Unless otherwise noted for a given round, questions for this tournament are by

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Besides the usual suspects, questions by Stanford’s Eric Smith et al. and Chuck Pearson, Shorter College

1. Their Hausdorff dimension is a non-integer. Iterated function systems give rise to the Koch snowflake, Menger sponge, Cantor set, Sierpinski gasket and carpet. Escape time ones give include Julia sets. They are generally self-similar to infinitesimally small scale, and until 1975 were generally known as “monster curves”. FTP, what are these geometrical objects, named after the Latin for “broken” by Benoit Mandelbrot?

Answer: fractal
2. Its backstory takes up 203 years, and many children, including the question writer, were taught with out-of-date textbooks that excluded it. It was first proposed by James Madison, and automatically became law when Michigan became the 38th state to ratify it, thus fulfilling the three-fourths requirement. For ten points, name this amendment which bans Congress from granting its members pay raises in the middle of their terms and became part of the US constitution in 1992.

Answer: 27th amendment

3. Since it lies at a single characteristic point for a pure substance, the temperature of the cold sink of a heat engine can be determined by measuring the efficiency of the engine when the hot source is set to the temperature at which this occurs for water--a fact which Kelvin exploited in defining his temperature scale. Located on a phase diagram of pure water at 611 Pascals and, by definition, 273.16 degrees Kelvin, for ten points, this is what point at which the solid, liquid, and vapor phases of a substance coexist in equilibrium?

Answer: triple point

4. Although he is a sculptor, printmaker, poet, and playwright, he is best known as a novelist. Born in Danzig, he was a member of the Hitler Youth, was drafted at 16 and wounded in battle, and became a prisoner of war. Cat and Mouse and Dog Years form a trilogy with his first novel The Tin Drum, which made him internationally famous. FTP, name this 1999 winner of the Nobel Prize and the author of Crabwalk.

Answer: Gunter Grass

5. He was once rejected at an American Idol audition for being a month over the cutoff age, but thanks to a rule change, raising the age limit to 28, he was allowed to compete on the fourth season. He auditioned in Las Vegas and was selected to be one of the twelve finalists thanks to his performances of songs such as How Can You Mend A Broken Heart, I Love Music, and Do I Do. For ten points -- name this Bronx crooner who was replaced by Nikko Smith after dropping out on March 13, 2005 due to personal issues.

Answer: Mario and/or Vazquez

6. She was considered the goddess of dates, meat, and wool, and the storehouse doors became one of her emblems. She was also commonly considered the goddess of the storm as the daughter of the sky god. In one prominent myth she travels to the underworld either to overthrow her sister Ereshkigal or to reclaim her dead consort Tammuz. Worshipped through prostitution in her temple, for ten points, name this Akkadian goddess of love.

Answer: Ishtar; accept Inanna or Ashtart or Astarte before "Akkadian"

7. Near the conclusion of this novel, the paranoid Marty held up the dispatch being delivered by Gomez and Andres, but General Karkov intervenes and the message gets to General Golz via a phone call. Unfortunately, he had no way of stopping the attack, thus forcing the gang of Eladio, Primitivo, Fernando, Agustin, Rafael, and Pablo to complete the mission specified to the Ingles [ing-GLAYCE]. Pablo’s lover Pilar gives up Maria to the dynamiter and ex-Spanish professor Robert Jordan, who is left behind after the mission when he injures his leg. FTP name this novel about the Spanish Civil War by Ernest Hemingway.

Answer: For Whom the Bell Tolls

8. Michel Aflaq was this movement's early ideological leader. Founded on April 7, 1947, this political movement's name is taken from the Arabic for "rebirth." The party motto - which translates to "Unity, Freedom, Socialism" in English - is somewhat misleading to American ears, because the freedom that is sought is from Western influence, and the unity is unity among all Arab peoples. Early ideology encouraged the peaceful turnover of power, but two nations achieved the greatest success for the party through military coups in 1963. This party is still in rule in Syria; its rule in Iraq lasted forty years. FTP, what was the name of Saddam Hussein's political party, since outlawed by American occupying forces?

Answer: Ba'ath Party

9. In March 2002, a construction crane on floor 56 of this building was knocked off by an earthquake and killed five people. This structure contains an 800-ton tuned mass damper on the 88th floor, a high-speed fiber optic network, and the world's fastest elevators. Opened on December 31, 2004, this is, for ten points, what building, usually considered the tallest building in the world, which has five stories below ground and its namesake number above ground.

Answer: Taipei 101; or Taipei Financial Center; or Taipei International Financial Building

10. Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov received a Nobel Prize in Physiology/Medicine for his work on this process in higher animals. In animals, it can remove foreign bodies and fight infection, while in protists, it provides nourishment. In amoebae, it takes place by surrounding the target object with pseudopods, and results in the formation of a food vacuole. For ten points -- name this form of endocytosis whose name literally means "cell eating."

Answer: phagocytosis

11. Born on an island off the coast of Asia Minor, this poet eventually married and had a daughter. She is famous, however, for her lyric poetry inspired by her youthful love affairs. Scholars at the Alexandria library arranged her poems in nine books, but only two complete poems remain today. FTP name this tenth muse who celebrated the love of young women for each other, a resident of Lesbos.

Answer: Sappho

12. One of his early roles was as a crew member on the patrol boat in Apocalypse Now. He later worked for Francis Ford Coppola again in The Cotton Club. Then he played Cowboy Curtis on Pee Wee’s Playhouse before his breakthrough performance in John Singleton’s Boyz n the Hood. FTP, name this actor who played Morpheus in the Matrix trilogy.

Answer: Laurence Fishburne [accept it if you call him Larry, even though he wouldn’t.]

13. He went to Sweden to instruct the Queen but ended up dying of a cold because she would only see him at five in the morning. Dividing all ways to knowledge into the two faculties of intuition and deduction, he proved the existence of God from the existence of the self, and the self from the act of doubting. Most noted for his division of substance into mind and body, he is, FTP, which founder of modern philosophy who declared that "I think, therefore I am?"

Answer: Rene Descartes

14. After being postulated in the 1920’s, it was finally achieved in 1995 by Eric Cornell and Carl Wieman at the University of Colorado. It was produced by subjecting rubidium atoms to laser cooling. It doesn’t as of yet have any practical uses as it is too fragile, but many are optimistic that its ability to slow the speed of light and allowing light to enter but not exit, like a black hole. FTP, name this superliquid form of matter, named for two early 20th century scientists.

Answer: Bose-Einstein Condensate

15. This term may come from the name of a Bodhisattva of whom an important local chieftain claimed to be an avatar. In 1635 that leader's son Abahai adopted the term for his people. Starting from a base north of the Liaodong Peninsula, their rise to power began with Nurhachi, who introduced the Eight Banner system and renamed the capital "Mukden." Proclaiming a "Great Pure" dynasty and capturing Beijing in 1644, for ten points, what people, earlier called "Jurchens," ousted the Ming from power to found China's Qing dynasty?

Answer: the Manchus; accept Manchurians or manjus or man; do not accept "Qing" or "Ch'ing"

16. Its author wrote an epilogue to dispel the belief that its two main characters eventually marry. At its end, the father of one the main characters says he has been ruined by an endowment given to him to lecture on morality. Its action starts when the other main character wagers with a Colonel that he can pass off a "draggle-tailed guttersnipe" as a duchess. For ten points, name this play by George Bernard Shaw about Henry Higgins and Eliza Doolittle, which was adapted for the musical My Fair Lady.

Answer: Pygmalion; do not accept "My Fair Lady"

17. In the 1970s about a million disfranchised tea workers staged a rebellion in the hill country south of Kandy, most of them eventually gaining autonomy as a Tamil-speaking minority state.  Its 900,000 Christians, most of whom live along the west coast north of Colombo, were devastated by a recent tsunami.  FTP name this island nation shaped like a teardrop.

  Answer: Sri Lanka

18. According to Ridolfi, this man had inscribed on his studio wall the motto “The drawing of Michelangelo and the color of Titian.” A student of Titian, his early masterpiece is the Miracle of the Slave (Accademia, Venice, 1548). You can see his love of foreshortening in this painting as well as others such as The Last Supper (S. Giorgio Maggiore) and Susanna and the Elders, and his series of the life of the virgin and the life of Christ in the Scualo di San Rocco. FTP name this mannerist artist, who was born Jacopo Robusti, but is known by a name which alludes to his father’s profession as a dyer.

Answer: Tintoretto (accept Jacopo Robusti early)

19. One of the issues addressed in this treaty was suppression of the slave trade between the United States and England. The treaty specifically discussed issues regarding the import and export of slaves and specific paths of trade. FTP name this 1842 treaty that also settled a Canadian-American border dispute over the border of Maine.

Answer: Webster-Ashburton Treaty

20. The G-protein coupled receptors for this class of drugs can be divided into the delta, kappa, and mu varieties, and are found primarily in the locus coeruleus and the periaqueductal gray. In 1975, neuroscientists found two similar endogenous peptides named enkephalins that mimic its action to relieve pain. Its major active ingredient is extracted from poppy flower seedpods and its artificial derivative is a popular, addictive substance of abuse called heroin. FTP name this class of analgesic drugs whose major active substance is morphine.

Answer: opiates; or opium; prompt on heroin and morphine before they are mentioned

21. Berlioz wrote a two-part opera about them that depicted their destruction. Their existence was confirmed by an excavation and their homes were destroyed by Greeks. They lived in modern day Turkey in a location hinted at by Homer. FTP name this group of people led by Priam whose native city was destroyed by a siege with a wooden horse.

Answer: Trojans

22. This psychologist originally planned to study religion before he changed his mind and became a professor at Johns Hopkins. He is famous for boasting of the ability to shape the futures of infants and for his founding of the behaviorist school of psychology. For ten points name this early psychologist, perhaps best known for conducting the “Little Albert” fear conditioning experiments with a white rat.

Answer: John Watson

23. There are various other ways to achieve the positive effects associated with this action, but none are known to be as discreet and publicly acceptable. It titles a short story by Kate Chopin, a silent film starring Greta Garbo, and a story by Anton Chekov. Although it can be accomplished by a person alone with a mirror, it is best achieved in pairs. Although women are known to enjoy it more than men, Bill Clinton is said to prefer it over sex. FTP name this physical phenomenon accomplished by pressing lips together.

Answer: kissing

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