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Besides the usual suspects, questions by Stanford’s Eric Smith et al., Polk Comm. College’s Aaron Layton, and John Mathews of Central Florida C.C.

1. QUOTE: “Wherever God erects a house of prayer, The Devil always builds a chapel there; And ’t will be found, upon examination, The latter has the largest congregation.” So wrote this author in his first major poem, The True-Born Englishman. His works got him imprisoned twice, once for The Shortest Way with the Dissenters. Other works include the novels Colonel Jack, Roxana, and Moll Flanders. FTP name the prolific author of Robinson Crusoe.

Answer: Daniel Defoe [Accept early buzz with “The True-Born Englishman” before “this author”]
2. 60 years ago this month, a 35-day battle for fought here resulted in the death of 6,821 Americans and more than 20,000 enemy forces. Its tunnel network was so extensive that its last two defenders did not surrender until 1949, more than four years after the end of the war. FTP, what is this eight-square mile volcanic island and site of the bloodiest Marine battle of the Pacific, symbolized by the famous photo of the flag-raising on Mt. Suribachi?

Answer: Iwo Jima


3. Located 431 light years from Earth, it is a Cepheid variable star, showing regular changes in luminosity. It now appears 15 percent brighter than it did in 1900, but is only the 51st brightest star in the sky. Known to the Greeks as Cynosura, or “tail of the dog,” it will gradually give it most noted claim to fame over to Vega. The star on the tail end of the Little Dipper, name, FTP, this star that currently acts as the North Star.

Answer: Polaris or Alpha Ursae Minorus


4. The man on the left is moving a basket of rocks. On the right, a man in a straw hat holds a hammer poised for the downswing. Painted in 1849, this realist work was destroyed in 1945 by the Allied firebombing of Dresden. FTP, name this painting by Gustave Courbet.

Answer: The Stonebreakers


5. In a fictional depiction, Sueleen Gay missed her chance to become a star when Kenny Fraiser shot Barbara Jean at this city's Parthenon. Kenneth Schermerhorn leads its symphony orchestra, but it's better known for the Ryman Auditorium, home of the radio show Grand Ole Opry until 1974. Consolidating with Davidson County in 1963, it's home to Fisk and Vanderbilt Universities, NHL's Predators and NFL's Titans. FTP name the capital of Tennessee, "Music City USA."

Answer: Nashville


6. He planned to invade Richmond, attack the city armory, and arm his cohorts. By August 1800, thousands of slaves had enlisted to serve in his rebel army, and he had mustered an armory of weapons, including guns. The Virginia state militia attacked the rebels, capturing and hanging them. For ten points, name this twenty-four year old slave, instigator and namesake of the first major slave revolt in the southern United States.

Answer: Gabriel Prosser


7. They are low in reactivity, and their carbon-carbon bonds share electrons equally. These organic compounds include one or more planar rings of atoms. The phenyl group is the aryl group of benzene, and benzene is the parent compound of this class. FTP, this class of compounds was first isolated from coal tar and distinguished by its strong odor.

Answer: aromatic compounds Accept: aromaticity


8. It is said that the female characters represent the four cardinal virtues and the three theological virtues while the men represent the traditional Greek tripartite of the soul. These ten characters, escaping from the Bubonic Plague, are locked up and tell 100 stories over ten nights. This forms, FTP, the frame narrative of what collection of novellas published in 1353 by Boccaccio?

Answer: The Decameron


9. Born in 1703, he was the only boy out of eleven siblings. He went on to enter Yale at the tender age of thirteen and went on to be a tutor there. In 1727 he was ordained minister at Northampton and set to work explaining the spiritual shortcomings of the parishioners there, sometimes by name. They didn’t take kindly to this, and he eventually found himself as a missionary to local Native Americans instead. However, we are unsure of whether or not he did any ‘crossing over.’ FTP, name this Puritan preacher who began the Great Awakening, famous for his “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” sermon.

Answer: Jonathan Edwards


10. It is recorded that Artemisia advised against this battle and performed admirably during it, but her role may have been exaggerated since she was queen of Halicarnassus. Outnumbered, the Corinthians retreated and the Persians pursued them into the straits. Here Xerxes's fleet had no room to maneuver, and the rest of the Greek fleet under Themistocles attacked, losing only forty ships to the Persian three hundred. For ten points, name this decisive 480 B. C. naval battle of the Persian war.

Answer: battle of Salamis


11. The prevalence of this genetic disorder increases exponentially with the age of the mother. Children born with this disorder rarely have an IQ above 60, and may be at a higher risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. FTP, name this genetic disorder, in which 95% of all cases are due to a 3rd copy of chromosome 21.

Answer: Down’s Syndrome (accept trisomy-21 before 3rd copy)


12. Its three formulations--those of Universal Law, Humanity, and the Kingdom of Ends--appeared in Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals. Central to the moral philosophy of its creator, it can be expressed either in terms of universalizable maxims or in terms of treating human beings not as means but as ends. Representing an absolute moral law that must be followed--in every case, not just hypothetically--this is, for ten points, what concept from Immanuel Kant?

Answer: categorical imperative


13. Other than the town of Calama, this region is very sparsely populated, though there are two major observatories and several archaeological sites of note. With the possible exception of Antarctica’s McMurdo Dry Valleys, it is the second driest region in the world. Rich in copper and nitrate, it’s colder than most deserts, with an average temperature range from 0 to 25 degrees Celsius. For ten points, name this desert in northern Chile.

Answer: Atacama Desert


14. It is the only one of the Modern Library's list of the top 100 English-language novels of the 20th century that was not written in English. The author, a former Communist, used the Stalin show trials of the 1930's as a backdrop. The protagonist uses a letter code to communicate with his neighbor, Number 402, an unrepentant monarchist in, for ten points, what novel with a paradoxical title, a work by Arthur Koestler?

Answer: Darkness at Noon


15. Heir to the Tanzimat reformers of the 19th century, he pushed for replacing traditional Arabic script with the Roman alphabet, outlawed the fez, and drafted a set of secular laws to replace Sharia.  Reputedly linked to the assassination of Sultan Abdul Hamid II, FTP name this leader of the Young Turks and first president of the Turkish Republic.

Answer: Mustafa Kemal Ataturk

 

16. It was developed beginning in 1991 as part of the Green Project, by James Gosling and a team of other engineers. The project was spun off from the parent company into the subsidiary FirstPerson, Inc., which not long after was reabsorbed by said parent company. For ten points, name this multi-platform programming language created by Sun Microsystems after engineer Patrick Naughton became frustrated with the limitations of C++.



Answer: Java
17. In 1931, Paul Dirac first suggested its existence, as even one in the universe would explain the observed quantization of electrical charge. Currently, although Grand Unified Theories and superstring theory both predict its existence, none have been found so far. For ten points, identify this hypothetical concept where a particle has a net magnetic charge as opposed to a dipole.

Answer: magnetic monopole

18. The line "Pretty good time in Dallas" was changed to "time in Vegas" when JFK was shot prior to its release. The central crisis began in 1946 when flouridation of water began, leading to loss of essence. Bat Guano is suspicious of a mutiny of preverts led by group captain Lionel Mandrake, who discovered Peace On Earth, or Purity of Essence. FTP name this Stanley Kubrick film featuring Peter Sellers as the title character.

Answer: Dr. Strangelove; or How I learned to stop worrying and love the bomb


19. Based on a drama by Antonio García Gutiérrez, its libretto was completed by Leone Emanuele Bardare after the death of principal author Salvatore Cammarano. Most audiences are confused by its three intertwining subplots revolving around the Count di Luna, his rival the gypsy rebel Manrico, and Leonora, the object of both men’s affection. It’s stayed in the modern repertoire mostly thanks to the popularity of one famous passage, the Anvil Chorus. FTP name this opera by Giuseppe Verdi.

Answer: Il Trovatore or The Troubador


20. He was born in Garnet, Kansas, in 1869 and worked as a lawyer for thirty years, as his father did not encourage his literary aspirations. Although he had published poetry before with works such as A Book of Verses and Maximilian, his most famous work came in 1915, which was inspired by people he had known from a nearby village. For ten points, identify this member of the so-called Chicago renaissance, the author of the Spoon River Anthology.

Answer: Edgar Lee Masters


21. It still seeks to have the Kuril Islands restored to its control, though Russia has governed them since the end of World War II. Its lowest point is 4 meters below sea level, and its highest point, a very well-known mountain, is only 3,776 meters high. It has about 1,500 seismic occurrences a year. For ten points, name this Asian country consisting mainly of the islands of Shikoku, Kyushu, Hokkaido, and Honshu.

Answer: Japan


22. Weighing 99 kilograms, it was a hermetically sealed container. On landing in 1966, it sent the first images ever taken from the surface of another celestial body other than Earth. For ten points, identify this Soviet unmanned space mission, the first to soft land on the moon.

Answer: Luna 9


23. Beginning in the Operations Research literature, Edmonds first captured its essence by telling the story of any assistant trying to convince her supervisor. Formally introduced by Levin in a paper on universal search problems, its usefulness was demonstrated by Karp. Timetable, independent set, and knapsack are discussed in a catalog by Garey and Johnson. FTP name this class of problems polynomially reducible to SAT.

Answer: nondeterministic polynomial complete; prompt to give more on NP



TOSSUPS – ROUND TWELVE DENNIS HASKINS OPEN MARCH 2005 (UTC/CWRU)
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