Review Chapter 12 w/Yellow Answers
suffrage – the right to vote
majority – more than half
Whigs – members of John Quincy Adams’s former National Republican party; included business people, southern planters, and former Federalists
Democrats – supporters of Andrew Jackson; included frontier farmers and factory workers
caucus – private meeting; often a political meeting
nominating convention – meeting at which a political party chooses a candidate
summon – to call; to ask to come to you
shrewd – clever, smart
hickory – type of tree with very hard wood
faction – smaller group within a larger group
retaliatory – having the quality of revenge or payback
spoils system – practice of rewarding supporters with gov’t jobs
kitchen cabinet – group of unofficial advisers to Andrew Jackson who met with him in the White
evict – to expel (especially a tenant) from land or building by legal process, for nonpayment of rent
annul – to make void or null or abolish or cancel
charter – a document defining the formal organization of a corporate body or constitution
aristocracy - class of persons holding exceptional rank and privileges or high-rank nobility
tariff – tax on goods that are imported or exported
sectionalism – practice of supporting only a section or area of a country
prosperity – the state of being wealthy or successful
laissez faire – belief that things should be left alone
states’ right – the right of states to limit the power of the federal government
Tariff of Abominations – tariff passed by Congress in 1828 that favored
manufacturing in the North but hurt the farmers in the South
nullification – idea that the state has the right to nullify, or cancel, a federal law
that the state leaders consider to be unconstitutional
Nullification Act – act passed by South Carolina that declared the 1832 tariff illegal
Indian Removal Act – law passed in 1830 that forced many Native Americans to
move West of the Mississippi River
Trail of Tears – forced journey of the Cherokee Indians from Georgia to a region West of the
Mississippi River which thousands of Cherokees died
Seminole War – 1817 conflict that began in Florida between the Seminole Indians and the US Army
when the Seminoles resisted removal
depression – period when business actively slows, prices and wages fall, an unemployment rises
mudslinging – the use of insults to attack an opponents reputation
alliance – bond formed between groups or nations for mutual benefit
enforce – to make people follow a rule or a law
exile – group of people who are prevented from returning to their homeland
1. Describe John Quincy Adams ?
1. born in Massachusetts 2. Republican
3. Secretary of State 4. wealthy family (test answer – poor family)
2. The federal policy concerning which issue caused The Nullification Crisis in South Carolina ?
3. Describe President Andrew Jackson’s policy toward Native Americans…
removing and relocating Native Americans
4. Why did many Americans support the Indian Removal Act of 1830 ?
It … opened Native American lands to settlement by white citizens
5. In 1828, the U.S. Congress increased taxes paid on imports to protect newly established Northern industries from foreign competition. The Southern economy was hurt by this protective tariff because it – increased the price of foreign manufactured goods
6. List the ‘nicknames’ used during Jackson’s Presidency ?
1. ‘pet banks’ 2. ‘kitchen cabinet’
3. ‘spoils system’ 4. Old Hickory (test answer – ‘banks system’)
7. Why did Andrew Jackson veto Congress’ Bank Bill ?
To… represent the rights of the common people
8. Describe Andrew Jackson ?
1. poor family 2. born near South Carolina state line
3. Senator 4. war hero (test answer – Vice-President)
9. Before the election of 1828, the percentage of eligible voters who cast ballots was…
less than half as many as in 1828
10. What is the definition of suffrage ? right to vote
11. What group decided the Presidency in the Election of 1824 and 1828 ?
1824 - House of Representatives 1828 – Electoral College
12. Why did the Political parties of the mid-1800s became more democratic ?
more ordinary citizens participated
13. Who was elected President in 1828 ? Andrew Jackson
14. How did John Quincy Adams become President after the election of 1824 ?
Congress chose Adams to be President
15. List the programs President John Quincy Adams favored…
1. national university 2. building roads
3. building canals 4. observatories (test answer – the vote for women)
16. What is the practice of rewarding supporters with political jobs known as…
the spoils system
17. Why did President Andrew Jackson oppose the Bank of the United States ?
He thought it was too powerful
18. What is the ‘unconstitutional’ belief that a state has the right to cancel a federal law called ?
19. Why did Senator Daniel Webster of Massachusetts not believe in states’ rights ?
he believed the Constitution united the American people, not the states
20. Which state passed The Nullification Act ? South Carolina
21. What did President Jackson’s supporters want him to do with Native Americans ?
move them further west
22. When President Jackson supported the Indian Removal Act, he changed and supported which political point of view ? states’ rights
23. During the presidency of Andy Jackson, why did suffrage expanded in the United States.
more American gained the right to vote, the percentage of eligible voters
24. What Constitutional right did South Carolina attempt to claim in 1832 ?
he right to nullify federal tariffs
25. Why is it that Democracy expanded during the Age of Jackson ?
white men that did not own land also voted
26. Explain how the Election of 1824 get the ‘nickname’ the ‘corrupt bargain” election ?
Henry Clay threw his positions’ power toward John Quincy Adams
27. What caused Andrew Jackson to win in the Election of 1828 ?
small farmers and workers in the Southern and Western states supported his position on tariffs
28. List the critiques that suggests President Jackson was most willing to do anything to satisfy his
hunger for power ?
a. so powerful he could trampling on the Constitution
b. veto powers used often
c. acted like a tyrannical king, King George III
29. Why did Daniel Webster and Andrew Jackson team up by opposing nullification ?
they simply believed nullification could led to the break-up of the Union
30. How was the Second National Bank involved in the nation’s economy ?
a. held all the federal gov’t money
b. issued all moneys for the states
c. made business loans
31. What action caused the closing of the Second National Bank close ?
a. Jackson allowed the charter to expire
b. Jackson told the Secretary of Treasure stopped funding the bank
32. What actions caused most of the banks to close during the Panic of 1837 ?
President Jackson ordered that only gold or silver could be used to purchase public land
33. What caused tensions between white settlers and Native Americans between the War of 1812
and the end of James Monroe Presidency ?
Native American constantly had to fight the white settlers for the lands
34. Why did Congress pass the 1830 Indian Removal Act ?
to make the lands East of the Mississippi available to white farmers
35. Describe the lands called “Indian Territory” …
The lands in present day Oklahoma
36. Why were white settlers and Native Americans typically not able to live peacefully in
neighboring areas ?
white settlers kept moving onto Native American land
37. Who became President after William Henry Harrison died in office ? John Tyler
38. Why did President Jackson believe that the Bank of the US was unconstitutional ? (H)
he thought that states should charter banks
39. What conclusions did President Jackson have regarding the Bank of the US ?
1. it was too powerful 2. it mostly helped the wealthy
40. How were people’s voting rights affected by the growing democratic point of view in 1820s ? (H) increasing numbers of people participated in the voting process
41. Which group thought of Andrew Jackson as their champion ? (H)
common people across the country
42. In the 1830s, which political party attracted former supporters of John Quincy Adams ? Whigs
43. In the 1824 presidential election which group actually chose the president ? (H)
The House of Representatives chose John Quincy Adams as President
44. What characteristic(s) would describe the new politics reflected in the campaign of 1840 ?
both parties competed for votes by holding rallies
45. How was temporary peace between political parties in the 1820s achieved ?
the disappearance of the Federalist party
46. What policy/program caused John Quincy Adams to be an unpopular President ?
he wanted to increase federal government spending
47. In what way(s) did the high protective tariff of 1828 affect Southern planters ?
it increased the cost of European imports
48. What caused the Panic of 1837 ? (H)
1. the large sums of money that speculators borrowed from banks
49. What was South Carolina’s reason for passing the Nullification Act ? (H)
to protest the tariff of 1832
50. List Andrew Jackson’ qualities that helped his widespread support among voters ?
1. he was a champion of the common people
51. Who did the new political party of the 1830s support ? Andrew Jackson
What was the new party named ? Democrats
52. In the 1830s, most Eastern states made what change in their voting requirements ?
a man no longer had to own property to vote
53. Why was President Andrew Jackson’s called “King Andrew” by his opponents ? (H)
his intention to expand presidential powers
54. Why caused Andrew Jackson to accuse Henry Clay and John Quincy Adams of the “corrupt bargain” ? Clay persuaded House members to vote for Adams
55. What was opposed in John Quincy Adams’ plans for economic growth ?
they feared the federal government would become too powerful
56. What did the Whig party do to appeal to voters in the 1840 election ?
it represented its candidate as a common person
57. What led to the increased suffrage in the 1820s ? the growing spirit of equality in the US
58. Which group most suffered financially from the Tariff of Abominations ? (H)
59. What major event happened during Martin Van Buren’s presidency ? (H)
the nation suffered through a 3-year depression
Find the year for each of the follow:
60. __1787__ US Constitution – document created on September 17 at Constitutional Convention
61. __1639__Fundamental Orders of Connecticut – expanded the idea of representative government
62. __1803__Louisiana Purchase – US bought land from France and doubled its size
63. __1620__Mayflower Compact – agreement signed by Pilgrims for self-ruling the Plymouth colony
64. __1776__ Declaration of Independence – document stating the 13 colonies were a free nation
of Review Chapter 12 w/Yellow Answers