Urban rural Charles Town Potomac River James River York River rice seed



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- urban

- rural

- Charles Town

- Potomac River

- James River

- York River

- rice seed


- slave trade

- big house

- indentured servants

- supply/demand

- Madagascar

- Middle Passage

- Tidewater

- James Oglethorpe

My: Maryland

Vehicle: Virginia

Needs: North Carolina

Some: South Carolina

Gas: Georgia

I Background


- Virginia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, & Georgia

- EXTREMELY DIFFERENT from the NEW ENGLAND and MIDDLE

colonies

- First settlers: - English = wealthy aristocrats, friends of the king, &

members of the Anglican Church
- Later = other parts of Britain (Scotland & Ireland) and France
II Climate / Land / Geography

- CLIMATE: long, hot, humid summers - mild winters - heavy rainfall



- CROPS / CATTLE: CORN, TOBACCO, INDIGO, RICE, & COWS
A) CASH CROPS: (1) tobacco (2) rice (3) indigo ** (cotton comes later)

- ALL THREE required HARD WORK & MANY WORKERS – thus SLAVERY


B) TYPES OF WORKERS:

1stIndentured Servants (both African and European)


2ndAfricans brought over fr. the West Indies & Africa who had experience growing rice,

tobacco, indigo, & corn (Indentured Servants at first)


3rdSlaves – for life – as property that could be owned rather than as servants who

would be free after several yrs. (Slaves thereafter)


III Society

A) Urban: City life
B) Rural: mostly farms w/few towns & only ONE LARGE CITYCHARLES TOWN
IV An Agricultural Economy

- MOST SETTLERS MADE THEIR LIVINGS from the LAND

- BUT, they were split into TWO GROUPS:



(1) Wealthy Planters: who owned thousands of acres – RICH, UPPER CLASS

(2) Farmers: who owned small farms or worked for a large planterLOWER CLASS
A) Tobacco Growing

- FIRST CROP GROWN IN VIRGINIA to BRING FARMERS a PROFIT = CASH CROP

- Only a FEW Southern planters owned thousands of acres and grew ½ of all the tobacco

exported to England each year

- TIDEWATER: Large plantations covered acres of land along Chesapeake Bay & hugged the

banks of slow-flowing tidal rivers, including the Potomac, the James, & the York


- Ocean tides affected rivers for miles upstream
- Most plantations had their own docks on the rivers, & planters could ship barrels of

tobacco downstream to the coast, then directly to England
- SOUTHERN COLONIES had FEWER MAJOR PORT CITIES than in N. E. & Middle
B) Rice

- 1680 – Rice seed was brought to South Carolina fr. the African island of MADAGASCAR


- SWAMPY COASTAL LAND near the Savannah Riverlocated in S. Carolina & Georgia
- IRRIGATION: introduced here in the 1720s, thus increasing crop size

C) Indigo

- used to make BLUE DYE - harvested while rice was still growing


- VALUABLE export to English textile manufacturers
V The African Population

- by 1760, there were about a quarter of a million Africans in the colonies


- enslaved Africans were shipped DIRECTLY from West Africa to the American colonies
- they worked in the fields & houses of the masters
- SMALLER NUMBERS of SLAVES lived in the N. E. & Middle colonies
- some were enslaved workers, while others were free people, working as artisans, sailors, etc.
A) The Slave Trade

- Slaves were needed in the Americas and Caribbean islands
- Southerners began to depend on workers brought by force fr. Africa
- MOST came fr. WEST AFRICA
- by 1700s, slave traders had to move deeper into the African continent, raid their villages,

& kidnap men, women, & children to satisfy the demand for workers


- (SUPPLY = the amount of an item) (DEMAND = the amount of an item people want / need)
(1) Journey to the New World

- brought in small, overcrowded ships - took months for this trip

- many got sick and died - the more they could cram in, the more $ made

- chained together - packed in dark, filthy, cramped compartments

- sometimes there wasn’t room to stand OR even sit up

- lack of fresh food, water, treatment, etc.


(2) Middle Passage

- the route between Africa & America

- Africans later told of the horrors & brutality of their journeys over here
(3) Beliefs of Many

- many DID NOT THINK SLAVERY WAS WRONG
- many believed they were doing Africans a favor by teaching them Christianity & forcing

them to forget African culture


(4) Slave Codes

- laws that denied enslaved Africans most of their rights


- enslaved people were looked on as both persons and property
- under some slave codes, enslaved people couldn’t carry weapons, hold meetings, &/or read

&/or write


B) Reactions to Slavery

- Some slaves tried to run away fr. the slaveholders, & a few found refuge w/local Nat. Ams.


- Most runaways were later caught & returned to their slaveholders
- Those who were not caught had little chance of making a life for themselves b/c European

colonists were suspicious of any African they did not know
- Thus, rebellions & resistance occurred both on slave ships & on plantations
C) Free Africans

- some enslaved & free Africans became skilled workers such as carpenters, seamstresses,

blacksmiths, carpenters, etc.

- generous slaveholders MIGHT allow them to work for other families & keep part of the money


- some slaves EARNED ENOUGH MONEY to BUY his/her freedom or that of a spouse or

child – BUT NOT REGULARLY
- sometimes TRUSTED servants EARNED THEIR FREEDOM
VI The Southern Plantation

- EVERY AMERICAN COLONY had a WEALTHY UPPER CLASS
- RICH planters of the South developed their own way of life on their plantations
- ALL PLANTATIONS WERE SELF-SUFFICIENT UNITS, SUPPLYING ALMOST ALL ITS

NEEDS (compare to the Middle Ages and their MANORS)
A) The Big House

- plantation life centered around the BIG HOUSE: family mansion
- mansions built on a hill, overlooking a river

- built of brick with w/tall windows

- graceful staircase in the entrance hall

- a kitchen built separately from this house (kept down risk of losing a house b/c of fire)

- other small buildings clustered around the mansion including barns, laundries, and stables

- small cabins off in the distance: slave quarters


B) Workers

- Most of the plantation workers were enslaved men and women


(1) field workers: planted and tended crops
(2) artisans: crafts workers such as blacksmiths, shoemakers, etc.
(3) servants: workers w/in the mansion
VII Georgia

  1. Background:

  1. 13th and last colony

  2. founded by a group of Englishmen given permission by King George II

  3. plan = get people out of English “Debtors’ Prison

  4. James Oglethorpe: inspired wealthy Englishmen to give money to start a colony where poor people could build better lives instead of being in jail OR going to jail

  5. REMEMBER: THE SPANISH ARE STILL IN FLORIDA (mean/don’t mess with them)

  • still want control of this area

  • this was a scary idea for regular, poor English people

  • most were scared to start new lives in the wilderness of North America

  • some though prison was safer than this




  1. King George II:




  1. Oglethorpe’s Ideas and Adventures

  1. 1732: adventurers (a lot like those who began Jamestown and other colonies), Protestants,

Catholics, and Jews ( wanting religious freedom), and CHEAP LAND

  1. Oglethorpe’s Ideas:

  • no alcohol - live on small farms

  • no owning slaves - farm the land yourselves




  1. Settlers’ Ideas:

  • wanted to have large plantations - wanted to own slaves - didn’t like O’s rules

  1. After 12 yrs:

  • Oglethorpe returned to England

  • Georgians elected an assembly


VIII The Great Awakening 

A) Background

- religious movement that began in the 1730s

- spurred by a feeling that people had lost their religious faith
B) Revivals

- preachers traveled from town to town holding outdoor “revival” meetings

- a powerful effect on the colonies

C) The Road to the Revolutionary War

- spread the idea that all people are equal in the eyes of God



- encouraged ideas of liberty, equality, and self-reliance

- helped pave the way for the American Revolution


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