United states history



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SEX, LIES, AND IMPEACHMENT 

In the vignette below historian Pauline Meier describes the Monica Lewinsky Scandal which prompted the second impeachment of a President in the nation's history. 

            From early 1998, [President Bill] Clinton's ability to advance even a modest domestic agenda was greatly undermined by the scandals that began washing over him and led to his impeachment the following year.  The scandals came to light as a result of the work conducted by Kenneth Starr, who in August 1994 had been appointed a special prosecutor to look into the Whitewater affair.  During the next several years, Starr was authorized to investigate several other allegations of impropriety in the Clinton administration.  Then in January 1998, Starr received evidence from a government employee named Linda Tripp that Monica Lewinsky, a young government intern, had been having an affair with the president that included her performing oral sex on him during visits to the Oval Office.

            Meanwhile, in late 1997, the attorneys for Paula Jones, who was still pursuing her sexual harassment suit against the president, had heard rumors of an affair between Lewinsky and Clinton.  Hoping to demonstrate that Clinton showed a pattern of predatory sexual behavior, they obtained a ruling from the Supreme Court requiring Clinton to answer their questions, establishing the precedent that a sitting president could be compelled to testify in a civil suit concerning actions that took place before his presidency. On January 17, responding under oath to questions by Jones's lawyers, Clinton denied having a romantic relationship with Lewinsky.

            At Starr's request, Attorney General Janet Reno authorized him to enlarge his multiple investigations of Clinton into whether the president had lied in his testimony to Jones's lawyers and had sought to obstruct justice by encouraging Lewinsky to cover up their affair.

            By now, January 1998, word of the information Tripp had given Starr was making headlines. In a statement on national television at the end of January, Clinton, shaking his finger, emphatically declared, "I did not have sexual relations with that woman."  He refused to discuss the matter further publicly, but he told his family, cabinet, and advisers that the stories about his relationship with Lewinsky were absolutely untrue.  Hillary Clinton blamed the array of investigations into the couple's activities on a "vast right wing conspiracy." Frenzied discussions of the case fined newspapers, television, radio, and the Internet for months.  In 2000, Philip Roth remarked in his novel The Human Stain that in the summer of 1998 "a president's penis was on everyone's mind," and his alleged Oval Office peccadilloes "revived America's oldest communal passion...the ecstasy of sanctimony."

            In August, Lewinsky, whom Starr had threatened to prosecute, agreed to testify in return for a grant of immunity.  Besides telling a federal grand jury in graphic detail about her affair with Clinton, she turned over a blue dress that, according to her, was stained with the president's semen.  Clinton realized that DNA testing of the stain would demonstrate that the semen was his.  In mid August, in videotaped testimony to Starr and the federal grand jury, he conceded that his conduct with Lewinsky had been "wrong," but insisted that he been legally accurate in denying to Jones's lawyers that he had engaged in a "sexual relationship" with Lewinsky because he took such a relationship to mean intercourse.  He told the American people in a four minute nationally televised address that he had "misled" them and done injury to his family.  Still, he defiantly insisted that he had not lied under oath nor asked anyone to lie for him.

            On September 9, Starr gave Congress a videotape of Clinton's grand jury testimony and a 445 page report.  The report detailed Clinton's sexual contacts with Lewinsky and listed eleven possible grounds for impeachment, some of which focused on charges that he had lied under oath.  Congress quickly released both the full report and the videotape to the public.  On October 8, the House voted to launch an impeachment inquiry by a solid majority of 258 to 176, with 31 Democrats joining most of the Republicans in support.

            The public had long thought Clinton was lying about his relationship with Lewinsky, but it had persistently registered high approval of his performance in office.  Now Clinton's conduct was brushed off by leading Democrats and his supporters among feminists, blacks, gays, and union officials as sex between two consenting adults, covered up as anyone might conceal an illicit affair, but by no means worthy of impeachment.  "It's hard to get really excited," a waitress remarked. "What does the Clintons' sex life have to do with me?" Meanwhile, the public standing of Starr, Linda Tripp, and the Republican Congress plummeted.  In the congressional elections in November, the Democrats gained five seats in the House while maintaining their number in the Senate and in state contests.  Newt Gingrich, under fire himself for questionable financial dealings, announced that he would leave Congress.  His expected successor in the speakership, Robert Livingston of Louisiana, also left as news stories began to circulate that he had engaged in adultery.

            All the same, on December 19, 1998, the House in a strongly partisan vote resolved to impeach Clinton on two articles perjury and obstruction of justice making him the second president (after Andrew Johnson) to be so treated.  On January 27 1999, the impeachment trial began in the Senate, with the House leadership presenting the case against the president: After more than a month of partisan debate, the prosecutor failed to come near the two thirds majority (67 votes) necessary for conviction.  The Senate voted 55 to 45 against the perjury charge and 50 to 50 on the charge of obstructing justice (Neither charge gained a single Democratic vote; 10 Republicans opposed the charge of perjury, 5 the charge of obstructing justice. 

Source: Pauline Maier, Inventing America: A History of the United States, vol. 2 (New York, 2003), pp. 1073-1074.

 

AMERICAN URBANIZATION, 1980-2000






20 Largest Cities

 

 

 

24 Largest Cities

 




1980

 

 

 

2000

 

1

New York, N.Y. 

7,071,030

 

1

New York, N.Y. 

8,008,278

2

Chicago, IL 

3,005,072

 

2

Los Angeles, CA 

3,694,820

3

Los Angeles, CA 

2,966,763

 

3

Chicago, IL

2,783,724

4

Philadelphia, PA

1,688,210

 

4

Houston, TX.

1,953,631

5

Houston, TX

1,594,068

 

5

Philadelphia, PA 

1,517,550

6

Detroit, MI

1,203,339

 

6

Phoenix, AZ 

1,321,045

7

Dallas, TX

904,078

 

7

San Diego, CA

1,223,400

8

San Diego, CA

875,504

 

8

Dallas, TX 

1,188,580

9

Baltimore, MD

786,775

 

9

San Antonio, TX 

1,144,646

10

San Antonio, TX 

785,410

 

10

Detroit, MI

951,270

11

Phoenix, AZ 

764,911

 

11

San Jose, CA 

894,943

12

Honolulu, HI 

762,874

 

12

Indianapolis, IN 

791,926

13

Indianapolis, IN

700,807

 

13

San Francisco, CA

776,733

14

San Francisco, CA

678,974

 

14

Jacksonville, FL

735,617

15

Memphis, TN

646,356

 

15

Columbus, OH 

711,470

16

Washington, DC

637,651

 

16

Austin, TX 

656,562

17

San Jose, CA

636,550

 

17

Baltimore, MD

651,154

18

Milwaukee, WI

636,212

 

18

Memphis, TN  

650,100

19

Cleveland, OH 

573,822

 

19

Milwaukee, WI

596,974

20

Columbus, OH 

564,871

 

20

Boston, MA 

589,141




 

 

 

21

Washington, DC

572,059




 

 

 

22

Nashville, TN 

569,891




 

 

 

23

El Paso, TX

563,662




 

 

 

24

Seattle, WA   

563,374

 

Top Twenty U.S. Metropolitan Areas, 2000



According to the U.S. Census, the total U.S. population in 2000 was 281,421,906.  The total number of people in 2000 living in the twenty largest metropolitan areas displayed below was 119,838,639.   Thus, 42.6% of the nation's people lived in these major urban areas.

Rank

Metropolitan Areas in U.S.

Total Population in 2000

1

New York – Northern NJ – Long Island

21,199,865

2

Los Angeles – Riverside – Orange County

16,373,645

3

Chicago – Gary – Kenosha

9,157,540

4

Washington D.C. - Baltimore

7,608,070

5

San Francisco – Oakland – San Jose

7,039,362

6

Philadelphia – Wilmington – Atlantic City

6,188,463

7

Boston – Worcester – Lawrence

5,819,100

8

Detroit – Ann Arbor – Flint

5,456,428

9

Dallas – Fort Worth

5,221,801

10

Houston – Galveston – Brazoria

4,669,571

11

Atlanta

4,112,198

12

Miami – Fort Lauderdale

3,876,380

13

Seattle – Tacoma – Bremerton

3,554,760

14

Phoenix – Mesa

3,251,876

15

Minneapolis – St. Paul

2,968,806

16

Cleveland – Akron

2,945,831

17

San Diego

2,813,833

18

St. Louis

2,603,607

19

Denver – Boulder – Greeley

2,581,506

20

Tampa – St. Petersburg

2,395,997

9/11 

It is fitting that the final vignette in this manual address the events of September 11, 2001.  Here historian Pauline Maier describes the cataclysmic events in New York City and Northern Virginia and the massive, spontaneous outpouring of support for both the victims and the nation.  The events and our response serve to remind us of our connection to our collective history and to each other. 

            On Tuesday, September 11, 2001, America's world was suddenly and dramatically transformed.  Within the space of an hour and a half that morning, two passenger airlines took off from Logan in Boston, and two others took off from Newark Airport in New Jersey and Dulles Airport in Washington, D.C.  All four, bound for California, were loaded with fuel.  At some point not long after the planes were airborne, each was commandeered by four or five hijackers armed with box cutters and knives.

            At 8:45 A.M. one of the planes from Boston crashed into the north tower of the 110 story World Trade Center in lower Manhattan, tearing a huge hole in the building and setting it ablaze.  Eighteen minutes later, the second plane out of Boston struck the south tower and exploded.  At 9:43, the plane from Dulles crashed into the Pentagon. Shortly after 10, the south tower of the World Trade Center, its reinforced concrete supports severely weakened by the intense heat of the jet fuel fire, collapsed, showering a torrent of  debris into the streets below. Just before 10:30, the north tower followed its twin into Vie dust, releasing a tremendous cloud of debris and smoke and severely damaging a nearby 47 story building--later in the day it, too, fell  and setting others in the area on fire.  In Washington, in the meantime, the portion of the Pentagon that had been hit also collapsed.

            Passengers on the fourth flight, in touch with relatives via cell phones, learned about the attacks on the Trade Center and the Pentagon; they concluded that their plane was being flown to a target as well.  Some decided to storm the cockpit, with the result that the Plane crashed in a field southeast of Pittsburgh rather than into a building. (It was, in fact, headed toward the nation's capital.)  All forty four people aboard were killed.

            Within less than an hour of the first crash at the World Trade Center, the Federal Aviation Administration halted all flights at American airports for the first time in the nation's history and diverted to Canada all transatlantic aircraft bound for the United States. President Bush was in Florida, but the White House was evacuated and so were all other federal office buildings in the capital.  Secret Service agents armed with automatic rifles were deployed opposite the White House in Lafayette Park.  In New York, the stock exchanges and all state government offices were closed.

            At a news conference in the mid afternoon, New York's Mayor Rudolph Giuliani, asked about the number killed, said, "I don't think we want to speculate about that more than any of us can bear."  That evening, the city reported that hundreds of its police officers and firefighters on the scene were dead or missing.  In the weeks that followed, estimates of the deaths at the World Trade Center ran as high as 6,000 (they were later reduced to 3,000).  Some 200 people died in the crash at the Pentagon... 

            The attacks of September 11 prompted an outpouring of patriotism rarely seen since Pearl Harbor.  American flags appeared in shop windows and on homes, buildings, cars and trucks, overpasses, and bridges.  Millions of Americans pinned red, white, and blue streamers on their jackets. Across the country, people attended services for the victims, sent money to assist their families, and gave blood for the survivors.  Commentators everywhere extolled the heroism of the firefighters and police who died in the line of duty at the World Trade Center.  Thousands flocked to Ground Zero, now hallowed ground, solemnly peering at the smoldering ruins and the workmen removing the debris. Many posted prayers, notices of the missing, and poems on the protective chain link fences at the site and on any available wall space (including phone booths) around the city.

            September 11 heightened awareness of the fact that the United States, as the world's sole superpower, was an integral part of what was becoming a global civilization. The day after the attacks, the French newspaper Le Monde ran the headline "Nous sommes toutes les Amiricaines" (We are all Americans).  The victims at the World Trade Center included the nationals of more than eighty nations.  The multinational and multicultural nature of American society was revealed by the names of lost spouses, parents, and children, hundreds of them on posterboards pleading for information about them--people named Schwartzstein, Henrique and Calderon, Kikuchihara and Tsoy, Cassino, Staub, and Egan, Williams, Caulfield, and Wiswall.

            On a sheet of paper tacked up in New York's Grand Central Station in late October, an anonymous poet cried out: 

            Six thousand fallen heroes

            The six thousand angels, their trumpets blaring

            Are calling us to arms, Waking us up from our selfish slumber

            To the truth of our lives, the evil in the world

            We must stop, turn, stand up together as one,

            Arm in arm, pillars of strength  

            Many observers declared that September 11 had ushered the United States into a new era.  Perhaps it had...  Another poem posted at Grand Central Station told the perpetrators of September 11 why the nation remained strong and resilient: 

            Well, you hit the World Trade Center, but you missed America

            America isn't about a place, America isn't even about a bunch of buildings

            America is about an IDEA. 

            The idea, forged and enlarged through almost four centuries of struggle, had come to include many elements.  The overarching ones—the Fourth of July standards of freedom, equality, democracy, and opportunity--continued to transcend the nation's diversity, bind it together, and at once invigorate and temper its response to the shadowy threats it was now compelled to confront. 



Source: Pauline Maier, Inventing America: A History of the United States, vol. 2 (New York, 2003), pp. 1082-1086.


APPENDIX

POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES, 1790 2000
Number of Percentage Percentage Percentage

Year States Population Increase Urban Persons of Color


1790 13 3,929,214    5.1 19.3

1800 16 5,308,483 35.1 6.1 18.9

1810 17 7,239,881 36.4 7.3 19.0

1820 23 9,638,452 33.1 7.2 18.4

1830 24 12,866,020 33.5 8.8 18.1

1840 26 17,069,453 32.7 10.8 16.8

1850 31 23,191,876 35.9 15.3 15.7

1860 33 31,443,321 35.6 19.8 14.4

1870 37 39,818,449 26.6 25.7 13.8

1880 38 50,155,783 26.0 28.2 13.5

1890 44 62,947,714 25.5 35.1 12.5

1900 45 75,994,575 20.7 39.6 12.1

1910 46 91,972,266 21.0 45.6 11.1

1920 48 105,710,620 14.9 51.2 10.3

1930 48 122,775,046 16.1 56.1 10.2

1940 48 131,669,275 7.2 56.5 10.2

1950 48 150,697,361 14.5 64.0 10.5

1960 50 179,323,175 19.0 69.9 11.4

1970 50 204,765,770 13.3 73.5 12.4

1980 50 226,504,825 11.4 76.3 16.8

1990 50 248,709,878 9.8 79.8 20.0

2000 50 281,421,906 13.2 80.3 25.0



GROWTH OF THE FEDERAL UNION, 1788-2000
Population

Order of Year Area at Time of

Entry State Admitted (Sq. Mi. Capital Admission
Original States

1. Delaware 1787 2,057 Dover 59,000

2. Pennsylvania 1787 45,333 Harrisburg 434,000

3. New Jersey 1787 7,836 Trenton 184,000

4. Georgia 1788 58,876 Atlanta 83,000

5. Connecticut 1788 5,009 Hartford 238,000

6. Massachusetts 1788 8,257 Boston 379,000

7. Maryland 1788 10,577 Annapolis 320,000

8. South Carolina 1788 31,005 Columbia 249,000

9. New Hampshire 1788 9,304 Concord 142,000

10. Virginia 1788 40,817 Richmond 692,000

11. New York 1788 49,576 Albany 340,000

12. North Carolina 1789 52,586 Raleigh 394,000

13. Rhode Island 1790 1,214 Providence 69,000


District of Columbia 1791 67 Washington 8,000
Other 18th Century States

14. Vermont 1791 9,609 Montpelier 154,000

15. Kentucky 1792 40,359 Frankfort 221,000

16. Tennessee 1796 42,244 Nashville 106,000


Pre-Civil War 19th Century States

17. Ohio 1803 41,222 Columbus 231,000

18. Louisiana 1812 48,523 Baton Rouge 153,000

19. Indiana 1816 36,291 Indianapolis 147,000

20. Mississippi 1817 47,716 Jackson 75,000

21. Illinois 1818 56,400 Springfield 55,000

22. Alabama 1819 51,609 Montgomery 128,000

23. Maine 1820 33,215 Augusta 298,000

24. Missouri 1821 69,686 Jefferson City 140,000

25. Arkansas 1836 53,104 Little Rock 98,000

26. Michigan 1837 58,216 Lansing 212,000

27. Florida 1845 58,560 Tallahassee 87,000

28. Texas 1845 267,339 Austin 213,000

29. Iowa 1846 56,290 Des Moines 192,000

30. Wisconsin 1848 56,154 Madison 305,000

31. California 1850 158,693 Sacramento 93,000

32. Minnesota 1858 84,068 St. Paul 172,000

33. Oregon 1859 96,981 Salem 52,000


States Admitted During the Civil War

34. Kansas 1861 82,264 Topeka 364,000

35. West Virginia 1863 24,181 Charleston 442,000

36. Nevada 1864 110,540 Carson City 42,000


Post-Civil War 19th Century States

37. Nebraska 1867 77,277 Lincoln 123,000

38. Colorado 1876 104,247 Denver 194,000

39. North Dakota 1889 70,665 Bismarck 191,000

40. South Dakota 1889 77,047 Pierre 349,000

41. Montana 1889 147,138 Helena 143,000

42. Washington 1889 68,192 Olympia 357,000

43. Idaho 1890 83,557 Boise 89,000

44. Wyoming 1890 97,914 Cheyenne 63,000

45. Utah 1896 84,916 Salt Lake City 277,000


20th Century States

46. Oklahoma 1907 69,919 Oklahoma City 1,657,000

47. New Mexico 1912 121,666 Santa Fe 360,000

48. Arizona 1912 113,909 Phoenix 334,000

49. Alaska 1959 586,412 Juneau 229,000

50. Hawaii 1959 6,450 Honolulu 642,000




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