Rush
5. Describe the time line above…
EVENTS … Events Leading to the Territorial Growth of the US
6. List dangers faced by settlers on Westward wagon trains ?
a. snow-blocked passes
b. rain-swollen rivers
7. What jobs did Native Americans perform in the Spanish missions in California ?
tended sheep and cattle and grew crops
8. What did Manifest Destiny mean Americans should do in the US ?
the US should expand to the Pacific Ocean
Match the concept to the correct words/phrases/dates:
A. Mexican Cession B. Gadsden Purchase C. Oregon Country D. Gold Rush
9. _______________________ 1849; caused rapid, diverse population growth in California; Gold Rush ‘forty-niners’
10. _______________________ 1853; US bought for $10M; strip of land in Arizona and New Gadsden Purchase Mexico to complete railroad
11. _______________________ 1800s; huge region west of Rockies; originally claimed by US, Oregon Country Britain, Russia and Spain
12. _______________________ 1848; US signed Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo; acquired California Mexican Cession & New Mexico for $15M
13. What major event happened right after Texans declared independence from Mexico in 1836 ?
Texans fought the Mexican army
14. The Mexican War began a year after… Texas joined the US in 1845
• Purchase of the Louisiana Territory
• Rapid population growth in the West
• Advances in transportation
• Strong sense of nationalism
15. What do the events listed above best describe ? Manifest Destiny
16. Which annexation by the US started a war with Mexico ? Texas
17. What territory did the US gain after defeating Mexico in the Mexican War ?
California and New Mexico
18. Brigham Young led the Mormons to settle where in the 1840s ? Utah
19. How did missionaries ‘increase’ the settlement of the West ?
they helped to create interest in the new territories
20. How would you describe the population of California after the Gold Rush ? growing
21. What caused a rapid population growth in California between 1848 and 1849 ? gold
22. What 3 things led settlers and trappers to move to the Oregon territory in the 1820s ?
a. the lure of fertile lands
b. plentiful rainfall
c. a mild climate
23. What caused Mexico to have conflict with American settlers in Texas in the early 1830s ?
Mexico feared losing Texas to the US
24. What major discovery increased the spread of the Cotton Kingdom ?
the fertile land of Texas
25. How did the US and Britain settle their dispute over Oregon ?
the US and Britain agreed to divide the land
26. Who was known as rugged individualists that lived off the land in Oregon ?
27. Which present-day states were acquired from Mexico in 1848 ? California, Nevada and Utah
28. What were the threats to the people that traveled West in wagon trains ?
illnesses such as cholera and
rain swollen rivers, blistering heat on the Plains, early snows
29. Which area did the US and Great Britain share during 1818 ?
controlled Oregon Country together
30. What Mexican cultures did American settlers use in the Southwest ?
teaching Americans new irrigation techniques and mining skills
31. List the conflicts between American settlers in Texas and the Mexican government ?
a. most of the settlers felt no loyalty to Mexico
b. Santa Anna became a dictator
c. most of the settlers did business with the US
32. What was a direct result of the Texan victory at the Battle of San Jacinto ?
Texas became an independent republic
33. What benefit would Manifest Destiny contribute to the US ?
Americans believed expansion would offer new economic opportunities
34. What caused the Mormons to leave their settlement in Ohio and move West ?
Their social and religious beliefs clashed with those of other settlers
35. What was some of the challenges faced by the infant “Lone Star Republic” ?
Mexico refused to recognize its independence
36. What battle in Texas defeated Santa Anna’s massive Army and won independence for Texas ?
37. How did California develop such a diverse population ?
gold seekers came from all over the world and became permanent citizens
38. What was the final incident that caused the US President to urge Congress to declare war on Mexico ? American and Mexican troops clashed near the Rio Grande
39. What did most Texans believe would solve the newly independent republic’s problems ?
Become part of the US, Become a state
40. Which two events caused Texans to seek revenge against Santa Anna’s troops ?
the fall of the Alamo and Goliad massacre
41. How was Texas admitted to the Union ? (H)
Congress passed a joint resolution accepting the annexation treat
42. Describe things from California in the 1850s as a result of the gold rush ?
a. most miners never became wealthy
b. many forty-niners became farmers or found other jobs
c. San Francisco became a thriving city
d. self-appointed law enforcers dealt with criminals
43. What is the significance of the siege at the Alamo ?
Texans resisted a large number of Mexican troops for 12 days
44. What event caused this newspaper to print this headline
“1848 California Territory Added to the United States”
U.S. victory in the Mexican War
45. What Mexican law was adopted by American settlers in the Southwest ?
husbands and wives could own property jointly
46. How did the arrival of so many US settlers affect the agreement between Britain and the United States over the Oregon Country ?
US wanted to limit further British settlements
47. How did mountain men helped open up Oregon Country to white settlers ?
a. guided settlers on the trails
b. taught them how to hunt for food
c. established trade with the Native Americans
48. Describe James Beckwourth ?
a freed slave who migrated West with many white settlers, a fur trader and explorer. a guide to many settlers through the Sierra Nevada, worked for the US Army, the 1st freedman to become an entrepreneur in the new territory when he opened a hotel
49. What action(s) did Marcus and Narcissa Whitman do to create interest in Oregon Country ?
Wrote letters back to people living in the East about how good the land was
50. What factors most influenced where Americans settled in Texas ?
settlers chose to buy fertile land that had access to water
51. What is the famous quote from William Travis during the final days of the Alamo ?
“I shall never surrender or retreat…I call on you in the name of Liberty, of patriotism and
everything dear to the American character, to come to our aid, with all [speed]…
In Victory or Death”…
52. What was the key to the Texan’s victory at San Jacinto ?
the element of surprise
53. Why did the Republic of Texas remain an Independent Country for 9 years after winning independence from mother-Mexico ?
a. US President worried annexing would lead to war with Mexico
b. Congress would not accept another pro-slavery state
c. Texas had extreme debt
54. What caused Mexico to worry about the annexation of Texas by the United States ?
if the US would annex Texas they might annex California
55. What was the impact of the US-Mexican War on the growth of the United States ?
expansion of US from coast to coast
56. Why caused Brigham Young to choose the isolated valley of the Great Salt Lake as the new
home for the Mormons ?
the desert country was unsettled by other religions, freedom to practice his religion
57. How did Christian missionaries helped shape the religious identity of the United States ?
encouraging white Christian settlers to move to Oregon Country
58. Why were Southern states were opposed to Alexander Hamilton’s plan for a protective tariff?
made imported goods very expensive
59. What was the main reason American Indians fought against white settlers going west ?
White settlers ignored treaties the United States had signed with Native American nations.
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